# Statements and Conclusions

Statements and conclusions is one of the most crucial sections under logical reasoning.

A conclusion is a judgment or decision reached after consideration about the given statement. It requires a very systematic and logical approach. In this section, the statement will be given followed by a set of conclusions. Sometimes the conclusion can be directly understood by reading the statementand sometimes the reader needs to analyze it to get the indirect conclusion.

Points to be considered while reaching on a conclusion

* Analyze the given information in the statement. There is no need to use, assume anything else or add any further extra information from outside.

* In definitive words like all, always, at least, only, exactly and so on are used, then such words make the conclusion invalid or ambiguous.

* If the conclusion is provided with their stated example, then the conclusion is invalid.

* Pick up the relevant conclusion based on the given statement.

Model Questions

Directions (Qs. 1 - 5): Read the following information carefully. Below given a statement followed by two conclusions. Find which conclusion
follows:

A) Only conclusion I is valid

B) Only conclusion II is valid

C) Either conclusion I or II is valid

D) Neither conclusion I nor II is Valid

E) Both the conclusions I and II are valid

1. Statement: Interview panel has decided to shortlist those candidates who have scored minimum 65% in the interview and 60% in graduation. Ajay has secured 68% in interview and 56% in graduation.

Conclusions:

I. Ajay will not be shortlisted.

II. Ajay will be shortlisted.

2. Statement: Priya is the only daughter- in- law of Manoj and Leela, who has two children.

Conclusions:

I. Manoj and Leela have one son and one daughter.

II. Priya’s husband has one brother.

3. Statement: Most people say that doing yoga in early morning leads to better health.

Conclusions:

I. Yoga must be done in the morning only.

II. It is recommended that, best time for yoga is morning.

4. Statement: To impart quality education, all the teachers and faculty should be trained through it's faculty development program in private organizations.

Conclusions:

I. Training brings out best in teachers and making them highly skilled for better education.

II. The growth is parallel to the future of our country, reflected through quality of the present education system.

5. Statement: Only talented children are to be selected in the quiz competition, which is organized for the children of age group between 9 to 15 years.

Conclusions:

I. All the children who have participated in the competition performs well.

II. The children below of age 9 years are not allowed to participate.

Directions (Qs. 6 - 10): Below are given some statement/ statements followed by two conclusions. Choose the conclusion, which follows from the given statement.

A) Only conclusion I is valid

B) Only conclusion II is valid

C) Either conclusion I or II is valid

D) Neither conclusion I nor II is valid

E) Both the conclusions I and II are valid

6. Statement: The government permitted extra buses to ply between Delhi and Lucknow through new revised routes.

Conclusions:

I. Previously Delhi and Lucknow have road transport services.

II. There is no other means of going from Delhi to Lucknow.

7. Statements:

Vishal is grand father to both Tarun and Mahesh.

Mahesh has no siblings.

Conclusions:

I. Vishal is Tarun’s maternal grand father.

II. Vishal is Tarun’s paternal grandfather.

8. Statements:

All engineers working in Germany are talented.

Some are Indians.

Conclusions:

I. None of the Indian engineers are talented.

II. Some Indian engineers are talented.

9. Statements:

All musicians are dancers.

All singers are musicians.

Conclusions:

I. All singers are dancers.

II. Some musicians are singers.

10. Statements:

Some children will speak Hindi.

Some children are intelligent.

Conclusions:

I. Some intelligent children speaks Hindi.

II. Some children who speaks Hindi are intelligent.

Directions (Qs. 11 - 14): Read the following information and determine which conclusion follows according to the given statements.

11. Statements:

Some educated woman are employed.

Neha is educated woman.

Conclusions:

I. Neha is employed woman.

II. All employed are educated women’s.

III. Few employed are educated women.

A) Only I and II follows

B) Only II and III follows

C) Only III follows

D) Only I follows

E) None of the above

12. Statements:

All young students are brave.

No brave men are superstitious.

Conclusions:

I. No student is superstitious.

II. No young people are superstitious.

III. Some superstitious are young students.

A) Only I and II follows

B) Only III follows C) Only II follows

D) Only II and III follows E) None follows

13. Statements:

Kerala is beautiful and greenery.

It is famous for its charming houseboats.

Conclusions:

I. All beautiful are greenery.

II. Beauty and greenery are the essential factor of charming houseboats.

III. All charming houseboats are beautiful.

A) Only I follows

B) Only II follows

C) Both I and II follows

D) Only III follows

E) None of the above\

14. Statements:

All doors are furnitures.

Some furnitures are metals.

Conclusions:

I. Some metal furnitures are doors.

II. Some furnitures are doors.

III. All furnitures are doors.

A) Only I follows

B) Only II follows

C) Only I and II follows

D) Only III follows

E) None of the above

Key with Explanations

1-A; Here, we have to carefully arrive at the conclusion. Ajay has secured more than 65% in interview. However, his graduation percentage is not equal to (or) above 60%. So, he will not be shortlisted. Hence, only
conclusion I follows.

