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Statements and Conclusions

Statements and conclusions is one of the most crucial sections under logical reasoning. 

A conclusion is a judgment or decision reached after consideration about the given statement. It requires a very systematic and logical approach. In this section, the statement will be given followed by a set of conclusions. Sometimes the conclusion can be directly understood by reading the statementand sometimes the reader needs to analyze it to get the indirect conclusion.

 

Points to be considered while reaching on a conclusion

* Analyze the given information in the statement. There is no need to use, assume anything else or add any further extra information from outside.

* In definitive words like all, always, at least, only, exactly and so on are used, then such words make the conclusion invalid or ambiguous.

* If the conclusion is provided with their stated example, then the conclusion is invalid.

* Pick up the relevant conclusion based on the given statement.

 

 

Model Questions

Directions (Qs. 1 - 5): Read the following information carefully. Below given a statement followed by two conclusions. Find which conclusion
follows:

Give the answer as,

A) Only conclusion I is valid

B) Only conclusion II is valid

C) Either conclusion I or II is valid

D) Neither conclusion I nor II is Valid

E) Both the conclusions I and II are valid

 

1. Statement: Interview panel has decided to shortlist those candidates who have scored minimum 65% in the interview and 60% in graduation. Ajay has secured 68% in interview and 56% in graduation.

Conclusions:

I. Ajay will not be shortlisted.

II. Ajay will be shortlisted.

 

2. Statement: Priya is the only daughter- in- law of Manoj and Leela, who has two children.

Conclusions:

I. Manoj and Leela have one son and one daughter.

II. Priya’s husband has one brother.

 

3. Statement: Most people say that doing yoga in early morning leads to better health.

Conclusions:

I. Yoga must be done in the morning only.

II. It is recommended that, best time for yoga is morning.

 

4. Statement: To impart quality education, all the teachers and faculty should be trained through it's faculty development program in private organizations.

Conclusions:

I. Training brings out best in teachers and making them highly skilled for better education.

II. The growth is parallel to the future of our country, reflected through quality of the present education system.

 

5. Statement: Only talented children are to be selected in the quiz competition, which is organized for the children of age group between 9 to 15 years.

Conclusions:

I. All the children who have participated in the competition performs well.

II. The children below of age 9 years are not allowed to participate.

Directions (Qs. 6 - 10): Below are given some statement/ statements followed by two conclusions. Choose the conclusion, which follows from the given statement.

Give answer as,

A) Only conclusion I is valid

B) Only conclusion II is valid

C) Either conclusion I or II is valid

D) Neither conclusion I nor II is valid

E) Both the conclusions I and II are valid

 

6. Statement: The government permitted extra buses to ply between Delhi and Lucknow through new revised routes.

Conclusions:

I. Previously Delhi and Lucknow have road transport services.

II. There is no other means of going from Delhi to Lucknow.

 

7. Statements: 

Vishal is grand father to both Tarun and Mahesh. 

Mahesh has no siblings.

Conclusions:

I. Vishal is Tarun’s maternal grand father.

II. Vishal is Tarun’s paternal grandfather.

 

8. Statements:  

All engineers working in Germany are talented. 

Some are Indians.

Conclusions:

I. None of the Indian engineers are talented.

II. Some Indian engineers are talented.

 

9. Statements: 

All musicians are dancers.

All singers are musicians.

Conclusions:

I. All singers are dancers.

II. Some musicians are singers.

 

10. Statements:

Some children will speak Hindi.

Some children are intelligent.

Conclusions:

I. Some intelligent children speaks Hindi.

II. Some children who speaks Hindi are intelligent.

Directions (Qs. 11 - 14): Read the following information and determine which conclusion follows according to the given statements.

 

11. Statements:

Some educated woman are employed.

Neha is educated woman.

Conclusions:

I. Neha is employed woman.

II. All employed are educated women’s.

III. Few employed are educated women.

A) Only I and II follows

B) Only II and III follows

C) Only III follows

D) Only I follows

E) None of the above

 

12. Statements:

All young students are brave.

