A Conjunction is a word that joins parts of a sentence, phrases or other words together. It may be a single word or a combination of words.
Conjunctions are of three types:
A co-ordinate conjunction is used to join two or more clauses of equal rank together. Or, and, nor, but, for, yet, so etc. are some examples of co-ordinate conjunctions.
Would you like to have idly or dosa for breakfast?
You can have chocolate or vanilla ice cream.
Three and three make six.
The weather was cool and we planned fora picnic.
He doesn't like coffee nor tea.
Karunakar doesn't eat sweets, nor does he eat biscuits.
The elephant moved slow but the cheetah ran fast.
She failed but her brother passed the exam.
He must have been very hungry, for he ate everything immediately.
She's overweight, for she eats too many sweets and cakes.
She is overweight, yet she continues to eat lots of junk food.
I always take a book to the park to read, yet I never seem to turn a single page.
It is rainy today, so take your umbrella while going out.
The children forgot to do their homework, so the teacher scolded them. Co-ordinate Conjunctions are of four types:
i) Cumulative/ Copulative Conjunctions:
A cumulative conjunction is used to add one statement to another. And, and … also, as well as, both … and, well, now etc. are some examples of cumulative conjunctions.
Suresh is both clever and stubborn.
Your work is finished; well, you may go.
Both Nitesh and Natasha will attend the marriage.
ii) Adversative Conjunctions: Adversative conjunctions are used to express the contrast or opposition between two statements. But, however, nevertheless, only, still, while, yet etc. are some examples of adversative conjunctions.
I am not rich nevertheless I will help you.
She was not loyal, however, she got promotion.
I worked hard but I failed.
iii) Alternative/ Distinctive Conjunctions:
Alternative conjunctions are used to express a choice between two alternatives. Or, either ...... or, else, neither ...... nor, otherwise are some examples of alternative/ distinctive conjunctions.
Either come with me or go to the room.
Neither the accused nor his lawyer has come to the court.
Move fast else you will be late.
iv) Illative Conjunctions:
Illative conjunctions are used to express something inferred from another statement or fact. For, so and therefore are the examples of illative conjunctions.
You will surely pass for your hard work.
You are honest; therefore, you are rewarded.
He secured AIR 10 in IIT-JEE. So, he was elated.
Directions (Qs. 1 - 8): The given sentence has been divided up into four different parts a, b, c and d. Select the portion of the sentence which contains an error (spelling, grammatical or contextual). If there is no error, choose option ‘e’ (no error) as your answer.
1. Scarcely they had (a)/ reached the office (b)/ when it started (c)/ raining cats and dogs (d)/ No error (e)
Explanation: We use the adverb ‘scarcely’ when something happens immediately after something else (Ex: I had scarcely got through the door when the phone rang). If we use the words such as scarcely, hardly, no sooner etc in front position, we invert the subject and the verb (Ex: Scarcely had I got through the door when the phone rang). So, ‘had they’ should be used in place of ‘they had’.
2. Your success in examinations (a)/ depends not only on what papers (b)/ you have selected but on how (c)/ you have written them (d)/ No error (e)
Explanation: The syntax is incorrect here. The correlative conjunction ‘not only ...... but also’ is used to join words, phrases or clauses which have reciprocal or complementary relationship. So, ‘but also’ should be used in place of ‘but’.
3. I cannot (a)/ say if he (b)/ has paid the (c)/ fee or not (d)/ No error (e)
Explanation: We use ‘whether’ in reference to a choice or alternatives (Ex: We are going whether it rains or not) and we use ‘if’ when establishing a condition (Ex: We will go if it doesn’t rain). Here, ‘whether’ should be used in place of ‘if’.
4. He walked as faster as (a)/ he could so that (b)/ he would not miss the (c)/ local train to work (d)/ No error (e)
Explanation: The comparative adverb ‘faster’ is used in comparative degree, but the given sentence is in positive degree. So, the positive adverb ‘fast’ should be used in the place of ‘faster’.
5. It was almost (a)/ ten years ago since he wrote (b)/ a letter to me enquiring (c)/ about my well-being (d)/ No error (e)
Explanation: As conjunctions, we use ‘when’ to indicate “at that time” (Ex: Nobody spoke when he came into the room) and we use since as a subordinating conjunction to introduce a subordinate clause. We use it to give a reason for something (Ex: Mukesh has been promoted twice since he joined the company). So, ‘when’ should be used in place of ‘ago’.
6. We are extremely (a)/ pleased for excited (b)/ as well to invite you to (c)/ attend the party (d)/ No error (e)
Explanation: We use the phrase ‘as well’ to mention something which happens in the same way as something else already mentioned. We use ‘for’ as a conjunction which carry the meaning ‘because’, which is not the correct usage here. “and” is the correct usage here.
7. Ram has to look after (a)/ ten children (b)/ but he has nothing (c)/ beside his salary (d)/ No error (e)
Explanation: The preposition ‘beside’ means ‘next to’ or ‘at the side of’ something. (Ex: Your shoes are beside the closet). ‘Besides’ as a preposition means, ‘in addition to’ or ‘apart from’. (Ex: He is too tired to go for practice. Besides, he has hurt his ankle). ‘besides’ should be used in place of ‘beside’.
8. The reason why (a)/ she was selected (b)/ was because she (c)/ was too young(d)/ No error (e)
Explanation: We use the word ‘that’ as a conjunction to introduce a subordinate clause to make a statement or provide more information, whereas the word ‘because’ is used to indicate a cause-effect relationship. Therefore, ‘that’ should be used in place of ‘because’.
Correlative conjunctions are paired conjunctions which join words, phrases or clauses which have reciprocal or complementary relationship. Either......or, neither......nor, both....and, not only......but also, though....yet, although......yet, too……to, whether......or etc. are some examples of correlative conjunctions.
Neither Janardhan nor Harish passed the exam.
Give me either a banana or a kiwi.
Both red and yellow are attractive colours.
Manoj can speak not only English but also French.
Though he is poor yet he is contented.
I do not care whether you read or play.
No soon did we reach the station than the train started.
Although I was tired yet I kept working.
You can have either chocolate or vanilla cake.
I didn't know whether you want cake or biscuit in tea time.
Subordinating conjunctions are those that connect a main (independent) clause and a subordinate (dependent) clause. A main clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. The subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence as it does not give complete meaning. It depends on main clause to give complete meaning. If, when, where, since, although, though, before, after, till, until, unless, as, because, while, so that, as long as, even if, even though, if only, in order that, now that, once, rather than, than, that, whenever, whereas, wherever etc. are some examples of subordinating conjunction.
You should wait till I return here.
The patient had died before the doctor arrived.
Make hay while the sun shines.
I left for office after he had gone.
Many things have happened since I saw you.
The office was closed whenever it snowed heavily.
I'll call you as soon as I arrive.
She arrived early, as I expected.
Just as he loves hiking so he enjoys travelling as well.
The scooter will keep running as long as you take good care of it.\
I will go where you ask me to go.
Wherever I went, I found a tea stall.
She went back whence she came.
As he was guilty, he was punished.
I cannot buy this car, because it is very costly.
He is working hard in order that, he can succeed.
I study well so that I can pass the examination.
Work hard lest you should fail.
All is fish that comes to his net.
He will not be allowed to join unless he gets an appointment letter.
We will not come unless we are not invited.
This is not so easy as it looks.
He is stronger than Rupesh.
She passed the examination notwithstanding she was not fully prepared.
Though I was not selected, I am glad I participated.
Although he is rich, yet he is honest.