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DEFINITION OF STATE

     State is an organized community living under one government. States may be sovereign. The term state is also applied to federate that are members of a federal union, which is the sovereign state. Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state. The state can also be used to refer to the secular branches of government within a state, often as a manner of contrasting them with churches and civilian institutions.
          Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, however for most of pre-history people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 5,500 years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities, invention of writing, and codification of new forms of religion. Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine, the theory of the social contract, etc.). Today, however, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject.

     Seven Fundamental Rights were enshrined in the Constitution of India. However the Right to Property was removed from the list of Fundamental Rights by the 44th Amendment Act of the Constitution in the year 1976. Since then, it has been made a legal right. There are now six Fundamental Rights.
 

The Fundamental Rights are
1. Right to Equality (Articles 14-18)
2. Right to Freedom (Articles 19-22)
3. Right against Exploitation (Articles 23-24)
4. Right to Freedom of Religion (Articles 25-28)
5. Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29-30)
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)
      Recently by the 86th Amendment Act, the Right to Education has been included in the list of Fundamental Rights as part of the Right to Freedom by adding Article 21(A).

Posted Date : 03-02-2021

 

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