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ACTIVE VOICE AND PASSIVE VOICE

Before trying to understand what active or passive voice is, we must first understand one commonly discussed but often confused grammar concept: What are the correct definitions of ‘Subject’ and ‘Object’? Many students are told that ‘Subject’ is the ‘Doer of the action’ and that the ‘Object’ is the “Receiver of the action”. These definitions are wrong. Therefore, let’s first establish the ideas of the ‘Doer’ and the ‘Receiver’. The ‘Doer’ of the action is the noun or pronoun that ‘does the action’. And, the ‘Receiver’ of the action is the noun or pronoun that receives the action. For example: Rama killed Ravana. (Here the ‘Doer’ of the action is ‘Rama’ and ‘Ravana’ is the receiver of the action.) Now, what are the correct definitions of ‘Subject’ and ‘Object’? The ‘Subject’ of a sentence is basically the topic/focus of the sentence. As you know, every sentence is a message about someone or something. That someone or something is the topic/focus of the sentence. This topic or focus of the sentence is called the ‘Subject’ of the sentence.
For example: Rama killed Ravana. (In this sentence, the topic/focus of the sentence is ‘Rama’. The message is about Rama. Therefore, the ‘Subject’ of the sentence is ‘Rama’.)


However, consider the following: Ravana was killed by Rama. (In this sentence, the message is not about Rama, but about  Ravana. The topic/focus of the sentence is Ravana. Therefore, the subject is Ravana.) Please note that this contradicts the idea that the ‘Subject’ is the doer because ‘Ravana’ is actually the ‘Receiver’. Then, what is the ‘Object’ of sentence. This is a little bit complicated because there are two angles to the ‘Object’. The first idea is simple: the ‘Object’ of a sentence is the ‘Receiver’ placed after the verb.
For example: Rama killed Ravana. (In this sentence, Ravana is the receiver of the action and is also placed after the verb. Therefore, ‘Ravana’ is the ‘Object’ This is called the ‘Object’ of the verb).

 

The second idea is that ‘any noun or pronoun placed after a preposition is the ’Object’ of that preposition.
For example: Rahim went to Hyderabad. (Here, Hyderabad is placed after the preposition ‘to’. Therefore, Hyderabad is the ‘Object’ of the preposition ‘to’. In sentences such as ‘Rama threw a ball at Sita’, ‘Sita’ is placed after ‘at’ therefore, ‘Sita’ is the ‘Object’ of ‘at’. Please note that in this sentence, ‘a ball’ is the ‘Object’ of the Verb. Similarly, in the sentence, ‘Ravana was killed by Rama’, ‘Rama’ is the ‘Object’ of the sentence because it is placed after the preposition ‘by’. In conclusion, the ‘Subject’ of the sentence is the topic/focus of the sentence. It can be the ‘Doer’ or the ‘Receiver’ of the action. Also, the ‘Object’ of the sentence is ‘the receiver’ placed after the verb or any noun or pronoun placed after a preposition. But, what is the connection between the above discussion and Active-Passive Voice. Simply, speaking… When the Doer of the action is the Subject of the sentence, the sentence is said to be in the Active Voice. And, when the Receiver of the action is the Subject of the sentence, then the sentence is said to be in the Passive Voice. So, Active-Passive Voice is all about DoerReceiver and Subject-Object overlaps.

 

PRACTICE EXERCISE

Directions (Qs. 1 - 15): In these questions, a sentence has been given in Active/Passive Voice. Out of the four suggested alternatives, select the one which best expresses the same sentence Passive/Active Voice.

1. Ram would have written the book.
1) The book was written by Ram
2) This book would have been written by Ram.
3) The book was being written by Ram.
4) Ram wrote the book.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “future perfect” with the modal “would”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “would have been + V3”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

2. You are requested to join our club.
1) Join our club please.              2) Join our club.
3) Please can you consider joining our club?
4) You are advised to join our club.
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The given sentence is “request”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “a request with please”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

3. Buy the stocks.
1) Let the stocks be bought.          2) The stocks should be bought.
3) Please let the stocks be bought.       4) The stocks be bought please.
Explanation: The given sentence is an “order/command”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “Let object + be + V3”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

4. Can we send the set?
1) Can be the set sent by us?           2) Can we be sent by the set?
3) Can the set be sent by us?           4) Can the set sent by us?
Explanation: The given sentence is “a question” and its tense is “simple future” with the modal “can”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “Can object + be + V3”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

5. This grinder is used only by my mother.
1) Only my mother uses the grinder.
2) Only my mother is using the grinder.
3) Only my mother has used the grinder.
4) Only my mother will use the grinder.
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “is + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “simple present tense”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

6. Let us help the needy.
1) It is suggested that the needy help us.
2) It is suggested that we help the needy.
3) Please help the needy.
4) The needy should be helped.
Explanation: The given sentence is “a suggestion” that begins with “Let us”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “It is suggested that + we + the original sentence without ‘Let us’”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

