• facebook
  • whatsapp
  • telegram


    Bone disease refers to the medical conditions which affect the bone. A bone disease is also called osteopathy. Osteochondrodysplasia is a general term for a disorder of the development of bone and cartilage.

a. Arthritis
   Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. Symptoms of arthritis include pain and limited function of joints. Arthritis sufferers include men and women, children and adults. A rheumatologist is a medical arthritis expert. Earlier and accurate diagnosis can help to prevent irreversible damage and disability.
   Arthritis is frequently accompanied by joint pain. Joint pain is referred to as arthralgia.
   The treatment of arthritis is very dependent on the precise type of arthritis present. An accurate diagnosis increases the chances for successful treatment. Treatments available include physical therapy, home remedies, splinting, cold-pack application, paraffin wax dips, anti-inflammatory medications, pain medications (ranging from acetaminophen to narcotics), immune-altering medications, biologic medications, and surgical operations.


b. Spondylitis
    Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. Ankylosing spondylitis symptoms include pain and stiffness from the neck down to the lower back. The spine's bones (vertebrae) may grow or fuse together, resulting in a rigid spine. These changes may be mild or severe, and may lead to a stooped-over posture.

  Early diagnosis and treatment helps control pain and stiffness and may reduce or prevents significant deformity.

c. Rheumatoid Arthritis
     Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that can cause chronic inflammation of the joints and other areas of the body.
     Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms and signs include joint pain in the feet, hands, and knees, swollen joints, fever, tender joints, loss of joint function, stiff joints, fatigue, joint redness, rheumatoid nodules, joint warmth and joint deformity.

      The "rheumatoid factor" is an antibody that can be found in the blood of 80% of people with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid factor is detected in a simple blood test. Possible risk factors for developing rheumatoid arthritis include genetic background, smoking, silica inhalation, periodontal disease, and microbes in the bowels.

d. Rickets:
     Rickets is a condition that affects bone development in children. It causes the bones to become soft and weak, which can lead to bone deformities.
     Rickets in adults is known as osteomalacia or soft bones. The most common cause of rickets is a lack of vitamin D and calcium. Vitamin D largely comes from the exposure of the skin to sunlight, but it is also found in some foods such as oily fish and eggs. Vitamin D is essential for a child to form strong and healthy bones.

    Rickets can easily be prevented by eating a diet that includes vitamin D and calcium, as well as spending some time in sunlight. The hands and face only need to be exposed to the sunlight for about 15 minutes a few times a week during spring and summer to provide you with enough vitamin D.

e. Gout:
     Gout is a type of arthritis where crystals of sodium urate form inside and around joints. The most common symptom is sudden and severe pain in the joint, along with swelling and redness. The joint of the big toe is commonly affected, but it can develop in any joint.

    Gout is caused by a build-up of uric acid in the blood. Uric acid is a waste product made in the body every day and excreted mainly via the kidneys. It forms when the body breaks down chemicals in the cells known as purines.
    Relieving symptoms – this can be done by using ice packs and taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) painkillers; in some cases, alternative medications such as colchicine or corticosteroids may also be needed.


f. Osteoarthritis
    Osteoarthritis is a condition that causes the joints to become painful and stiff. It is the most common type of arthritis in the UK.
     Almost any joint can be affected by osteoarthritis, but the condition most often causes problems in the knees, hips, and small joints of the hands. The pain and stiffness in the joints can make carrying out everyday activities difficult for some people with the condition.

g. Fluorosis:
     Fluorosis is a cosmetic condition that affects the teeth and bones. It’s caused by overexposure to fluoride during the first eight years of life. This is the time when most permanent teeth are being formed.
    Common causes of fluorosis include inhalation of fluoride dusts/ fumes by workers in industry, use of coal as an indoor fuel source, consumption of fluoride from drinking water and consumption of fluoride from drinking tea, particularly brick tea.


h. Osteogenesis Imperfecta
     Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by bones that break easily, often from little or no apparent cause. A classification system of different types of OI is commonly used to help describe how severely a person with OI is affected.

   OI is caused by genetic defects that affect the body’s ability to make strong bones. In dominant (classical) OI, a person has too little type I collagen or a poor quality of type I collagen due to a mutation in one of the type I collagen genes. Collagen is the major protein of the body’s connective tissue. It is part of the framework that bones are formed around.

i. Paget
     Excessive bone resorption followed by an increase in bone formation. This osteoclastic overactivity followed by compensatory osteoblastic activity leads to a structurally disorganized mosaic of bone (woven bone), which is mechanically weaker, larger, less compact, more vascular, and more susceptible to fracture than normal adult lamellar bone.
     When Paget disease occurs around a joint, treatment is often administered in an attempt to prevent development of osteoarthritis. Treatment with bisphosphonates should be considered first-line therapy in patients with Paget disease.


Posted Date : 05-02-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.



Previous Papers


విద్యా ఉద్యోగ సమాచారం


Model Papers


లేటెస్ట్ నోటిఫికేష‌న్స్‌