No brave men are superstitious.

Conclusions:

I. No student is superstitious.

II. No young people are superstitious.

III. Some superstitious are young students.

A) Only I and II follows

B) Only III follows C) Only II follows

D) Only II and III follows E) None follows

 

13. Statements:

Kerala is beautiful and greenery.

It is famous for its charming houseboats.

Conclusions:

I. All beautiful are greenery.

II. Beauty and greenery are the essential factor of charming houseboats.

III. All charming houseboats are beautiful.

A) Only I follows

B) Only II follows

C) Both I and II follows

D) Only III follows

E) None of the above\

 

14. Statements:

All doors are furnitures.

Some furnitures are metals.

Conclusions:

I. Some metal furnitures are doors.

II. Some furnitures are doors.

III. All furnitures are doors.

A) Only I follows

B) Only II follows

C) Only I and II follows

D) Only III follows

E) None of the above

 

Key with Explanations

1-A; Here, we have to carefully arrive at the conclusion. Ajay has secured more than 65% in interview. However, his graduation percentage is not equal to (or) above 60%. So, he will not be shortlisted. Hence, only
conclusion I follows.

2-C; It is given that, Priya is the only daughterin-law of Manoj and Leela, where we can confirm one child among two must be male. The other child gender may be male or female. So, priya's husband has either
one brother or sister. Hence, either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.

3-B; Now, consider the statement, the word ‘most’used in the statement doesn't mean ‘all’. Hence, according to some people, yoga benefits good health in the morning but yoga should be done morning only is
not valid. Hence, only conclusion II follows.

4-A; Clearly, the statement is mentioning the importance of training the teachers for quality and better education for the sake of students. Hence, conclusion I follows. According to the context of the given statement,
conclusion II does not follow.

5-B; In the given statement, it is given only talented children of age group 9 to 15 years will be selected. With this, we cannot say that all children who are participated in the competition performs good. The allowed
age group is 9 to 15 years for quiz competition, mentions that below 9 years children are not allowed. So only conclusion II follows.

6-A; Here, it is mentioned in the statement about revised route for bus transport services between Delhi and Lucknow. So, conclusion I directly follows. Coming to the II conclusion, we can't say there is no
transport at all. Hence, conclusion II does not follow from the given statement.

7-C; Simply, given in the statement vishal is grandfather to both Tarun and Mahesh. But here, we don't know whether it is maternal or paternal status. So, both the conclusions have same priority from the
given statement. So, either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.

8-B; Whenever, it is stated that all engineers working in Germany, including few Indians are talented, we can conclude that some of Indian engineers are talented. So, conclusion I doesn't follow. Only conclusion II follows.

9-E; Given, all singers are musicians and continued with that all musicians are dancers. From this, we can conclude all singers are dancers. So, conclusion I follows. Already, in the statement given all singers are musicians, so we can say that some musicians are singers. So, conclusion II also follows.

10-D; Here, conclusion I doesn't follow, as some children who are intelligent may speak Hindi or may not, it is not clarified from the statement. Similarly, children who speaks Hindi being intelligent is not
concluded from the statement. So, conclusion II also won’t follow.

11-C; Given that few educated women are employed and neha is educated woman. By this, we can't confirm that neha is an employed woman. So, conclusion I won't follow. From ‘some’ case, we can never
directly deduct ‘all’, so conclusion II also doesn’t follow. Here, only conclusion III follows.

12-E; Here, in the statement given that all young students are brave and no brave men are superstitious. Conclusion I is false, as we cannot say no student is superstitious, only young students are superstitious. Similarly conclusion II and III also won't follows.

13-E; It is given, Kerala is beautiful, greenery as well as famous for charming houseboats. From this, none of the given three conclusions follows regarding the statement.

14-B; Regarding the given statement, only conclusion II is relevant and directly concluded from the Statement ‘all doors are furnitures’. Conclusions I and III doesn’t follows.

Posted Date : 19-10-2021

 

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