Vocabulary: Meanings (synonyms)
1. Mrs Bates tried to domesticate Anna.
Domesticate → to make (an animal) able to live with man and serve him → tam → bring under control → train
2. What God decrees we have to accept.
Decree → command → decide → order → judgement
3. We were nonplussed that the mistress of the house had heard of the tragedy.
Nonplussed → confused → surprised → puzzled → bewildered → dazed
4. They endeavoured to explain it as an act of charity.
Endeavour → strive → try hard → make an effort → attempt → struggle
5. All this played real havoc on our imagination.
Havoc → destruction → disturbance → disorder → disaster → devastation → chaos
6. I found that I could scarcely breathe.
Scarcely → barely → almost not → hardly → (only) just
7. It was an eternal mystery to us.
Eternal → forever → always → never ending → endless → everlasting → incessant → continual
8. God had taken the baby at such a tender age.
Tender → delicate → young → child-like → gentle
9. We shuddered as we gnawed at the hunk of meat.
Shudder → tremble → quiver → shake → shiver → tremor
10. The dog snarled at the intruder.
Snarl → scowl → growl → threaten → intimidate → scare
Choose the alternative that best fits the blank:
1. The dancers were in Japanese __________. (outfit, dress, costume)
2. He is a wolf in the ___________ of a sheep. (attire, costume, garb)
3. She came to the party ________ her new diamond necklace. (showing, sporting, having)
4. We recognised him to be a policeman by his_________. (attire, uniform, garment)
5. The beggar's _________ were in tatters. (clothes, dress, costume)
Conditional clause ('If ' clause):
Conditional clauses are classified into three types based on the tenses.
They are: 1. Probable (possible) condition
2. Improbable condition
3. Unfulfilled condition
Type - I
Probable / possible condition
Usage: We use this type to talk about the future activities that are quite possible.
Structure: If (Subject + V1 → Subject + can / will / may + V1)
e.g: If you work hard, you can get the first rank.
Simple present tense Simple future tense
1. Walk fast or you will miss the bus.
→ If you walk fast, you will not miss the bus.
sub + V1 sub + will + V1
→ Unless you walk fast, you will miss the bus.
(unless = if not)
2. Take the medicine regularly or you may fall ill again.
→ If you take the medicine regularly you may not fall ill again.
→ Unless you take the medicine regularly, you may fall ill again.
Type - II
Improbable / Imaginary condition
Usage: We use this type to talk about the actions that we think are possible but not very
probable. It indicates that we do not expect the action in the If-clause to take place.
Structure: If (Subject + V2 → Subject + could / would / might + V1)
e.g: If I were a doctor, I could give you treatment.
Note: [ V1 V2 V3]
is are been
e.g: 1) I am not a bird. So, I can' t fly in the sky.
→ If I were a bird, I could fly in the sky.
V2 - Simple past tense conditional past
Note: [ The above sentence is quite imaginary. It is not possible, i.e., unreal]
2) I don't have money. So I can't give you any. (March 2003)
→ If I had money, I could give you some / any.
V2 conditional past
Note: [ V1 V2 V3]
have had had
[The above sentence is not possible for that situation, but quite imaginary]
3) I don't have time. So, I can't accept the job.
→ If I had time, I could accept the job.
Type - III
Usage: We use this type to talk about past actions that didn't happen. It expresses a condition in the past that hasn't been fulfiled (Unfulfilled).
Structure: If [ subject + had + V3 → subject would have / could have / might have + V3]
e.g: If you had asked me, I would have helped you.
Past perfect tense Perfect conditional tense
1. He didn't study well. So, he failed.
→ If he had studied well, he would not have failed.
2. She didn't carry her driving license. So, she had to pay a fine.
→ If she had carried her driving license, she would not have had to pay a fine.
3. You didn't take the medicines regularly. So, you fell ill again.
→ If you had taken the medicines regularly, you would not have fallen ill again.
4. I was held up in a traffic jam. So, I missed the train.
→ If I had not been held up in a traffic jam, I would not have missed the train.
5. No precautions were taken. So, many were killed in the cyclone.
→ If precautions had been taken, many would not have been killed in the cyclone.
Notice the following structures:
Type I → Sub + V1 → Sub + will
Type II → Sub + V2 → Sub + would
Type III → Sub + had + V3 → Sub + would have
If you invite me, I will attend the party.
If you invited me, I would attend the party.
If you had invited me, I would have attended the party.
had + V3