Again study of pathology in humans is of fourteen types, they are:
1. Anatomical pathology
Anatomical pathology or Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues. Its modern founder was the Italian scientist Giovan Battista Morgagni from Forli.
* Anatomical pathology is one of two branches of pathology, the other being clinical pathology, the diagnosis of disease through the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and/or tissues.
* Often, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination known as general pathology.
Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. The discipline was founded by Rudolf Virchow in 1858.
* The Pap smear is a common application of cytopathology, used as a screening tool, to detect precancerous cervical lesions and prevent cervical cancer.
* It is also commonly used to investigate thyroid lesions, diseases involving sterile body cavities and a wide range of other body sites.
* It is used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, but also helps in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions.
* Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues.
Dermatopathology focuses on the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic and molecular level. It also encompasses analyses of the potential causes of skin diseases at a basic level. More than 1500 different disorders of the skin exist, including cutaneous eruptions or rashes and neoplasms.
4. Forensic pathology
Forensic pathology focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. The autopsy is performed by a medical examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Coroners and medical examiners are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse.
Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. This refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist.
* Histopathological examination of tissues starts with surgery, biopsy or autopsy.
* The tissue is removed from the body or plant, and then placed in a fixative which stabilizes the tissues to prevent decay.
* The most common fixative is formalin.
Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole autopsies.
* It is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery.
* This is largely examining, biopsy tissue from the brain and spinal cord to aid in diagnosis of disease.
7. Pulmonary pathology
Pulmonary pathology deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the lungs and thoracic pleura.
8. Renal pathology
Renal pathology deals with the diagnosis and characterization of medical diseases of the kidneys.
* Renal pathologists work closely with nephrologists and transplant surgeons, who typically obtain diagnostic specimens via percutaneous renal biopsy.
* Medical renal diseases may affect the glomerulus, the tubules and interstitium, the vessels, or a combination of these compartments.
9. Surgical pathology
The practice of surgical pathology allows for definitive diagnosis of disease in any case where tissue is surgically removed from a patient. Surgical pathology involves the gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens.
* A biopsy is a small piece of tissue removed primarily for the purposes of surgical pathology analysis.
10. Clinical pathology
Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and tissue homogenates or extracts using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology.
Hematopathology or hemopathology studies diseases of hematopoietic cells.
12. Molecular pathology
Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids.
* It is multi-disciplinary in nature and focuses mainly on the sub-microscopic aspects of disease.
* A key consideration is that more accurate diagnosis is possible when the diagnosis is based on both the morphologic changes in tissues (traditional anatomic pathology) and on molecular testing.
* It is a scientific discipline that encompasses the development of molecular and genetic approaches to the diagnosis and classification of human diseases, the design and validation of predictive biomarkers for treatment response and disease progression, the susceptibility of individuals of different genetic constitution to develop disorders.
* It is commonly used in diagnosis of cancer and infectious diseases.
13. Oral and maxillofacial pathology
Oral and maxillofacial pathology refers to the diseases of the mouth, jaws and related structures such as salivary glands, temporomandibular joints, facial muscles and perioral skin (the skin around the mouth).
* The mouth is an important organ with many different functions.
* It is also prone to a variety of medical and dental disorders.
* It is concerned with diagnosis and study of the causes and effects of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region.
Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes, course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.
* Patients with mental disorders are customarily cared for by psychiatrists, doctors specialized in mental health, who diagnose and treat patients through medication or psychotherapy.