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Directions (Qs. 1 - 13): Sentences of a paragraph are given below in jumbled order. Arrange the sentences in the right order to form a meaningful and coherent paragraph.

1. P. Education is a purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits.
Q. Some theorists require that education results in an improvement of the student while others prefer a value-neutral definition of the term.
R. These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty.
S. Various researchers emphasize the role of critical thinking in order to distinguish education from indoctrination.
A) PQRS      B) PRSQ      C) QRSP     D) SRPQ      E) SPRQ         Ans: B

2. P. The word plays a prominent role in James Joyce's Ulysses and is also associated with Nietzsche.
Q. Metempsychosis, in philosophy, is the transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.
R. Another term sometimes used synonymously is palingenesis.
S. The term is derived from ancient Greek philosophy, and has been recontextualised by modern philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Kurt Godel; otherwise, the term transmigration is more appropriate.
A) PRQS       B) PQRS       C) QPSR      D) QSPR     E) QRSP    Ans: D

3. P. These were confederations that jointly handled the foreign and military affairs for the member cities.
Q. On the other hand, the cities themselves were largely represented in the leagues by the wealthy elites.
R. Their internal structure was democratic with respect to the member cities, that is, each city within the league had weight roughly proportional to its size and power.
S. During the 3rd century BC, the political center of gravity in Greece shifted from individual city-states to leagues, such as the Aetolian League and the Achaean League.
A) SPRQ      B) PQRS     C) SRPQ     D) PRQS     E) QRSP     Ans: A

4. P. The nature of the relationship among the member states constituting a confederation varies considerably.
Q. A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action.
R. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issues, such as defense, foreign relations, internal trade or currency, with the central government being required to provide support for all its members.
S. Confederalism represents a main form of intergovernmentalism, which is defined as any form of interaction around states which takes place on the basis of sovereign independence or government.
A) QSPR      B) PRSQ     C) QRSP      D) SRPQ      E) SPQR    Ans: C

5. P. Federalism differs from confederalism, in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, and from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level.
Q. It represents the central form in the pathway of regional integration or separation, bounded on the less integrated side by confederalism and on the more integrated side by devolution within a unitary state.
R. Federalism in the modern era was first adopted in the unions of states during the Old Swiss Confederacy.
S. Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government with regional governments in a single political system, dividing the powers between the two.
A) SRPQ      B) PSQR     C) SPQR     D) RPSQ      E) QPRS    Ans: A

6. P. He was the spiritual successor of the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha. Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BCE into a royal Kshatriya Jain family in ancient India.
Q. Mahavira abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of about 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic.
R. Mahavira also known as Vardhamana, was the 24th Tirthankara (supreme preacher) of Jainism.
S. His mother's name was Trishala and his father's name was Siddhartha. They were lay devotees of Parshvanatha.
A) RSPQ      B) RQSP      C) RPQS     D) RPSQ      E) SRPQ    Ans: D

7. P. Secularism is the principle of seeking to conduct human affairs based on secular, naturalistic considerations.
Q. The term "secularism" has a broad range of meanings, and in the most schematic, may encapsulate any stance that promotes the secular in any given context.
R. It may connote anti-clericalism, atheism, naturalism, non-sectarianism, neutrality on topics of religion, or the complete removal of religious symbols from public
S. Secularism is most commonly defined as the separation of religion from civic affairs and the state, and may be broadened to a similar position seeking to remove or to minimize the role of religion in any public sphere.
A) PQRS       B) PSQR       C) SPQR      D) QPSR      E) RSPQ    Ans: B

8. P. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities.
Q. Less broadly, atheism is a rejection of the belief that any deities exist.
R. Atheism, in the broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of deities.
S. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which in its most general form is the belief that at least one deity exists.
A) RSPQ     B) RPQS     C) RQPS    D) RQSP     E) SQPR     Ans: C

9. P. Endangered species may be at risk due to factors such as habitat loss, poaching and invasive species.
Q. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species which, for example, forbid hunting, restrict land development, or create protected areas. Some endangered species are the target of extensive conservation efforts such as captive breeding and habitat restoration.
R. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List lists the global conservation status of many species, and various other agenciesassess the status of species within particular areas.
S. An endangered species is a species that is very likely to become extinct in the near future, either worldwide or in a particular political jurisdiction.
A) SRPQ      B) SPRQ      C) QRSP     D) PQRS      E) RPQS     Ans: B

10. P. But when trees are logged and the forest  is burned, that carbon is released into the atmosphere at alarming rates.
Q. The Amazon rainforest plays an important part in regulating the world’s oxygen and carbon cycles.
R. It produces roughly 6 percent of the world’s oxygen and has long been thought to act as a carbon sink, meaning it readily absorbs large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
S. Recent research has suggested that these forests might actually be emitting more carbon dioxide than they’re absorbing.
A) QRPS      B) SPRQ      C) SPQR      D) QRSP      E) SRQP      Ans: A

11. P. Albert Einstein, (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Germany - died April 18, 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.), German-born physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.
Q. His father, Hermann Einstein, was originally a featherbed salesman and later ran an electrochemical factory with moderate success.
R. Einstein’s parents were secular, middleclass Jews.
S. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century.
A) PQSR      B) QSPR      C) SRPQ     D) PSRQ      E) PRQS     Ans: D

