Statements and Inferences
Directions (Qs. 1 - 2): A statement is given followed by few inferences. You have to consider the statement to be true even if it seems to be at variance.
1. Statement: 'Stress' is a buzzword of the modern world and stress has become and acceptable way of life today, which is surely not at all good for our physical and mental health. The yogic way of life ensures that every situation is not viewed as stress and the body is not always in the flight or flight mode. Yoga paves the way for the rejuvenation, rest and growth of our body.
Which inference follows among given?
1) The unique quality of yoga is that it helps in maintaining quality functioning of internal organs.
2) It is a way of life where we would be able to rise above petty issues and will be able to view everything in a balanced way.
3) Yoga has been maintained by a stream of living teachers ever since, who have continually adopted this science to every generation.
4) In practical level yoga is to integrate body, mind and spirit to unfold our higher potential in life.
5) 1, 2 and 4.
Explanation: Yoga can help reduce stress because it promotes relaxation, which is the natural opposite of stress. Yoga can benefit three aspects of ourselves that are often affected by stress: Our body, mind and breathing. It enhances overall sense of well being. Here, (1), (2) and (4) are inferred.
2. Statement: The combined effects of ambient and household air pollution cause about 7 million premature deaths every year, largely as a result of increased mortality from stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory infections.
Which is inferred from the statement?
1) Air pollution contributes to climate change.
2) Some scientists suspect air pollutants cause birth defects.
3) Global warming caused by the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide.
4) Volcanic eruptions, dust storms and wildfires, also depleting the air quality.
5) Major impact on the process of plant evolution by preventing photosynthesis in many cases.
Explanation: Exposure to high level of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. It may disrupt a baby’s development, causing them to be born unusually small. It can also cause higher prevalence of preterm labor. Only (2) is inferred.
Directions (Qs. 3 - 7): Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:
Organic farming methods can increase farm productivity, repair decades of environmental damage and knit small farm families into more sustainable distribution networks leading to improved food security if they organize themselves in production, certification and marketing. It is one way to promote either self sufficiency or food security.
Many studies have shown that organic farming methods can produce even higher yields than conventional methods. The increased soil health in organic farms also resulted in considerably lower insect and disease incidence. The emphasis on small scale integrated farming systems has the potential to revitalize rural areas
and their economies.
3. Which of the following is an inference which can be made from the facts stated in the above paragraph?
1) Vermicomposting is an excellent method for organic farming.
2) Organic farms are generally more profitable and environmentally friendly.
3) To meet the break even point between investment and income, market prices are hiked which makes organic products expensive.
4) Marketing and distribution is not efficient due to limited production.
5) None of these
Explanation: According to the given passage, it clearly explains that organic farming as eco friendly and good quality which makes farmers profitable. Only (2) is inferred.
4. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the facts stated in the above paragraph?
1) Whatever, we eat or buy, when we see that label 'organic' our point of view changes.
2) Price and availability remain the leading barriers to the purchase of organic products.
3) Demand for organic food is likely to grow.
4) Organic farming yields more nutritious and safe food.
5) None of the above.
Explanation: Here, of course people preference for organic products may be probably true but recording the view from the passage, option (4) is infered as it indicates in the passage more about safety of the food.
5. What we can say about the following statement?
“Organic manure and pesticides made by the farmers itself decreases input cost”.
1) Definitely true 2) Definitely false
3) Probably true 4) Probably false
5) Nothing can be said
Explanation: The statement organic manure or the pesticides made by the farmer itself decreases input cost maybe probably true.
6. Which of the following will strengthen the following statement?
“In organic farming farmers are not exposed to potentially dangerous chemicals”.
1) Organic farming is monitored strictly to get certified.
2) No artificial sources are involved to speed up the process of farming.
3) There are no subsidies offered for most organic farmers.
4) Less output and higher price.
5) None of these
Explanation: Clearly, according to the statement mentioned there, no chemicals or pesticides are used while farming that are harmful. So option (2) strengthens and supports the given statement.
7. Which of the following inferences can be drawn from the statements in the above passage?
1) Conventionally grown foods are also rich in nutrients.
2) Organic farming is a sector that requires more labour.
3) The soil and the nature retain their natural fertilizer in organic farming.
4) Organic farming in larger fields is not practical.
5) None of the above
Explanation: As per the given statement, Only 3 is inferred.
Statements and Arguments
Directions (Qs. 1 - 5): Each question given below consists of a statement, followed by two arguments numbered I and II. We have to decide which of the argument/ arguments is a strong argument.
Give answer as,
A) If only argument I is strong
B) If only argument II is strong
C) If either argument I or II is strong
D) If neither arguments I nor II is strong
E) If both arguments I and II are strong
1. Statement: Should we encourage the usage of electric vehicles in India?
I. Yes. The biggest advantage of an electric vehicle is 100% eco friendly and cost effective. It doesn’t emit toxic gases or smoke in the environment.
II. No. As electric vehicles need the power to charge up, the cities that already facing acute power shortage are not suitable for electric vehicles.
Explanation: The electric vehicles are better comparatively contributing to a healthy and green climate. So, argument I is strong. The consumption of more power would hamper the daily power needs of people living in the cities facing shortage of power. Hence, II is also strong argument here.
2. Statement: The Police department has come under a cloud with the recent revelations that at least two senior police officers are suspected to have been involved in the illegal sale of a large quantity of weapons from the state police armory.
I. A thorough investigation should be ordered by the state government to find out all those who are involved in this illegal sale of arms.
II. State police armory should be kept under central government control.
Explanation: The state police armory is kept under the supervision of central government control is not at all a right way to the situation. Whereas, an investigation may help to reveal those involved in the illegal acts. Hence, only argument I is strong and argument II is a weak argument.
3. Statement: Should the government scrap to give the subsidy on gas?
I. Yes. It will help the government to reduce it's heavy financial deficit.
II. No. Poor people will not be able to afford for higher prices.
Explanation: If subsidy on gas is stopped by the government, it affect poor people who cannot afford high price. So, argument I is strong. It will
reduce the financial burden on the government. So, argument II is also strong here.
4. Statement: Should the provision to dissolve the assembly prematurely be amended?
I. Yes. On many occasions the provision has been used by ruling government to fulfil their vested interests.
II. No. To fulfil the constitutional obligations under norms, it sometimes becomes need of the hour to dissolve the assembly prematurely.
Explanation: Argument one is not strong because assembly is sometimes needed by ruling government for the betterment of the country. Argument two is also not strong because there are other ways to fulfil constitutional obligations and norms. Hence, neither argument I nor argument II is strong.
5. Statement: Should the wards of a retiring government employee be given a job in the government sector?
I. Yes. Every government employee should be given such an opportunity.
II. No. It will close doors of government service to competent and needy youth.
Explanation: If government jobs are given directly to the children of retiring government employees, then government jobs become a distant dream for the meritorious youth students. So, only argument II is strong.