ఇంగ్లిష్ వాక్యాల్లో Noun అతి ప్రధానమైన పాత్రను పోషిస్తుంది. కానీ అన్ని సందర్భాల్లో Noun వాడటం సరికాదు. అలాంటి సందర్భాల్లో Noun బదులుగా Pronoun వాడాలి. Pronoun, Noun చేసే అన్ని పనులను చేయగలదు. "A pronoun is a word that can replace a noun in a sentence”.
Kiran is a teacher. He teaches Physics
ఇంగ్లిష్ భాషలో మనం మాట్లాడేటప్పుడు, రాసేటప్పుడు అనేక రకాల Pronounsని సందర్భానుసారంగా ఉపయోగిస్తుంటాం. Let us briefly look at each of these different types now.
Types of Pronouns
* Personal Pronouns
* Subject Pronouns
* Object Pronouns
* Adjective Pronouns
* Possessive Pronouns
* Reflexive Pronouns
* Emphatic Pronouns
* Demonstrative Pronouns
* Indefinite Pronouns
* Distributive Pronouns
* Reciprocal Pronouns.
* Interrogative Pronouns.
* Relative Pronouns.
Personal Pronouns: తరచుగా ఈ Pronounsని proper nounsకి బదులుగా ఉపయోగిస్తుంటాం. Grammatically, they act
exactly the same as nouns. సాధారణంగా Pronounsని speaker, listener, ఎవరి గురించి అయితే మాట్లాడుతున్నామో వారిని ఉద్దేశించి మాట్లాడేటప్పుడు ఉపయోగిస్తుంటాం. వీటిని Ist person (speaker), IInd person (Listener), ఎవరి గురించి లేదా దేని గురించి అయితే మాట్లాడతామో దాన్ని IIInd person అని పిలుస్తాం.
Subject Pronoun: ఒక వాక్యంలో Subject స్థానంలో దీన్ని ఉపయోగిస్తుంటారు.
1. I live in Hyderabd
2. He lives in Kadapa
3. We met in an institution.
Object Pronoun: వీటిని sentenceలో Object స్థానంలో ఉపయోగిస్తుంటారు. Let us see some examples.
1. I respect him
2. He asked me
3. They ordered us
Adjective Pronoun: వీటిని ఎల్లప్పుడు Nounకి ముందు వాడతారు.
1. It is my book.
2. That is our class room
3. He is her husband.
Possessive Pronoun: వీటిని స్వాధీనతను (Possession), యాజమాన్యాన్ని (Ownership/ belonging)ని తెలియజేయడానికి Noun స్థానంలో ఉపయోగిస్తారు.
Reflexive pronoun: వీటిని మనం ఒక వాక్యంలో Main verb తరువాత ఉపయోగిస్తారు.
Eg: 1. I Killed Myself
2. She Punished herself
3. You Enjoyed Your self
The verbs that always take Reflexive pronouns are enjoy, avail, adopt.
Eg: 1. The boys enjoyed themselves at the party last night (The boys received the enjoyment)
2. She adopted herself to the new conditions (She herself adopted to the new condition)
3. He availed himself of the Opportunity (He himself used the Opportunity)
Emphatic Pronoun: ఒక వాక్యంలో Main verb ముందు వాడాలి.
Eg: 1. She herself did it.
2. He himself cut his hair
3. The Megastar himself supervised
Demonstrative Pronoun: ఏదైనా ఒక దాన్ని చూపించడానికి లేదా ఒక వ్యక్తిని సూచిండానికి వీటిని ఉపయోగిస్తారు. Singularని సూచిండానికి this, thatని Pluralsని సూచిండానికి these, those వాడతారు.
Eg: This is our classroom
That is her car
These are fiber chairs
Those are wooden tables.
They are used in the place of nouns when we do not know or do not want to specify the identity and the number of the person/thing we are referring to.
Eg: I can not buy any
They have finished all
Some one has knocked at the door.
Let us look at some more Indefinite
Pronouns: one, other, another, some one, somebody, something, nobody, No one, Nothing, everybody, everything anyone anybody, anything etc.
Distributive Pronoun: ఈ రకమైన Pronouns ని ఒక గ్రూపుగానో లేదా ఒక సమూహంగానో (Collection) సూచించకుండా ఒక వ్యక్తి లేదా ఒక వస్తువు గురించి మాట్లాడినప్పుడు ఉపయోగిస్తారు. Each,Every, Either, Neither లను Distributive Pronouns గా పరిగణిస్తారు.
Reciprocal Pronoun: ఒకటి లేదా అంతకంటే ఎక్కువ Nouns ఉన్నప్పుడు దీన్ని ఉపయోగిస్తారు. They show reciprocal relationship between / among the members of a team or a group.
Each other = for two (people/things)
Eg: Kiran and Achyuth helped each other
One another = for more than two (people/things)
Eg: The players congratulated one another on winning the final match.
Interrogative pronouns: వీటిని ప్రశ్నలు వేయడానికి ఉపయోగిస్తారు. They are used in questions to refer to people or things.
Eg: Who is your Principal?
Pronoun that refer to some nouns that go before join two sentences together are called.
Eg: Who, Whom, Whose, Which, That, What
1. He is the man who came to see you
2. This is the book which I purchased
3. I know the girl that you are talking about.
* The nouns to which these relative pronoun refer to are called antecedents
The noun to which a relative pronoun refers is called its antecedent.
4. This is the boy who gave me a pen.
Does the work of both pronoun and conjunction
* As a pronoun, it acts as a subject or an object in a subordinate part of the sentence, As a conjunction it joins the subordinate part to main part of the sentence.
* The relative pronoun always agree with its Antecedent in Number, Gender and Person.