12. P. Beginning in the 1960s, close ties with the Soviet Union enabled the Indian Space Research Organisation to rapidly develop the Indian space program and advance nuclear power in India even after the first nuclear test explosion by India on 18 May 1974 at Pokhran.
Q. More IITs were soon opened in Bombay, Madras, Kanpur and Delhi as well in the late 1950s and early 1960s along with the regional RECs (now National Institutes of Technology - NIT).
R. The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)— conceived by a 22-member committee of scholars and entrepreneurs in order to promote technical education—was inaugurated on 18 August 1951 at Kharagpur in West Bengal by the Minister of Education Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.
S. After independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, initiated reforms to promote higher education and science and technology in India.
A) PQRS      B) QPSR      C) SRPQ     D) SRQP      E) SQPR      Ans: D

13. P. Following India's independence, he became the First Minister of Education in the Indian Government.
Q. He is commonly remembered as Maulana Azad; the word Maulana is an honorific meaning 'Our Master' and he had adopted Azad (Free) as his pen name.
R. His contribution to establishing the education foundation in India is recognised by celebrating his birthday as National Education Day across India
S. Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed bin Khairuddin Al-Hussaini Azad (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958) was an Indian independence activist, Islamic theologian, writer and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress.
A) SPQR      B) PSQR      C) SRPQ      D) QPSR      E) RPSQ     Ans: A

Some more....

Directions (Qs. 1 - 10): Sentences of a paragraph are given below in jumbled order. Arrange the sentences in the right order to form a meaningful and coherent paragraph.

1. P. Music is generally defined as the art of arranging sound to create some combination of form, harmony, melody, rhythm or otherwise expressive content.
Q. The creation of music is commonly divided into musical composition, musical improvisation and musical performance.
R. Exact definitions of music vary considerably around the world, though it is an aspect of all human societies, a cultural universal.
S. While scholars agree that music is defined by a few specific elements, there is no consensus on their precise definitions.
Ans: B

2. P. Songs contain various forms, such as those including the repetition and variation of sections.
Q. A song is a musical composition intended to be performed by the human voice.
R. Written words created specifically for music, or for which music is specifically created, are called lyrics.
S. This is often done at distinct and fixed pitches (melodies) using patterns of sound and silence.
Ans: D

3. P. Sports can, through casual or organized participation, improve one's physical health.
Q. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest (a match) is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other.
R. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals.
S. Sport pertains to any form of competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain, or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectators.
Ans: A

4. P. In team sports in the U.S. and Canada, the vast distances and consequent burdens on cross-country travel have led to regional divisions of teams.
Q. The playoffs of a sports league are a competition played after the regular season by the top competitors to determine the league champion or a similar accolade.
R. Depending on the league, the playoffs may be either a single game, a series of games, or a tournament, and may use a single-elimination system or one of several other different playoff formats.
S. Playoff, in regard to international fixtures, is to qualify or progress to the next round of a competition or tournament.
Ans: C

5. P. Traditionally the game has been played over two 45 minute halves, for a total match time of 90 minutes.
Q. With an estimated 250 million players active in over 200 countries it is considered the world's most popular sport.
R. The objective of the game is to score more goals than the opposition by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing side's a rectangular framed goal.
S. Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 players who primarily use their feet to propel the ball around a rectangular field called a pitch.
Ans: A

6. P. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating.
Q. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games , held in Olympia, Greece from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD.
R. The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are the leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
S. The Olympic Games are normally held every four years, and since 1994, has alternated between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years during the four-year period.
Ans: D

7. P. The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, which began following World War II.
Q. The term Cold War is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars.
R. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany in 1945.
S. Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span from the announcement of the Truman Doctrine on 12 March 1947 to the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 26 December 1991.
Ans: B

8. P. Various ways in which modern First World countries are usually determined include GDP, GNP, literacy rates, life expectancy, and the Human Development Index.
Q. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the definition has instead largely shifted to any country with little political risk and a well-functioning democracy, rule of law, capitalist economy, economic stability, and high standard of living.
R. The concept of the First World originated during the Cold War and comprised countries that were aligned with the United States and the rest of NATO and opposed the Soviet Union and/ or communism during the Cold War.
S. In common usage, "first world" typically refers to "the highly developed industrialized nations often considered the westernized countries of the world"

Ans: C

9. P. Established in the aftermath of World War II, the organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, which was signed in Washington, D.C., on 4 April 1949.
Q. During the Cold War, NATO operated as a check on the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union.
R. NATO is a system of collective security: its independent member states agree to defend each other against attacks by third parties.
S. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization , also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.
Ans: B

10. P. There are three classes of medals to be won: gold, silver, and bronze, awarded to first, second, and third place, respectively.
Q. The granting of awards is laid out in detail in the Olympic protocols.
R. Medal designs have varied considerably since the Games in 1896, particularly in the size of the medals for the Summer Olympic Games.
S. An Olympic medal is awarded to successful competitors at one of the Olympic Games.
Ans: A

P. In October 1939, after the outbreak of World War II, former Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš formed a government- in-exile and sought recognition from the Allies.
Q. Between 1939 and 1945 the state ceased to exist, as Slovakia proclaimed its independence and subsequently the remaining territories in the East became part of Hungary, while in the remainder of the Czech Lands the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was proclaimed.
R. In 1938, after the Munich Agreement, the Sudetenland became part of Germany, while the country lost further  territories to Hungary and Poland.
S. Czechoslovakia was a Sovereign state in Central Europe, created in October 1918, when it declared its independence from Austria-Hungary.

Ans: D

* P. The Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin.
Q. The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989 as well as encircling and separating West Berlin from East German territory.
R. Construction of the wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) on 13 August 1961.
S. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, accompanied by a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, beds of nails and other defenses.

Ans: A

* P. An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state or entity.
Q. The Vatican City and San Marino, both enclaved by Italy, and Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are completely enclaved Sovereign states.
R. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly surrounded by another state.
S. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters.

Ans: D

Posted Date : 17-09-2022


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.


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