Let us first try to define analogy: the word ‘Analogy' means 'correspondence/ similarity’. In analogy questions, a specific relationship is given & another similar relationship has to be identified from the given options.
Types of Analogies
In reasoning, generally we come across two types of analogies: Alphabet analogy and Numbers analogy.
Number Analogy covers two types of questions:
I. Choose a similar pair as the given pair in the question on the basis of the relation between the numbers pair given in the question.
II. Choose a number that is similar to a group of numbers on the basis of certain similar properties that they possess.
In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
56 : 41 : : 94 : ?
a) 49 b) 53 c) 60 d) 89
Explanation: (5 × 6) + (5 + 6) = 30 + 11 = 41 Similarly (9 × 4) + (9 + 4) = 36 + 13 = 49
Example 2: In the following question, select the related number pair from the given alternatives
534 : 2 : : ? : ?
a) 102 : 9 b) 553 : 6 c) 884 : 2 d) 999 : 2
Explanation: (5 + 3) ÷ 4 = 2, Similarly (9 + 9) ÷ 9 = 2
Alphabet/ Letter Analogy
In this type of analogy, two groups of letters related to each other in same way, are given. The candidate is required to identify the relationship & choose a group of letters which is related in the same way to a 3rd group given in the question. These questions become easier to solve if you memorize the alphabetic positions of the letters in the alphabet. (eg: A = 1, M = 13, etc.)
Example: BCDE : PQRS : : WXYZ : ?
a) EFGH b) KLMN c) QJSP d) TSUV
Explanation: Each letter of the 1st group is moved 14 steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the 2nd group. A similar relationship will exist between the 3rd and 4th groups.
Hence, the correct answer is option (b).
If the relationship between one pair of words is similar to another pair of words then we say that both the pair of words is analogous to each other. In simple words, the relationship between two words must be same for other words associated with them too. The candidate is required to identify the relationship & choose a pair of words which is related in the same way to given in the question.
Example: In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Goiter : Iodine : : Anemia : ?
a) Vitamin D b) Iron c) Vitamin E d) Calcium
Explanation: Here, we have cause and effect relationship. ‘Goitre’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iodine’. So, if ‘Goitre’ is related to ‘Iodine’, then ‘Anaemia’ will be related to ‘Iron’ as ‘Anaemia’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iron’. Hence, our answer is (b).
Directions (Qs. 1 - 18): In the following questions, select the related word from the given alternatives.
1. Accurate : Unreliable : : Obsolete : ?
A) Current B) Advantage C) Refuse D) Sluggish
Sol: Accurate and Unreliable are exactly opposite in meaning. Accurate means (especially of information, measurements, or predictions) correct in all details; exact, whereas Unreliable means not able to be relied upon.
Similarly, Obsolete and Current are opposite to each other in meaning. Obsolete means no longer produced or used; out of date, whereas Current is up to date, exactly opposite to Obsolete.
2. 21 : 3 : : 35 : ?
A) 2 B) 5 C) 6 D) 4
Sol: The relationship between 21 and 3 is
‘3 × 7 = 21’.
Similarly, the relationship between 35 and 5 is ‘5 × 7 = 35’.
3. Ammeter : Current : : Wind speed : ?
A) Calliper B) Thermometer C) Anemometer D) Hygrometer
Sol: Ammeter is the instrument which is used to measure ‘current’.
Similarly, an anemometer is a device that measures ‘wind speed and direction’.
4. BDFH : JLNP : : CEGI : ?
A) ADEG B) PQTW C) ACEF D) KMOQ
Sol: The pattern followed is:
In BDFH : JLNP
B + 2 = D; D + 2 = F; F + 2 = H &
H + 2 = J; J + 2 = L; L + 2 = N, N + 2 = P
Based on the same fact,
CEGI→ C + 2 = E; E + 2 = G; G + 2 = I
Now, I + 2 = K; K + 2 = M;
M + 2 = O; O + 2 = Q
Thus KMOQ is the answer.
5. Floriculture : Flowers : : ? : Forests
A) Dendrology B) Climatology C) Andrology D) Radiology
Sol: The study of flowers is called floriculture.
Similarly, the study of forests is called Dendrology.
6. Dinar : Kuwait : : ? : Thailand
A) Yen B) Baht C) Dirham D) Lira
Sol: Dinar is the currency of Kuwait. Similarly,
Baht is the currency of Thailand.