7. He should have respected his elders.
1) His elders should have respected him.
2) His elders should have been respected by them.
3) His elders should have been respected by him.
4) His elders should have respected them.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “present perfect tense” with “should”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “should + have been + V3”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

8. Do not close the window.
1) Close not the window.            2) Let us not close the window.
3) Let the window be unopened by you.
4) Let the window not be closed by you.
Explanation: The given sentence is “an order”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “Let + object + be + V3”. Because the original sentence has “not”, we must add “not” in passive too. This is so only in 4.
Ans: 4

 

9. Why has the zoo been closed by the authorities?
1) Why have the authorities closed the zoo?
2) Why did the authorities close the zoo?
3) Why have the authorities closing the zoo?
4) Why had the authorities closed the zoo?
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “has + been + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “present perfect tense”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

10. The girls are insulting me.
1) I am being insulting by the girls.
2) I am being insulted by the girls.
3) I am insulting the girls.
4) I am insulting by the girls.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “present continuous”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “am/is/are + being + V3”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

11. The door was not locked properly by him.
1) He had not locked the door properly.
2) He did not lock the door properly.
3) He has not locked the door properly.
4) He will not lock the door properly.
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “was + not + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “simple past tense” + “not”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

12. Raju followed the commander.
1) The commander was following by Raju.
2) The commander was being followed by Raju.
3) The commander was following Raju.
4) The commander was followed by Raju.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “simple past”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “was/were + V3”. This is so only in 4.
Ans: 4

 

13. The storm destroyed the city.
1) The city was destroying the storm.
2) The city was destroyed by the storm.
3) The city was destroyed the storm.
4) The city was destroyed to the storm.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “simple past”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “was/were + V3”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

14. Why was a gift given by her?
1) Why did she give a gift?
2) Why has she given a gift?
3) Why had she given a gift?
4) Why were a gift given by her?
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “was + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “simple past tense”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

15. Please keep the room clean.
1) You should keep the room clean.
2) Please you keep the room clean.
3) The room should be requested to be clean.
4) You are requested to keep the room clean.
Explanation: The given sentence is a request with “please”. Therefore, the passive structure should have ‘You are requested + to’ followed by the original sentence without ‘please’. This is so only in 4.  
Ans: 4

 

Directions (Qs. 16 - 38): In these questions, a sentence has been given in Active/ Passive Voice. Out of the four suggested alternatives, select the one which best expresses the same sentence Passive/ Active Voice.

16. She was making biryani.
1) Biryani was made by her.
2) Biryani has been made by her.
3) Biryani was being made by her.
4) Biryani had been made by her.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “past continuous”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “was/ were + being + V3”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

17. She chooses an option.
1) An option has been chosen by her.
2) An option has chosen by her.
3) An option is chosen by her.
4) An option is to choose by her.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “simple present”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “am/ is/ are + V3”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

18. Control your life.
1) Your life must be controlled.
2) Your life has to be controlled.
3) You are advised to control your life.
4) You are advised to be controlled by your life.
Explanation: The given sentence is “advice”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “You are advised to + the original sentence”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

19. Sita has been doing it since morning.
1) It has been being done by Sita since morning.
2) I was being done by Sita since morning.
3) It has been doing by Sita since morning.
4) It is being done by Sita since morning.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “present perfect tense”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “has/ have + been + being + V3”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

20. Rahim is to do it.
1) It is to be done by Rahim.
2) It is to do by Rahim.
3) It should be done by Rahim.
4) It has to be done by Rahim.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “is + to do”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “is/ are + to be done”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

21. Why is she praised so much by you?
1) Why do you praise her so much.
2) Why was she praised so much?
3) How can she be praised so much by you?
4) Why did you praise her so much?
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “is + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “simple present tense”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

22. Mend your fences.
1) Your fences must be mended.
2) Your fences have to be mended.
3) Your fences are advised to be mended.
4) Fences should be mended by you.
Explanation: The given sentence is “advice”. Therefore, the passive structure can have “You are advised to” or “object + should” combination. The second combination is there only in 4.
Ans: 4

 

23. Paint the walls.
1) The walls should be painted.
2) Let she walls be painted.
3) Let the walls be painted.
4) Walls are to be painted.
Explanation: The given sentence is “order/ command”. As this can also be a piece of advice, we must determine the same based on the choices. Therefore, the passive structure should have “Let object + be + V3”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

24. Tell your boss to get out of the room.
1) You are requested to tell your boss to get out of the room.
2) You have to tell your boss to get out of the room.
3) You are ordered to tell your boss to get out of the room.
4) Your boss should tell you to get out of the room.
Explanation: The given sentence is “command”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “You are ordered to” followed by the original sentence. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

25. Yesterday, the exercise was done on time by the new students.
1) The new students have done the exercise on time yesterday.
2) The new students did the exercise on time yesterday.
3) The new students had done the exercise on time yesterday.
4) Yesterday, the new students were doing the exercise on time.
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “was + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “simple past tense”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

