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Vocabulary: Meanings (synonyms)

1. Mrs Bates tried to domesticate Anna.
    Domesticate  to make (an animal) able to live with man and serve him  tam  bring under control  train
2. What God decrees we have to accept.
     Decree  command  decide  order  judgement
3. We were nonplussed that the mistress of the house had heard of the tragedy.
     Nonplussed  confused  surprised  puzzled  bewildered  dazed
4. They endeavoured to explain it as an act of charity.
    Endeavour  strive  try hard  make an effort  attempt  struggle
5. All this played real havoc on our imagination.
    Havoc  destruction  disturbance  disorder  disaster  devastation  chaos
6. I found that I could scarcely breathe.
    Scarcely  barely  almost not  hardly  (only) just
7. It was an eternal mystery to us.
    Eternal  forever  always  never ending  endless  everlasting  incessant  continual
8. God had taken the baby at such a tender age.
     Tender  delicate  young  child-like  gentle
9. We shuddered as we gnawed at the hunk of meat.
     Shudder  tremble  quiver  shake  shiver  tremor
10. The dog snarled at the intruder.
      Snarl  scowl  growl  threaten  intimidate  scare

Choose the alternative that best fits the blank:
1. The dancers were in Japanese __________. (outfit, dress, costume)
2. He is a wolf in the ___________ of a sheep. (attire, costume, garb)
3. She came to the party ________ her new diamond necklace. (showing, sporting, having)
4. We recognised him to be a policeman by his_________. (attire, uniform, garment)
5. The beggar's _________ were in tatters. (clothes, dress, costume)

Conditional clause ('If ' clause):
Conditional clauses are classified into three types based on the tenses.
They are:   1. Probable (possible) condition
                    2. Improbable condition
                    3. Unfulfilled condition
                                                                  Type - I
                                                Probable / possible condition
Usage: We use this type to talk about the future activities that are quite possible.
Structure: If (Subject + V1     Subject + can / will / may + V1)
           e.g: If you work hard,                     you can get the first rank.
                  Simple present tense               Simple future tense
1. Walk fast or you will miss the bus.
                  If you walk fast,                    you will not miss the bus.
                         sub + V1                                    sub + will + V1
                  Unless you walk fast, you will miss the bus.
                                   (unless = if not)

2. Take the medicine regularly or you may fall ill again.
          If you take the medicine regularly you may not fall ill again.
          Unless you take the medicine regularly, you may fall ill again.

                                                                  Type - II
                                           Improbable / Imaginary condition

Usage: We use this type to talk about the actions that we think are possible but not very
             probable. It indicates that we do not expect the action in the If-clause to take place.
Structure: If (Subject + V2  Subject + could / would / might + V1)
                   e.g: If I were a doctor,    I could give you treatment.
                                   V2                            V1
Note:     [  V1         V2          V3]
                  is         are        been
                are       were
                   e.g: 1) I am not a bird. So, I can' t fly in the sky.
                           If I were a bird,                    I could fly in the sky.
                               V- Simple past tense          conditional past

 Note: [ The above sentence is quite imaginary. It is not possible, i.e., unreal]
            2) I don't have money. So I can't give you any.                                          (March 2003)
              If I had money,                    I could give you some / any.
                          V2                                       conditional past
Note:       [  V1         V2         V3]
                  have   had     had
[The above sentence is not possible for that situation, but quite imaginary]
3) I don't have time. So, I can't accept the job.
      If I had time,     I could accept the job.

                                                                  Type - III
                                                        Unfulfilled condition

Usage: We use this type to talk about past actions that didn't happen. It expresses a condition in the past that hasn't been fulfiled (Unfulfilled).
Structure: If [ subject + had + V3  subject would have / could have / might have + V3]

                   e.g: If you had asked me,               I would have helped you.
                       Past perfect tense                     Perfect conditional tense
1. He didn't study well. So, he failed.                                                                  
     If he had studied well, he would not have failed.
2. She didn't carry her driving license. So, she had to pay a fine.
      If she had carried her driving license, she would not have had to pay a fine.
3. You didn't take the medicines regularly. So, you fell ill again.
     If you had taken the medicines regularly, you would not have fallen ill again.
4. I was held up in a traffic jam. So, I missed the train.                                        
     If I had not been held up in a traffic jam, I would not have missed the train.
5. No precautions were taken. So, many were killed in the cyclone.
     If precautions had been taken, many would not have been killed in the cyclone.

Notice the following structures:
         Type I            Sub + V1                Sub + will
         Type II          Sub + V2                Sub + would
         Type III        Sub + had + V3     Sub + would have           

                          If you invite me,   I will attend the party.
                       If you invited me,   I would attend the party.
                       If you had invited me,   I would have attended the party.
                                      had + V3

Posted Date : 09-02-2021


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.


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