1. Who: It is used for persons only
i) God helps those who help themselves
ii) Blessed is he who works hard
iii) I know the man whom you admire.
2. Which: It is used for animals and for things without life.
i) He found the dog which was lost.
ii) This is the pen which I gave you yesterday.
iii) The moment which is lost is lost forever.
3. That: It is used for persons, animals and things
i) He that is down need fear no fall.
ii) The dog that barks that seldom bite
iii) All that glitters is not gold.
4. What: (That which) is used for things only
* Its antecedent is always understood.
i) I say what I mean
ii) Attend to what (to that which) he says.
iii) What cannot be cured must be endured.
1. Which of the below subjective personal pronoun?
1) they 2) us 3) our 4) ours
2. This house is theirs. The underlined word is...
1) Possessive noun 2) Possessive pronoun
3) Personal pronoun 4) Replexive pronoun
3. Jagan himself solved the problem. The underlined word is
1) Reflexive pronoun 2) Emphatic pronoun
3) Demonstrative Pronoun 4) Interogative pronoun
4. Which of the below has a Distributive Pronoun?
1) Each of us should study well 2) None of these gols had cleared TET
3) Either of sister is present 4) Above all
5. Everyone has a chance to get the post. The underlined word is...
1) Distributive pronoun 2) Personal pronoun
3) Indefinite pronoun 4) Reflexive pronoun
6. Match the following
|Type of Pronoun||Example|
|i. Relative Pronoun||a) She|
|ii. Subjective Personal pronoun||b) who|
|iii. Objective Personal pronoun||c) theirs|
|iv. Possessive pronoun||d) me|
1) i-a, ii-b, iii-c, iv-d 2) i-c, ii-a, iii-b, iv-d
3) i-d, ii-a, iii-c, iv-b 4) i-b, ii-a, iii-d, iv-c
7. Match the following.
|i. Relative pronoun in subjetive case||a) She is the girl whose purse is last|
|ii. Relative pronoun in possessive case||b) He is the boy whom i met yestarday|
|iii. Relative pronoun in objective case||c) I saw a man who is a doctor|
1) i-c, ii-a, iii-b 2) i-b, ii-a, iii-c
3) i-a, ii-b, iii-c 4) i-a, ii-c, iii-b
8. Identify the interrogative pronoun
a. What is your problem?
b. What problem is yours?
c. Whose father is Dr. Y.S.R?
d. Which is your bicyle?
1) a, b 2) a, c 3) a, d 4) b, d
9. A. What is yours problem?
B. I know what you want
The underlined word respetively is..
1) Relative pronoun, Interrogative pronoun
2) Interrogative pronoun, Relative Pronoun
3) Relative Pronoun, Reflexive pronoun
4) Reflexive pronoun, Relative pronoun
10. I am a teacher. Here ‘I’ is
1) Reflexive pronoun
2) Possessive pronoun
3) Indefinite pronoun
4) Demonstrative pronoun
11. He is Mr. Jaya Prakash Narayan.
I liked him very much.
Which of the below is the correct synthesis of the above.
1) He is Mr. Jaya Prakash narayan whom I like most
2) He is Mr. Jaya Prakash narayan Who I like most
3) He is Mr. Jaya Prakash narayan whose I like most
4) He is Mr. Jaya Prakash Narayan Which I like most
12. I cooked the food myself.
I myself cooked the food
‘Myself’ is the above two sentences respetively is
1) Emphatic pronoun, Reflexive Pronoun
2) Reflexive pronoun, Emphatic pronoun
3) Both are emphatic pronoun
4) Both are reflexive pronoun
13. Which of the below is your district?
The underlined word is
1) Interrogative pronoun
2) Relative Pronoun
3) Both 1 & 2 4) None
14. The country needs a girl like her.
She can do her duty with courage.
Combine the following using Relative Pronoun.
1) The country needs a girl like her who can do her duty with courage
2) The country needs a girl who like her can do her duty with courage
3) The country who needs a girl like her she can do her duty with courage
4) None of the above
15. Go ahead my dear and prove yourself.
Identify the pronoun.
1) Personal pronoun
2) Reflexive pronoun
3) Definite pronoun
4) Indefinite pronoun
16. The words I, He, She It are used in the names of persons, so they are said to be ........ Pronouns.
1) Singular 2) Plural 3) Personal 4) All
17. We watched a variety of birds and animals in the mini Zoo where we had a lot of fun.
The underlined word ‘where’ is
1) Relative adjective 2) Adjective
3) Interrogative pronoun 4) Relative pronoun
18. Nobody knows its mystery
The underlined word is a .......
1) Pronoun 2) Definite pronoun
3) Indefinite pronoun 4) Noun
19. We don’t use apostophe with ..... line yours hers theirs and its
1) Nouns 2) Pronoun 3) Conjunctions 4) Prepositions
20. ............... are used to talk about people (or) things with saying exactly who, where (or) what, they are
1) Personal pronouns 2) Personal nouns
3) Indefinite pronouns 4) Definite pronouns
21. The people followed the principle that Mandela advocated. The word ‘that’ is...
1) Personal pronoun 2) Demonstrative pronoun
3) Distributive pronoun 4) Relative pronoun
22. She is the girl that I am talking about.
Antecedent and relative pronoun in order are
1) The girl, that 2) That, I
3) She, the girl 4) She, I
23. Choose the relative pronoun among the following
1) that 2) it 3) this 4) what
24. This car is ‘his’
Here ‘his’ is
1) Adjective 2) Pronoun
3) Noun 4) Adverb
25. His car has six wheels
Here ‘his’ is
1) Pronoun 2) Noun
3) Adjective 4) Above all