26. Please shut the windows and go to bed.
1) The windows are to be shut and you are to go to bed.
2) Let the windows be shut and you go to bed.
3) You are requested to shut the windows and go to bed.
4) The windows are to be shut and you are requested to go to bed.
Explanation: The given sentence is “request” as can be understood from “please”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “You are requested to (in place of ‘please’ + the rest of the sentence”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

27. Do not laugh at your sister.
1) You should not to laugh at your sister.
2) You should to laugh not at your sister.
3) You are commanded not to laugh at your sister.
4) You are advised not to laugh at your sister.
Explanation: The given sentence is “advice”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “You are advised to + the rest of the sentence”. This is so only in 4.  In 1 and 2 the addition or “to” is erroneous.
Ans: 4

 

28. He had been trained well by the coach.
1) The coach has trained him well.
2) The coach had trained him well.
3) The coach was trained well.
4) The couch had been training him well.
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “had + been + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “past perfect tense”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

29. Prepare for the worst and hope for the best.
1) You are to prepare for the worst and hope for the best.
2) You must prepare for the worst and hope for the best.
3) You are advised to prepare for the worst and hope for the best.
4) You have to prepare for the worst and hope for the best.
Explanation: The given sentence is “advice”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “You are advised to + the rest of the sentence”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

30. Who wrote the book?
1) The book was written by who?
2) By whom was the book written?
3) Whom was the book written for?
4) Who was written by the book?
Explanation: The given sentence is “question” in simple past with “who”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “was/ were + V3” + “by whom”. This is so only in 2.
Ans: 2

 

31. Our project has been completed by us in just 24 hours.
1) We have completed our project in just 24 hours.
2) We have been completing our project in just 24 hours.
3) We are completing our project in just 24 hours.
4) We will have completed our project in just 24 hours.
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “has + been + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “present perfect tense”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

32. The Prime Minister has left the position vacant.
1) The position has been left vacant by the Prime Minister.
2) The position was left by the Prime Minister.
3) The position will be left vacant by the Prime Minister.
4) The position left vacant by the Prime Minister.
Explanation: The given sentence is “present perfect tense”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “has/ have + been + V3”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

33. Don’t smell the flowers.
1) The flowers do not be smelt.
2) The flowers must not be smelt.
3) The flowers don’t be smelt.
4) Let the flowers not be smelt.
Explanation: The given sentence is “order”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “Let object + be + V3”. This is so only in 4.
Ans: 4

 

34. They will repair the machines.
1) They will be repaired by the machines.
2) The machines will repair by them.
3) The machines will be repaired by them.
4) The machines will be repairing by them.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “simple future”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “will + be + V3”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

 

35. Are medicines being taken properly by your grandparents?
1) Are you grandparents taking medicines properly?
2) Are medicines taking care of your grandparents?
3) Have your grandparents taken medicines properly?
4) Were your grandparents taking medicines properly?
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “are + being + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “present continuous tense”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

36. The mechanic will have made a new device.
1) A new device will have been made by the mechanic.
2) A new device will made by the mechanic.
3) A new device will be made by the mechanic.
4) A new device will be making by the mechanic.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “future perfect”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “will have + been + V3”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

37. Was any game being played by the students?
1) Were the students playing any game?
2) Was the students played any game?
3) Have the students been playing any game?
4) Had the students been playing any game?
Explanation: The given sentence is in passive voice. The tense in the given sentence is “was + being + V3”. Therefore, the active voice structure should be “past continuous tense”. This is so only in 1.
Ans: 1

 

38. The baker is giving one free loaf of bread with every purchase.
1) With every purchase the baker is giving one free loaf of bread with every purchase.
2) One free loaf of bread is given by the baker with every purchase.
3) One free loaf of bread is being given by the baker with every purchase.
4) One free loaf of bread has been given by the baker with every purchase.
Explanation: The tense in the given sentence is “present continuous”. Therefore, the passive structure should have “is/ are/ am + being + V3”. This is so only in 3.
Ans: 3

Posted Date : 10-06-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్లో వచ్చే ప్రకటనలు అనేక దేశాల నుండి, వ్యాపారస్తులు లేదా వ్యక్తుల నుండి వివిధ పద్ధతులలో సేకరించబడతాయి. ఆయా ప్రకటనకర్తల ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల గురించి ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికీ, ఉద్యోగస్తులకూ ఎటువంటి అవగాహనా ఉండదు. కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచిననుసరించి కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికతతో పంపబడతాయి. ఏ ప్రకటనని అయినా పాఠకులు తగినంత జాగ్రత్త వహించి, ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల గురించి తగిన విచారణ చేసి, తగిన జాగ్రత్తలు తీసుకొని కొనుగోలు చేయాలి. ఉత్పత్తులు / సేవలపై ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎటువంటి నియంత్రణ ఉండదు. కనుక ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాల విషయంలో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యం ఎటువంటి బాధ్యత వహించదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఎటువంటి ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకీ తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు తీసుకోబడవు.

 

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