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Modern Judiciary in India

     With the advent of the British colonial administration, India witnessed a judicial system introduced on the basis of Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence. The Royal Charter of Charles II of the year 1661 gave the Governor and Council the power to adjudicate both civil and criminal cases according to the laws of England. However, the Regulating Act of 1773 established for the first time the Supreme Court of India in Calcutta, consisting of the Chief Justice and three judges (later reduced to two) appointed by the Crown acting as King’s court and not East India Company’s court. Later, Supreme Courts were established in Madras and Bombay. The Court held jurisdiction over "His Majesty’s subjects". In this period the judicial system had two distinct systems of courts, the English system of Royal Courts, which followed the English law and procedure in the presidencies and the Indian system of Adalat/ Sadr courts, which followed the Regulation laws and Personal laws in the provinces. Under the High Court Act of 1861, these two systems were merged, replacing the Supreme Courts and the native courts (Sadr Dewani Adalat and Sadr Nizamat Adalat) in the residency towns of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras with High Courts. However, the highest court of appeal was the judicial committee of the Privy Council. British efforts were made to develop the Indian legal system as a unified court system. Indians had neither laws nor courts of their own, and both the courts and laws had been designed to meet the needs of the colonial power.
The Government of India Act of 1935 (Section 200) set up the Federal Court of India to act as an intermediate appellant between High courts and the Privy Council in regard to matters involving the interpretation of the Indian Constitution. It was not to ‘pronounce any judgement other than a declaratory judgement’ which meant that it could declare what the law was but did not have authority to exact compliance with its decisions. The Federal Court’s power of ‘judicial review’ was largely a paper work and therefore a body with very limited power.
     Despite the restrictions placed on it, the Federal Court continued to function till 26th January 1950, when independent India’s Constitution came into force. In the meantime, the Constituent Assembly became busy drafting the basic framework of the legal system and judiciary.

Posted Date : 05-02-2021


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.


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