7. Owl : Flit : : Bear : ?
A) Swoop B) Frisk C) Lumber D) Trot
Sol: Here, animals and their movement pattern is followed.
Movement of the Owl is Flit.
Similarly, movement of the Bear is Lumber.
8. Finger : Hand : : Spoke : ?
A) Fan B) Speech C) Chair D) Wheel
Sol: Hand has fingers. Similarly, wheel has spokes.
9. Carpenter : Hammer : : Surgeon : ?
A) Scalpel B) Chisels C) Claw D) Adze
Sol: Carpenter uses a hammer. Similarly, surgeon uses a scalpel.
10. 14 : 9 : : 28 : ?
A) 12 B) 16 C) 17 D) 15
Sol: Here, the pattern followed is:
14 = (2 × 9 − 4)
28 = (2 × 16 − 4)
11. Wine : Grapes : : ? : Asphalt
A) Shoes B) Fabric C) Road D) Pullover
Sol: Here, the relationship is between products and raw materials. Raw material for wine is grapes. Similarly, raw material for roads is asphalt.
12. Author : Book : : Butcher : ?
A) Film B) Clothes C) Ornaments D) Meat
Sol: Here, the relationship is between workers and products. Author is the worker for the book. Similarly, butcher is the worker for the meat.
13. Admonish : Counsel : : Alleviate : ?
A) Discord B) Abate C) Compel D) Courtesy
Sol: Admonish and Counsel are synonyms. Admonish means 'warn or reprimand someone firmly’, whereas Counsel means ‘advice, especially that given formally’.
Similarly, Alleviate and Abate are synonyms. Alleviate means ‘make (suffering, deficiency, or a problem) less severe’, whereas Abate means ‘(of something unpleasant or severe) become less intense or widespread’.
14. Clerk : Office : : ? : Casino
A) Beautician B) Mechanic C) Gambler D) Lawyer
Sol: Here, the relationship is between workers and working places. Clerk works in the office. Similarly, gambler works in the casino.
15. Wings of fire : A.P.J.Abdul kalam : : Time machine : ?
A) Arthur Doyle B) E.M.Forster C) Edward Gibbon D) H.G.Wells
Sol: Here, the relationship is between books and authors. The author of wings of fire is A.P.J.Abdul kalam. Similarly, the author of Time Machine is H.G.Wells.
16. FLOW : UOVD : : ? : IMOF
A) RNLU B) FUNR C) RNST D) PTNS
Sol: In the English alphabet, from the beginning F, L, O, W and from last U, O, V, D have the same place values. Similarly, In the English alphabet, from the beginning R, N, L, U and from last I, M, O, F have the same place values.
17. 3 : 30 : : ? : 68
A) 2 B) 4 C) 5 D) 6
Sol: The pattern followed is:
3 × 3 × 3 = 27 + 3 = 30
Similarly, 4 × 4 × 4 = 64 + 4 = 68
18. Japan : Tokyo : : ? : Reykjavik
A) Ireland B) South Korea C) Iceland D) Afghanistan
Sol: Here, the relationship is between Countries and Capitals. Tokyo is the capital of Japan. Similarly, Reykjavik is the capital of Iceland.
Some more Questions
1. Retina : Eyes : : Trachea : ?
A) Kidneys B) Stomach C) Brain D) Lungs
Sol: Here, the relationship is between organs and internal parts.
Retina is the internal part of the eyes.
Similarly, trachea is the internal part of the lungs.
2. Cardiologist : Heart : : ? : Lungs
A) Pulmonologist B) Oncologist C) Radiologist D) Nephrologist
Sol: Here, the relationship is between organs and doctors.
A Cardiologist is a doctor who treats the heart.
Similarly, a Pulmonologist is a doctor who treats the lungs.
3. Cattle : Herd :: Pilgrims : ?
A) Colony B) Caravans C) Council D) Chorus
Sol: Here, the relationship is between individual and group.
A group of cattle is called a herd.
Similarly, a group of pilgrims is called a Caravan.
4. Horse : Colt : : ? : Cygnet
A) Sheep B) Duck C) Swan D) Stag
Sol: Here, the relationship is between animals and young ones.
Colt is the young one of Horse.
Similarly, Cygnet is the young one of swans.
