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ANALOGY

Let us first try to define analogy: the word ‘Analogy' means 'correspondence/ similarity’. In analogy questions, a specific relationship is given & another similar relationship has to be identified from the given options.

Types of Analogies
In reasoning, generally we come across two types of analogies: Alphabet analogy and Numbers analogy.
Number Analogy covers two types of questions:

I. Choose a similar pair as the given pair in the question on the basis of the relation between the numbers pair given in the question.
II. Choose a number that is similar to a group of numbers on the basis of certain similar properties that they possess.


Example 1:
In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
56 : 41 : : 94 : ?
a) 49           b) 53           c) 60           d) 89
Explanation: (5 × 6) + (5 + 6) = 30 + 11 = 41 Similarly (9 × 4) + (9 + 4) = 36 + 13 = 49
Answer: a


Example 2: In the following question, select the related number pair from the given alternatives
534 : 2 : : ? : ?
a) 102 : 9   b) 553 : 6   c) 884 : 2   d) 999 : 2
Explanation: (5 + 3) ÷ 4 = 2, Similarly (9 + 9) ÷ 9 = 2
Answer: d


Alphabet/ Letter Analogy
In this type of analogy, two groups of letters related to each other in same way, are given. The candidate is required to identify the relationship & choose a group of letters which is related in the same way to a 3rd group given in the question. These questions become easier to solve if you memorize the alphabetic positions of the letters in the alphabet. (eg: A = 1, M = 13, etc.)

Example: BCDE : PQRS : : WXYZ : ?
a) EFGH       b) KLMN       c) QJSP       d) TSUV
Explanation: Each letter of the 1st group is moved 14 steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the 2nd group. A similar relationship will exist between the 3rd and 4th groups.
Hence, the correct answer is option (b).

Word Analogy
If the relationship between one pair of words is similar to another pair of words then we say that both the pair of words is analogous to each other. In simple words, the relationship between two words must be same for other words associated with them too. The candidate is required to identify the relationship & choose a pair of words which is related in the same way to given in the question.

Example: In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Goiter : Iodine : : Anemia : ?
a) Vitamin D       b) Iron      c) Vitamin E      d) Calcium
Explanation: Here, we have cause and effect relationship. ‘Goitre’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iodine’. So, if ‘Goitre’ is related to ‘Iodine’, then ‘Anaemia’ will be related to ‘Iron’ as ‘Anaemia’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iron’. Hence, our answer is (b). 

Practice Questions
1. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
850 : 863 : : 430 : ?
a) 437         b) 442         c) 435         d) 451
Sol: 850 = 8 + 5 + 0 = 13
        850 + 13 = 863
Similarly, 430 = 4 + 3 + 0 = 7
                430 + 7 = 437
Ans: a

2. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Pressure : Barometer : : ? : Odometer
a) Humidity      b) Distance      c) Thickness      d) Wind
Sol: As Barometer is used for measuring Pressure, similarly Odometer is used for measuring Distance.
Ans: b

3. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
AEDM : ZQRN : : FLMO : ?
a) BZYS     b) CZYS     c) SZYB     d) YZBC
Sol: Similarly

Ans: a

4. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
3 : 27 : : 4 : ?
a) 63          b) 64         c) 65       d) 15
Sol: 33 = 27, similarly 43 = 64  
Ans: b

5. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Book : Pages : : Continent : ?
a) Water   b) Forest   c) Countries   d) Land
Sol: Book consists Pages on the same way Continent consists Countries.
Ans: c


6. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
JKLM : IIII : : PQRS : ? a) PPPP    b) OOOO    c) TTTT    d) OOPP
Sol:                               Similarly
  J     K  L   M               P   Q   R   S
 −1  −2 −3 −4             −1  −2 −3 −4
   I    I     I    I               O   O   O   O   
Ans: b

7. Select the related word from the given alternatives.
Father : Parent :: Sister : ?
a) Other     b) Brother     c) Daughter     d) Sibling
Ans: d

8. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
AGN : IOV : : BLM : ?
a) JTU        b) KTU       c) JUV       d) TUJ
Sol: Similarly
A   G   N                       B   L   M
+8 +8 +8                     +8  +8 +8
 I    O   V                       J    T   U
Ans: a

9. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
9143 : 9963 : : 6731 : ?
a) 1368       b) 5666      c) 8964      d) 9694
Sol: 9143 = 9 + 1 + 4 + 3 = 17
       9963 = 9 + 9 + 6 + 3 = 27
Similarly, 6731 = 6 + 7 + 3 + 1 = 17
                8964 = 8 + 9 + 6 + 4 = 27
Ans: c

10. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
243 : 819 : : 163 : ?
a) 487         b) 563         c) 572         d) 593
Sol: (2 × 4 × 3) = 24 ⇒ 242 = 576 + 243 = 819
Similarly, 1 × 6 × 3 = 18      ⇒ 182 = 324 + 163 = 487
Ans: a

11. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Vacant : Empty : : Dearth : ?
a) Descend        b) Scarcity         c) Squander       d) Abundant
Sol: As Vacant and Empty are synonyms to each other, similarly Dearth and Scarcity are synonyms to each other.
Ans: b

Analogy means “Similarity” or “Similar relation”. It is a comparison between one thing and another, especially for the purpose of explanation or clarification. In general, we have three types of Analogies,
 Number Analogy
 Letter Analogy
 ​​​​​​​Verbal Analogy
Let us start with Number Analogy. In these type of questions, two numbers in one pair will be given and in the other only one number will be given either followed or preceded by a blank. First we need to identify the relation existing between the two numbers given in the pair and applying the same relation we need to identify the number that has to appear in the blank space on the other side.

Number Analogy

Directions (Qs. 1 - 15): In each of the following questions, there is a certain relationship between two given numbers on one side of : : and one number is given on another side of : : while another number is to be found from the given alternatives, having the same relationship with this number as the numbers of the given pair bear. Choose the best alternative.

1.   30 : 5 : : 252 : ?
1) 40    2) 43    3) 39     4) 42

Explanation: 30 : 5 : : 252 : ............
The relationship is 6x : x

                                            Ans: 4

2. 15 : 24 : : 35 : ?
1) 60     2) 64      3) 62      4) 58

Explanation: 15 : 24 : : 35 :
............
The realtionship is x : 2x − 6           Ans: 2

3.   6 : 7776 : : 8 : ?
1) 32768     2) 4096     3) 64      4) 256
Explanation: 6 : 7776 : : 8 :
............
The relationship is x : x5                     Ans: 1

4. 22 : 12 : : 146 : ?
1) 87         2) 96         3) 74       4) 66
Explanation: 22 : 12 : : 146 : 
............

5. 8 : 520 : : 11 : ?
1) 1010    2) 738   3) 1342    4) 1324
Explanation: 8 : 520 : : 11 : 
............
The relationship is x : x3 + x               Ans: 3

6. 50 : 7 : : 122 : ?
1) 11      2) 13      3) 10     4) 16
Explanation: 50 : 7 : : 122 : 
............
The relationship is x2 + 1 : x               Ans: 1

7. 520 : 738 : : ? : 1342
1) 1009     2) 1010    3) 1020    4) 990
Explanation: 520 : 738 : :
........... : 1342
Clearly, 520 = 83 + 8, 738 = 93 + 9
1342 = 113 + 11, So missing term is
1010 = 103 + 10                                  Ans: 2

8. 20 : 30 : : 42 : ?
1) 50     2) 45      3) 56 4) 60
Explanation: 20 : 30 : : 42 :
...........

