* Karl Landsteiner was an Austrian biologist and physician. He is noted for having first distinguished the main blood groups in 1900(A, B, O). Blood group AB was found by Sturli and Dikasella.
* Karl Landsteiner is the Father of blood groups.
* World blood donar day June 14.
* Universal donar : O-
* Universal recipients: AB+
* Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
* Agglutination is the clumping of particles. Agglutination occurs if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called isoagglutinin. This is commonly used term in blood grouping.
Rh factor: Rhesus(Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells. If blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you're Rh negative.
Rh positive is the most common blood type. Having an Rh negative blood type is not an illness and usually does not affect health. However, it can affect pregnancy. Pregnancy needs special care if you're Rh negative and your baby's father is Rh positive.
The adult human body is home to trillions of red blood cells (erythrocytes). These blood cells carry oxygen, iron, and many other nutrients to their appropriate places in the body.
When a woman is pregnant, it is possible that her baby’s blood type will be incompatible with her own. This can cause a condition known as erythroblastosis fetalis, where the mother’s red blood cells attack those of the baby as they would any foreign invaders.
Also known as hemolytic disease of the newborn, this condition is highly preventable. Catching it early can ensure a successful pregnancy for mother and child. If left untreated, this condition can be life-threatening for the baby.
Causes Erythroblastosis Fetalis:
There are two main causes of erythroblastosis fetalis - Rh incompatibility and ABO incompatibility. Both are associated with blood type. There are four blood types - A, B, AB and O. And blood can be either Rh positive or Rh negative. If a person is of blood type A and is Rh positive, he or she has A antigens and the Rh factor antigens on the red blood cell membrane surface. If a person has AB negative blood, he or she has both A and B antigens without the Rh factor antigen.
Rh incompatibility occurs when an Rh- negative mother is impregnated by an Rh- positive father. The result can be an Rh-positive baby. In such a case, the baby’s Rh antigens will be perceived as foreign invaders, the way viruses or bacteria are perceived.
The mother’s blood cells attack the baby’s as a protective mechanism that can end up harming the child.
If the mother is pregnant with her first baby, Rh incompatibility is not as much of a concern. However, when the Rh-positive child is born, the mother’s body creates antibodies against the Rh factor, which will attack the blood cells if she becomes pregnant with another Rh-positive baby.
Another type of hemolytic disease of newborns is ABO blood type incompatibility. This occurs when a mother’s blood type of A, B or O is not compatible with a baby’s. This condition is considered less harmful and threatening to the baby than Rh incompatibility. However, babies can carry rare antigens that can put them at risk for erythroblastosis fetalis, including Kell, Duffy, Kidd, Lutheran, Diego, Xg, P, Ee, Cc, and MNSs antigens.