i. Asthma: In asthamatic person, the muscles of the branchial tubes tighten and thicken. The air passage become inflamed. The cause of asthma may be genetical or allergy or cool environment.
It is the disease in which the mucus membrane in the lungs' bronchial passages becomes inflamed.
As the irritated membrane swells and grows thicker, it narrows or shuts off the tiny airways in the lungs, resulting in coughing spells that may be accompanied by phlegm and breathlessness.
Mainly the workers of cotton and cement factory face this problem.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites.
It is characterized primarily by inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs or by alveoli that are filled with fluid (alveoli are microscopic sacs in the lungs that absorb oxygen).
Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by infection with an influenza virus.
a. Bird flu
Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans.
b. Swine flu
Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruse
Diphtheria is caused by the corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterium. It’s most commonly spread through person-to-person contact or contact with items that have the bacteria on them.
Coming into contact with items such as an infected person’s cup or used tissue can transfer the bacteria. The mist exhaled by an infected person’s sneeze or cough can also contain the bacteria.
Whooping cough is caused by an infection with a bacterium known as Bordetella pertussis. The bacteria attach to the lining of the airways in the upper respiratory system and release toxins that lead to inflammation and swelling.
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The condition is spread when a person with an active TB infection in their lungs coughs or sneezes and someone else inhales the expelled droplets, which contain TB bacteria.
viii. SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory System)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness. The illness usually begins with a high fever (temperature greater than 100.4 degrees F).
The fever is sometimes associated with chills or other symptoms, including a headache, a general feeling of discomfort and body aches. Some people also experience mild respiratory symptoms at the outset.
Hypoxemia (low oxygen in your blood) can cause hypoxia (low oxygen in your tissues) when your blood doesn't carry enough oxygen to your tissues to meet your body's needs.
The word hypoxia is sometimes used to describe both problems.
Pleurisy occurs when the pleura becomes irritated and inflamed. As a result, the two layers of the pleural membrane rub against each other like two pieces of sandpaper, producing pain when you inhale and exhale. The pleuritic pain lessens or stops when you hold your breath.