Clearly, 20 = 4 × 5, 30 = 5 × 6, 42 = 6 × 7
So missing number = 7 × 8 = 56
                                                                    Ans: 3

9. 36 : 64 : : 121 : ?
1) 144 2) 169 3) 196 4) 220
Explanation: 36 : 64 : : 121 : 
...........
The relationship is x2 : (x + 2)2
                                                                   Ans: 2

10. 4685 : 3574 : : 6842 : ?
1) 5421      2) 5241     3) 5713     4) 5731
Explanation: 4685 : 3574 : : 6842 :
........... 
The relationship is x : (x − 1111)
                                                                   Ans: 4

11. 6 : 215 : : 8 : ?
1) 141       2) 342     3) 511           4) 728
Explanation: 6 : 215 : : 8 :
...........
The relationship is x : x3 − 1                       Ans: 3

12. 4 : 25 : : 7 : ?
1) 36       2) 42           3) 80           4) 64
Explanation: 4 : 25 : : 7 : 
...........
The relationship is x : (x + 1)2                       Ans: 4

13. 11 : 132 : : 14 : ?
1) 210          2) 120           3) 182            4) 200
Explanation: 11 : 132 : : 14 :
........... 
The relationship is x : x(x + 1)
                                                                 Ans: 1

14. 169 : 14 : : 289 : ?
1) 16          2) 18            3) 17             4) 15
Explanation: 169 : 14 : : 289 : 
...........
The relationship is x2 : (x + 1)
                                                                Ans: 2
15. 15 : 225 : : ? : 484
1) 21         2) 22           3) 28             4) 23
Explanation: 15 : 225 : :
........... : 484
The relationship is x : x2
                                                                 Ans: 2

Directions (Qs. 16 - 18): In each of the following questions, choose that set of numbers from the four alternative sets, that is similar to the given set.

16. Given set : (6, 36, 42)
1) (3, 17, 21)     2) (2, 12, 14)      3) (3, 15, 18)      4) (4, 16, 12)
Explanation: (6, 36, 42)
In each set, 2nd number = (1st number × 6)
and, 3rd number = (1st number × 7)
                                                                         Ans: 2
17. Given set : (345, 234, 123)
1) (437, 325, 225)     2) (552, 451, 636)     3) (754, 655, 525)          4) (876, 765, 654)
Explanation: (345, 234, 123)
In each set, 2nd number = (1st number − 111)
3rd number = (2nd number − 111)
                                                                        Ans: 4

18. Given set : (56, 72, 88)
1) (42, 54, 66)     2) (28, 45, 64)      3) (24, 50, 75)      4) (25, 43, 71)
Explanation: (56, 72, 88)
Each set consists of number which are obtained by multiplying a certain number by 7, 9, 11
Thus, in the given set,
56 = 8 × 7, 72 = 8 × 9, 88 = 8 × 11.
Similarly, 42 = 6 × 7, 54 = 6 × 9, 66 = 6 × 11
                                                                        Ans: 1

Letter Analogy

Directions (Qs. 1 - 15): In each of the following questions, there is some relationship between the two terms to the left of : : and the same relationship holds between the two terms to its right. Also, in each question, one term either to the right of : : or to the left of it is missing. This term is given as one of the alternatives given below each question. Find out this term.

1. E : J : : K : ?
1) Q         2) V              3) X               4) P
Explanation: E : J : : K :
...........
Add the place value to the letter in the alphabetic series       Ans: 2

2. LQUW : KPTV : : DHMZ : ?
1) CGLY     2) BINA      3) GCYL      4) AEJW
Explanation: LQUW : KPTV : : DHMZ :
...........
Clearly, each letter of the first group in a pair is moved one step backward to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group.   Ans: 1

3. ACTION is related to TCANOI in the same way as ELEVEN is related to ...........?
1) LEENVE      2) NLEEVE        3) LENVEE        4) ELENEV
Explanation: ACTION is related to TCANOI in the same way ELEVEN is related to
...........
The first three letters and the last three letters of the first group are written in a reverse order to obtain the second group.    Ans: 4

4. TRAIN is related to UQBHO in the same way PLACE is related to ...........?
1) KOYAG      2) OKAZH      3) QKBBF      4) QMBDF
Explanation: TRAIN is related to UQBHO in the same way PLACE is related to
...........
The first, third and fifth letters of the first group are each moved one step forward while the second, fourth letters are each moved one step backward to obtain the corresponding letters of the second group.  Ans: 3

