In critical reasoning, we have an important section as cause and effect. A ‘cause’ is something that produces an event or condition. Whereas, 'effect' is what results from an event or condition. The purpose of the cause and effect is to determine how various phenomena relate in terms of origins and results. Sometimes the connection between cause and effect ease clear, but often determining the exact relationship between the two is little tough.
Cause and effect determine how phenomena are linked, they make frequent use of certain words and phrases like ‘as a result’, ‘consequently’, ‘because’, ‘due to’, ‘hence’, ‘thus’, ‘since’, etc.,
Criteria to establish a cause and effect relationship:
* The cause must occur before the effect.
* Use the phrases of causation when trying to forge connections between various events or conditions.
* Start with what you feel is the main cause of the event, providing evidence to back up your argument.
* Start with the cause and then find the effects (or) start with the effect and then find cause.
Directions (Q.s 1 - 15): Below each question are given two statements I and II. Read both the statements and decide which of the following answer choice correctly depicts the relationship between these two statements.
A) If statement I is the cause and statement II is the effect.
B) If statement II is the cause and statement I is the effect.
C) If both the statements I and II are independent causes.
D) If both the statements I and II are effects of some independent causes.
E) If both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.
I. The club authority in a residential area will close down the club for one week.
II. A renovation will be done at the club in the next week.
I. Heavy traffic is observed in route 'A' in city X on Monday.
II. Traffic is very less in route 'A' in city X on Thursday.
I. The vaccinated persons rate has been increasing for the past few months.
II. Government of different states created awareness among people about the importance of taking vaccine.
I. Farmers are reluctant to adopt a diversified cropping system.
II. The crop rotation for better weed management requires varying skill sets and higher initial investment.
I. The laptop prices have dropped drastically.
II. The supply of laptops has increased tremendously.
I. The government is passing stronger laws against cyber frauds and crimes.
II. Cyber crime is progressing at an incredibly fast pace, with new trends constantly emerging.
I. The government has decided to increase the prices of petrol from next week.
II. The government reduced the prices of LPG cylinders with immediate effect.
I. More offline business people are looking to set up their own online store fronts and logistics for online deliveries.
II. Online-to-offline is one of the latest e-commerce business models that uniquely combines the benefits of both online and offline modes to help businesses achieve enhanced customer reach.
I. Two striker of Spain football team missed all three groups league matches in the World Cup due to hamstring injury.
II. Spain football team lost two matches and won one match in the group league.
I. The state government applied strict traffic rules for citizens.
II. Many deaths occurred due to accidents were in hike in a particular state.
I. The earth is warming up at a steady pace.
II. There is substantial increase in humancaused greenhouse gases.
I. Many people visited the religious place during weekend.
II. Few people visited the religious place during the weekdays.
I. Mohit’s salary is hiked.
II. Mohit brought a new TV into the home.
I. Child labor continues to proliferate across India cities, slums and villages despite decades of social reform.
II. Children are led to labor due to poor school infrastructure and find themselves 'caught in the crossfire’ of India’s poverty problem.
I. Online trading offers a reduction in transaction costs and the high fees associated with the traditional brokerage firms.
II. Online trading has become a household term in every homestead across the country.
Some more Questions
Directions (Qs. 1 - 3): In each of the following questions, some statements are given.
They may be either be independent causes, independent effects or bear a cause and effect relationship that is unique to each other. Read both the statements carefully and mark as,
A) If statement I is the cause and the statement II is its effect.
B) If statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
C) If both the statements I and II are independent causes.
D) If both the statements I and II are the effects of independent causes.
E) If both the statements I and II are the effects of some common cause.
I. Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi launched a statewide campaign as one of the major step for women empowerment to abolish dowry.
II. It has been six decades since dowry has been legally banned in the country. Still dowry has been given and accepted in various forms and quantities, became social evil of at most gravity.
Explanation: Here, statement II is cause and statement I is effect. Even though, dowry is banned legally, it is taken granted most of the parts of the country. Ans: B
I. The government has recently fixed the fees for professional courses offered by the institutions which are much lower
than the fees charged last year.
II. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged
by the institutions.
Explanation: The parents protest against high fees being charged by the institutions led the government to interfere and fix the fees at a more affordable level. Hence, statement II is the cause and the effect is observed from statement I. Ans: B
I. Indian working professionals are a rapidly increasing migrant population.
II. Despite India being one of the largest growing economies, job creation opportunities are still amiss and it's not the lack of educational skills because of which people are unable to find a job.
Explanation: Here, from both the statements, statement I is effect and the relevant cause is observed from statement II. Ans: B
Key With Explanation
1-B; Here the statement II is the cause and the statement I is its effect. Because, the club authority will close down the club in the next week due to renovation.
2-D; Here, both the statements I and II are effect of independent causes. Because, statement I is talking about the presence of heavy traffic in route ‘A’ and statement II is talking about less traffic in the same route on some other day. So, both the statements are effect of independent causes.
3-B; Clearly, the increase in the number of persons being vaccinated may be attributed directly to the stringent efforts of the government of each state in this direction. So, the statement II is cause and the relevant effect can be observed from statement I.
4-B; For developing a resilient and sustainable production system is adopting diversified forming with ecological weed management option. To introduce crop rotation farmers are reluctant because they see it as financially risky. So, here statement II is the cause and statement I is effect.
5-B; Clearly, since there is increasing supply of laptop, the prices have fallen drastically for laptops. So, here statement II is the cause and its tremendous effect is observed from statement I.
6-B; Cybercriminals are becoming more agile, exploiting new technologies. Government must therefore keep pace with new technologies and introducing stronger laws to scrap them cyber crime. So, statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
7-D; Here, both the statements I and II are effects of independent clauses. In statement I, it is about increasing the petrol prices, as we don’t know the reason behind this. Statement II is talking about decreasing LPG cylinder prices. So, here both the statements are effect of independent causes.
8-B; Here, it is mentioned that more offline business persons are showing interest to shift to online business as it increases the extended marketing capabilities both online and offline benefits. So, statement I is effect whereas statement II is the cause.
9-A; Here, statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect, because due to injury of Spain strikers they lost two of the group league matches.
10-B; Clearly, it is given most of the deaths were occurred by accidents in the state. Therefore, the state government implemented strict traffic rules to avoid further worsen of the situation. Hence, here the statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
11-B; The statement II is the cause and the statement I is its effect. Since, there is increase in human caused greenhouse gases, earth is warming up at a steady
12-E; Clearly, lesser number of people is visiting a place during the weekdays and more people are visiting during the weekend, both imply events that go together,
and must have happened due to a common cause such as, it being a holiday during the weekend. Hence, both the statements are effect of some common cause.
13-A; Here, statement I is the cause and statement II is it’s effect. Since, Mohit salary is hiked, he brought a new TV.
14-B; Here, the statement II is the cause and the statement I is the effect. The reasons behind the child labor is mentioned as poverty and poor school infrastructural
facilities and is increasing substantially.
15-A; Here, the statement I is the cause and the statement II is the effect. Since, online trading cut the transaction costs, it has become a household term in every homestead.