One of the important topics of the logical reasoning is 'Implicit Assumptions'. This topic tests the candidates' skill knowing about the hidden opinion of the speaker.
In these kind of questions, there is a statement followed by some number of assumptions. Generally there are two assumptions for each statement. The candidate is supposed to understand the underlying opinion (i.e. assumption) and decide which of them is implicit. See the common pattern of these kind of questions given below.
Instructions: In each question given below consists a statement, which is followed by two assumptions, numbered I and II. You are required to examine the two assumptions and decide which of given assumptions is/ are implicit in the statement.
1. if only assumption I is implicit,
2. if only assumption II is implicit,
3. if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit,
4. if neither I nor II is implicit,
5. if both the assumptions are implicit.
But it is not necessary that only the above given format is given in the examination. Some times a statement can be followed by three assumptions. For this type of question marking of an answer will have different cambinations i.e. 1) Only I and III implicit 2) Only III implicits 3) Either II or III is implicit 4) All the three assumptions implicit 5) None of the assumption implicits and many more combination. So, every question will have its answer marking options below it.
In another type each statement will have five assumptions and the candidate is instructed to identify the valid assumption given in the statement. For this answer marking will be as follows....
1) if only I assumption implicits
2) if only II assumption implicits
3) if only III assumption implicits
4) if only IV assumption implicits
5) if only V assumption implicits (some times in the V choice you may be given the option - None of the above assumptions is implicit).
Before we get into sample questions and exercise questions, let us have a discussion or let us understand the meanings of the terms...
a) statement b) implicit c) assumption.
Statement: The statement is an account of certain views, facts, suggestions, situations, argument or problems expressed in words.
Implicit: The synonyms are implied, indirect but in our context 'implicit' means, something that is suggested or supposed to be understand though it is not directly expressed. We can say it is nothing but the hidden opinion of the speaker, in the statement.
Assumption: It is an idea which is thought to be true or certain to happen, but is not plainly/ directly expressed or supported by known facts.
In our personal life or professional life i.e. in our day to day affairs we meet number of people in different situations and we make a lot of statements as a part of our communication. Over a period of time in this process of communication we take certain things for granted and we make short and indirect statements. So, we leave a few of our ideas unsaid. But these unsaid ideas are very much implied in the statement. As we are taking certain facts are granted we do not feel to express these directly. This is the characteristic feature of the speaker in the statement. So, the speaker doesn't show any intention or try to prove his idea or view directly to be understood.
An implicit assumption is the hidden agreement made in the logical statement of the speaker. The following are the other characteristic features of an implicit assumption.
* An assumption can be proved one or a disproved one.
* It cannot be a question.
* It cannot be any argument against the statement.
* It is not said in bits and pieces.
Let us take one situation.......
Your brother has joined Civil Engineering but always spends his time in a play ground, practicing cricket and preparing himself for cricket tournaments and completely neglecting his engineering studies. Now we can say that.. "He is forced to join engineering studies. He wanted to become a cricketer". So, here we are co-relating two different aspects. "spending time in playground" and "neglecting studies". How we are able to relate such different aspects? obviously by assuming spending all his time in practicing cricket, shows the intention to become a cricketer.
The following are a few tips to crack these kind of questions.
I. Key words: The words like "all" "only" "each" "every" "must" etc. are definitive in nature. But the words like "some" "many" "a few" etc are not definitive in nature. So, you must be able to differentiate between statements like "spends all time in a play ground" and "spends some time in a play ground".
Study the following example carefully that would help you in interpreting the key words.
Statement: "Ramdev has revolutionised yoga and made it a people's movement".
- BJP Leader Narendra Modi
I. Only Ramdev in best yoga Guru.
II. Mr. Narendra Modi Knows all yoga methods.
III. Mr. Narendra Modi Practices yoga every day.
IV. People have understood the goodness of yoga.
V. Indians are good yoga practiosners.
In the above example only assumption IV is valid, we can assume that in the statement's part .... peoples movement. Where as in assumption I only, in assumption II all, in asumption III every and assumpetion IV good words are definitive. For these words there are not any supportive suggestions made by the speaker. In the statement there is a mention of yoga guru "Ramdev", but not with any intention he is the only yoga guru.
Mr. Modi said "yoga is revolutionised" but not with intention that he knows all yoga methods.
He Said, "yoga has became people movement" but it doesnot mean he is practicing yoga every day. Let us study a few more examples.
Statement: "Please do not waste water. Water is very precious"- G.H.M.C
Assumptions: I. People waste water.
II. Water is more precious than any other liquid.
Answer: only assumption I implicits.
Explanation: The suggestion made by G.H.M.C to people is "not to waste water" shows the clear intention of G.H.M.C. that people are wasting water. Since there is no comparison of water with any other liquid, the II assumtion becomes invalid.
Statement: "All the students are here by instructed to follow a strict dress-code."
- Director of the college
Assumptions: I. Dress-code is desirable for students.
II. Students follow the instructon of the director.
Answer: Both the assumptions are implicit.
Explanation: This is the hidden opinion of the director that the students obey his instructions, he had sent a notice (II assumption implicits). He feels it is good to have a dress-code for students (assumption I implicits) he wanted the students to follow a dress code.
Statement: "Buy our environmental friendly, a five star sheetal AC ; It consumes less
power and makes no noise".
- A Doordarshan advertisement.
Assumptions: I. Some ACs make noise.
II. Fans are better than ACs
Answer: Only assumption I implicits.
Explanation: Noise is not a desirable quality of AC, is the intention of the speaker. When he advertised that his company AC does not make noise, has also hidden opinion that "some ACs make noise" (If no AC makes noise, then there is no point saying his company AC does not make noise).
There is no intention of the speaker to compare the ACs with the fans. Hence assumption II becomes invalid.
V. Suggestion/ Advice
Statement: "Do not chew tobacco products, it leads to mouth cancer".
- Head oncology department, General Hospital.
Assumptions: I. Not only tobacco there are many other reasons, responsible for mouth cancer.
II. only doctors knew that tobacco chewing alone is responsible for mouth cancer.
Answer: Neither I nor II implicits.
Explanation: The speaker does not show any interest in other reasons which may/ may not responsible for mouth cancer. So, the I assumption does not implicit in the statement. Since it is the advice of the doctor, we can assume that doctors knew that tobacco chewing is dangerous to health, but nowhere it is intended that only doctors knew and alone tobacco chewing leads to mouth cancer. Infact we have already discussed earlier the definitive words such "only" "alone" need the definite idea of the speaker.
VI. Existence/ Non-existence of the subject: If the speaker talking about a hypothetical situation or an unestablished idea, it means he feels that it is existing. Similarly, if its absence is being talked about, it must not be existing.
Let us look at the following examples.
Statement: "Parents give better advice than friends"
Assumptions: I. Parents give advice.
II. Friends are better than parents some times.
Answer: Only I assupmtion implicits.
Explanation: It is a definite feeling of a speaker hence I assumption definitely implicits, where as the II assumption is the contradiction of the idea of the speaker. Hence it is invalid.
VII. Statement: "Hell and Heaven both exist on this earth. Choice is yours". 'A' said to 'B'.
Assumptions: I. Some choose Hell.
II. Some choose Heaven.
Answer: Both I and II are implicit.
Explanation: When the speaker said, 'choice is yours' makes it clear that he feels certainly people make choice of their own and obviously either of the two.
VIII. Statement: "May God bless you with a child".
Assumptions: I. God exists.
II. Children are blessings of God.
Answer: Both I and II are implicit.