2-C; It is given that, Priya is the only daughterin-law of Manoj and Leela, where we can confirm one child among two must be male. The other child gender may be male or female. So, priya's husband has either
one brother or sister. Hence, either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.

3-B; Now, consider the statement, the word ‘most’used in the statement doesn't mean ‘all’. Hence, according to some people, yoga benefits good health in the morning but yoga should be done morning only is
not valid. Hence, only conclusion II follows.

4-A; Clearly, the statement is mentioning the importance of training the teachers for quality and better education for the sake of students. Hence, conclusion I follows. According to the context of the given statement,
conclusion II does not follow.

5-B; In the given statement, it is given only talented children of age group 9 to 15 years will be selected. With this, we cannot say that all children who are participated in the competition performs good. The allowed
age group is 9 to 15 years for quiz competition, mentions that below 9 years children are not allowed. So only conclusion II follows.

6-A; Here, it is mentioned in the statement about revised route for bus transport services between Delhi and Lucknow. So, conclusion I directly follows. Coming to the II conclusion, we can't say there is no
transport at all. Hence, conclusion II does not follow from the given statement.

7-C; Simply, given in the statement vishal is grandfather to both Tarun and Mahesh. But here, we don't know whether it is maternal or paternal status. So, both the conclusions have same priority from the
given statement. So, either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.

8-B; Whenever, it is stated that all engineers working in Germany, including few Indians are talented, we can conclude that some of Indian engineers are talented. So, conclusion I doesn't follow. Only conclusion II follows.

9-E; Given, all singers are musicians and continued with that all musicians are dancers. From this, we can conclude all singers are dancers. So, conclusion I follows. Already, in the statement given all singers are musicians, so we can say that some musicians are singers. So, conclusion II also follows.

10-D; Here, conclusion I doesn't follow, as some children who are intelligent may speak Hindi or may not, it is not clarified from the statement. Similarly, children who speaks Hindi being intelligent is not
concluded from the statement. So, conclusion II also won’t follow.

11-C; Given that few educated women are employed and neha is educated woman. By this, we can't confirm that neha is an employed woman. So, conclusion I won't follow. From ‘some’ case, we can never
directly deduct ‘all’, so conclusion II also doesn’t follow. Here, only conclusion III follows.

12-E; Here, in the statement given that all young students are brave and no brave men are superstitious. Conclusion I is false, as we cannot say no student is superstitious, only young students are superstitious. Similarly conclusion II and III also won't follows.

13-E; It is given, Kerala is beautiful, greenery as well as famous for charming houseboats. From this, none of the given three conclusions follows regarding the statement.

14-B; Regarding the given statement, only conclusion II is relevant and directly concluded from the Statement ‘all doors are furnitures’. Conclusions I and III doesn’t follows.

Model Questions

Directions (Qs. 1 - 14): In each question below is a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

1. Statement: All disciplined people find time for rest. Rohith, in spite of his busy schedule, finds time for rest.
Conclusions:
I. Rohith is a disciplined person.
II. Rohith is an industrious person.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

2. Statement: Petrol demand has been increasing faster than the production of crude oil.
Conclusions:
I. Crude oil must be imported.
II. Domestic demand should be reduced.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II followsC) If both I and II follow
D) If either I or II follows

3. Statement: Clerk humiliated the customer in the presence of his colleagues.
Conclusions:
I. The clerk did not like the customer.
II. Customer was not popular among the other customers.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

4. Statement: From the next academic year, students will have the option of dropping engineering drawing and environmental science for their college leaving certificate examination.
Conclusions:

I. Students who are weak in Environmental Science and Engineering Drawing can leave the subjects.
II. Earlier students did not have this choice of continuing their education without taking these subjects.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

5. Statement: A man must have good knowledge to become a collector. Collectors are boring and talkative.
Conclusions:

I. All knowledgeable persons are boring.
II. All knowledgeable persons are collectors.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

Conclusions:

I. The assurance is not given.
II. Everyone wants to grow their money.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

7. Statement: Only good dancers are invited to the conference. No one without good choreography is a good dancer.
Conclusions:

I. All invited dancers in the conference are good dancers.
II. Those dancers who don't have good choreography are not invited to the conference.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

8. Statement: The people with good principles and humanity will not betray.
Conclusions:

I. The people who have good principles are atheists.
II. The good principles develop the virtues.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

9. Statement: Evening walks are also good for health.
Conclusions:

I. Morning walks are healthy.
II. All healthy people walk in the evening only.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

10. Statement: Irregularity is a cause of low confidence during exams.
Conclusions:

I. All low confidence students are regular.
II. All confident students are irregular.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

11. Statement: People who speak too much against bribes are those who had taken it themselves.
Conclusions:

I. It is easier to say than to do.
II. People have double standards.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

12. Statement: Most handbags in that shop are costly.
Conclusions:

I. There are also cheap handbags in that shop.
II. There are only costly handbags in that shop.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