5. BD : FH : : JL : ?
1) OP            2) PR           3) NO           4) NP
Explanation: BD : FH : : JL :
...........
Each letter of the first group is moved four steps forward to obtain corresponding letters in second group.  Ans: 4

6. FGH : UTS : : KLM : ?
1) NOP               2) ONP               3) PON                     4) POQ
Explanation: FGH : UTS : : KLM : 
...........
Each letter of the first group is replaced with opposite letter in alphabetical series to obtain the second group.  Ans: 3

7. DIGIT is coded as TIGID in the same way TREND is coded as ...........?
1) DNERT    2) TNRED       3) DRENT         4) DNRET
Explanation: DIGIT is coded as TIGID in the same way TREND is called as
...........
Each letter of the first word is written in the reverse order of the word to obtain second word.   Ans: 1

8. IDCH : LGFK : : NJSW : ?
1) QNOZ      2) QNVY       3) QMVZ             4) QMVX
Explanation: IDCH : LGFK : : NJSW :
...........
Each letter of the first word is moved three steps forward to obtain corresponding letters in the second group.  Ans: 3

9. HJP : IIR : : DMU : ?
1) ELW      2) EWL       3) ELU        4) EMW
Explanation: HJP : IIR : : DMU :
...........
The first and third letters of the first group are moved one and two steps forward respectively while the second letter is moved one step backward to obtain the corresponding letters of the second group.     Ans: 1

10. HADF : JCEG : : TZWP : ?
1) QXBV      2) VBXQ           3) XBQV              4) VXBQ
Explanation: HADF : JCEG : : TZWP :
...........
The first two letters of the first group are each moved two steps forward and the last two letters are each moved one step forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the second group.
                                                                                         Ans: 2

11. ZXVT : YWUS : : RPNL : ?
1) XVTS              2) TSQP                3) SQPM            4) QOMK
Explanation: ZXVT : YWUS : : RPNL :
...........
Each letter of the first word is moved one step backward to obtain corresponding letters in the second group.  Ans: 4

12. FED : IHG : : ? : ?
1) ACB : GUV     2) TSR : WVU     3) VUK : LMO      4) DEF : IGH
Explanation: FED : IHG : :
........... :  ...........
Each letter of the first word is moved three steps forward to obtain corresponding letters in the second group . Ans: 2

13. DBCE : QOPR : : JLKI : ?
1) YWXU        2) WYXV        3) WXYV          4) WYVX
Explanation: DBCE : QOPR : : JLKI :
...........
Each letter of the first word is moved thirteen steps forward to obtain Corresponding letters in the second group.  Ans: 2

14. BKEG : YPVT : : CFIL : ?

1) XVRN        2) XUOR       3) XRUO        4) XURO
Explanation: BKEG : YPVT : : CFIL :
...........
Each letter of the first word is coded as opposite letter to obtain second word.    Ans: 4

15. S : Q : : O : ?
1) N     2) Q        3) I        4) M
Explanation: S: Q : : O :
...........
Subtract 2 from the first letter to obtain the second letter.    Ans: 4
 

Posted Date : 08-02-2022

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్లో వచ్చే ప్రకటనలు అనేక దేశాల నుండి, వ్యాపారస్తులు లేదా వ్యక్తుల నుండి వివిధ పద్ధతులలో సేకరించబడతాయి. ఆయా ప్రకటనకర్తల ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల గురించి ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికీ, ఉద్యోగస్తులకూ ఎటువంటి అవగాహనా ఉండదు. కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచిననుసరించి కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికతతో పంపబడతాయి. ఏ ప్రకటనని అయినా పాఠకులు తగినంత జాగ్రత్త వహించి, ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల గురించి తగిన విచారణ చేసి, తగిన జాగ్రత్తలు తీసుకొని కొనుగోలు చేయాలి. ఉత్పత్తులు / సేవలపై ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎటువంటి నియంత్రణ ఉండదు. కనుక ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాల విషయంలో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యం ఎటువంటి బాధ్యత వహించదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఎటువంటి ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకీ తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు తీసుకోబడవు.

 

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