5. Badminton : Court : : ? : Rink
A) Athletics B) Tennis C) Race D) Skating
Sol: Here, the relationship is between games and place of playing.
Badminton is played on a court.
Similarly, skating is played on a rink.
6. 18 : 30 : : 35 : ?
A) 64 B) 54 C) 66 D) 56
Sol: The relationship is x : 2x − 6
18 : 2(18) − 6 ⇒ 18 : 30
Similarly, 35 : 2(35) − 6 ⇒ 35 : 64
7. BEGK : ADFJ : : CDFE : ?
A) BKLM B) BCED C) ANME D) AUNB
Sol: Here, the relationship between each letter of the first group in a pair is moved one step backward to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group.
B, E, G, K is written as A, D, F, J.
Similarly, C, D, F, E is written as B, C, E, D.
8. Gun : Shoot : : ? : Grip
A) Oar B) Auger C) Spanner D) Tongs
Sol: Here, the relationship is between tools and actions.
A gun is used for shooting.
Similarly, a spanner is used for gripping.
9. Chair : Table : : ? : Carriage
A) Question B) Saree C) Cup D) Horse
Sol: Here, the relationship is between pairs.
Chair and table go together.
Similarly, horse and carriage go together.
10. Wish : Desire : : Quarrel : ?
A) War B) Drown C) Death D) Won
Sol: Here, the relationship is between words and intensities.
Desire is of higher intensity than wish.
Similarly, War is of higher intensity than quarrel. Ans: A
11. Books : Bibliophilie : : ? : Cynophilist
A) Cats B) Dogs C) Parrots D) Rats
Sol: Here, the relationship is:
A Bibliophile is a person who loves books.
Similarly, a cynophilist is a person who loves dogs.
12. Rickets : Vitamin D : : ? : Vitamin A
A) Beri-Beri B) Scurvy C) Night blindness D) Anemia
Sol: Here, the relationship is between diseases and lack of vitamins.
Rickets are caused due to the lack of Vitamin D.
Similarly, night blindness is caused due to the lack of Vitamin A.
1. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
850 : 863 : : 430 : ?
a) 437 b) 442 c) 435 d) 451
Sol: 850 = 8 + 5 + 0 = 13
850 + 13 = 863
Similarly, 430 = 4 + 3 + 0 = 7
430 + 7 = 437
2. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Pressure : Barometer : : ? : Odometer
a) Humidity b) Distance c) Thickness d) Wind
Sol: As Barometer is used for measuring Pressure, similarly Odometer is used for measuring Distance.
3. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
AEDM : ZQRN : : FLMO : ?
a) BZYS b) CZYS c) SZYB d) YZBC
4. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
3 : 27 : : 4 : ?
a) 63 b) 64 c) 65 d) 15
Sol: 33 = 27, similarly 43 = 64
5. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Book : Pages : : Continent : ?
a) Water b) Forest c) Countries d) Land
Sol: Book consists Pages on the same way Continent consists Countries.
6. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
JKLM : IIII : : PQRS : ? a) PPPP b) OOOO c) TTTT d) OOPP
J K L M P Q R S
−1 −2 −3 −4 −1 −2 −3 −4
I I I I O O O O
7. Select the related word from the given alternatives.
Father : Parent :: Sister : ?
a) Other b) Brother c) Daughter d) Sibling
8. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
AGN : IOV : : BLM : ?
a) JTU b) KTU c) JUV d) TUJ
A G N B L M
+8 +8 +8 +8 +8 +8
I O V J T U
9. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
9143 : 9963 : : 6731 : ?
a) 1368 b) 5666 c) 8964 d) 9694
Sol: 9143 = 9 + 1 + 4 + 3 = 17
9963 = 9 + 9 + 6 + 3 = 27
Similarly, 6731 = 6 + 7 + 3 + 1 = 17
8964 = 8 + 9 + 6 + 4 = 27
10. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
243 : 819 : : 163 : ?
a) 487 b) 563 c) 572 d) 593
Sol: (2 × 4 × 3) = 24 ⇒ 242 = 576 + 243 = 819
Similarly, 1 × 6 × 3 = 18 ⇒ 182 = 324 + 163 = 487
11. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Vacant : Empty : : Dearth : ?
a) Descend b) Scarcity c) Squander d) Abundant
Sol: As Vacant and Empty are synonyms to each other, similarly Dearth and Scarcity are synonyms to each other.