13. Statement: Women must be given equal opportunities in every field, irrespective of gender.
Conclusions:

I. Women are always treated high and given equal opportunities.
II. Women are given the opportunity to work
in the teaching field.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

14. Statement: Money plays a vital role everywhere.
Conclusions:
I. The poor can never become rich.
II. All the rich men take part anywhere.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

Key

1-C  2-D  3-D  4-C  5-D  6-B  7-C  8-B  9-A  10-D  11-C  12-A

Model Questions

Directions (Qs. 1 - 14): In each question below is a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

1. Statement: All disciplined people find time for rest. Rohith, in spite of his busy schedule, finds time for rest.
Conclusions:
I. Rohith is a disciplined person.
II. Rohith is an industrious person.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

2. Statement: Petrol demand has been increasing faster than the production of crude oil.
Conclusions:
I. Crude oil must be imported.
II. Domestic demand should be reduced.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If either I or II follows

3. Statement: Clerk humiliated the customer in the presence of his colleagues.
Conclusions:
I. The clerk did not like the customer.
II. Customer was not popular among the other customers.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follows
D) If neither I nor II follows

4. Statement: From the next academic year, students will have the option of dropping engineering drawing and environmental science for their college leaving certificate examination.
Conclusions:
I. Students who are weak in Environmental Science and Engineering Drawing can leave the subjects.
II. Earlier students did not have this choice of continuing their education without taking these subjects.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

5. Statement: A man must have good knowledge to become a collector. Collectors are boring and talkative.
Conclusions:
I. The people who have good principles are atheists.
II. The good principles develop the virtues.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

9. Statement: Evening walks are also good for health.
Conclusions:
I. Morning walks are healthy.
II. All healthy people walk in the evening only.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

10. Statement: Irregularity is a cause of low confidence during exams.
Conclusions:
I. All low confidence students are regular.
II. All confident students are irregular.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

11. Statement: People who speak too much against bribes are those who had taken it themselves.
Conclusions:
I. It is easier to say than to do.
II. People have double standards.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

12. Statement: Most handbags in that shop are costly.
Conclusions:
I. There are also cheap handbags in that shop.
II. There are only costly handbags in that shop.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

13. Statement: Women must be given equal opportunities in every field, irrespective of gender.
Conclusions:
I. Women are always treated high and given equal opportunities.
II. Women are given the opportunity to work in the teaching field.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

14. Statement: Money plays a vital role everywhere.
Conclusions:
I. The poor can never become rich.
II. All the rich men take part anywhere.
A) If only conclusion I follows
B) If only conclusion II follows
C) If both I and II follow
D) If neither I nor II follows

Key

1-C    2-D    3-D     4-C    5-D     6-B     7-C     8-B     9-A     10-D     11-C     12-A     13-B     14-D

Explanations

1. Rohith has a very busy schedule which means he is industrious. But still he finds time for rest. This means he is a disciplined person. So, both I and II follow.

2. This statement mentions that demand for oil is increasing faster than the production. So, either the demand must be reduced or the import must be increased. Therefore, either I or II follows.

3. The clerk might have humiliated the customer not because of his dislike but on account of certain mistake on his part. So, I doesn’t follow. Also nothing about other customers can be deduced from the statement. So, II also doesn't follow.

4. Since, the new system gives the students the option of dropping Environmental Science and Engineering Drawing, so students whoare weak in these subjects can leave the subjects so I follows. Also mentioned that a new system has come into effect from the next academic year. This means it was not there previously. So, II follows.

5. According to the statement collectors are wise men. But, it doesn’t mean that all knowledgeable persons are collectors. So, neither I or II follows.

6. The authenticity of the given statement cannot be deduced so ‘I’ doesn’t follow. The advertisement clearly states about quick returns so everyone wants to grow their money. Hence, II follows.

7. According to the statement good dancers always have good choreography and good dancers are invited to the conference. This tells that all those who are invited to conferences have good choreography and those who don't have good choreography are not invited to the conference.

8. There is no clear deduction that people who have good principles will be atheists. So, I doesn’t follow. The good principles will develop the virtues. So, II follows.

9. In the given statement ‘also’ is given so we can deduce that morning walks are included. So, I follows. It's not necessary that all healthy people walk in the evening only. So, II doesn’t follow.

10. Statement clearly states that all irregular students have low-confidence and all confident students are regular. So, neither I nor II follows.

11. The statement implies that it is easier to say than to do something and what people say is different from what they do. So, both I and II follow.

12. Statement states that there are costly and also cheap bags in that shop. So, according to that only I follows and II doesn’t follow.

13. Women must be given equal opportunities clearly stating that they are not being given opportunity in every field like men. So, I doesn’t follow. Some women work in the teaching field also. So, II follows.

14. Neither the poor nor the rich, but only the role of money everywhere is being talked about in the statement. So, neither I nor II follow.

Posted Date : 02-05-2022

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.