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1. What can be some of the developmental goals for your village or town or locality? (Reflection on contemporary issues and questions)
A: Some of the developmental goals of our village are:
i) More days of work and better wages to the local people.
ii) A Government school which provide quality education for their children.
iii) A government hospital with all facilities and dedicating Doctors.
iv) Safe and protecting drinking water.
v) Adequate electricity for domestic and agriculture purpose.
vi) Water tanks and check dams for irrigation.
vii) Literacy programmes and employment to all.
viii) Good roads and drainage system etc.

2. What are the issues at conflict between government and the people living in regions of nuclear power plant? (Information skills)
A: * The aim of the government to establish a nuclear power plant at Kudankulam in Tirunelveli District of Tamilnadu is one conflict.
* The aim of the government is to generate the nuclear power.
* It was set up to meet the growing energy needs.
* The people of the region have protested against the nuclear plant on the grounds of safety and security and livelihood.
* The people of Kudankulam suggested to concentrate on Renewable sources like solar and wind power available plenty any where.


3. Write a paragraph on your nation of what Indian should do, or achieve, to become a developed country? (Reflection on Contemporary Issues)
A: * To become a developed country, India should accelerate its GDP growth.
* Special emphasis should be given on agriculture. Modern agricultural inputs should be introduced, Training, Credit, marketing facilities should be provided.

* Population countrol should be done.
* Raise the educational standards.
* Improve infrastructure.
* Corruption should be protested.
* Poverty should be reduced.
* Equal treatment, freedom, security to all people.
* Specialised Hospital should be established.
* Technical Education Centres, Safe drinking water, Employment opportunities etc.

4. Study the table given below and answer the following questions.
Table: Some data regarding India and its neighbours for 2013   (Information Skills)

i. Which Country has the lowest Average years of schooling?
A: Nepal has the lowest average years of schooling.


ii. Which country has the best HDI rank in the table.
A: Sri Lanka has the best HDI rank in the table.


iii. What is the per capita income of India?
A: The per capita income of India is US $ 3,285.


iv. What is the lowest life expectancy at birth in the table?
A: The lowest life expectancy in the table is 65.7 years.


v. What is the difference between expected years of schooling and average years of schooling for India?
A: The Difference between expected years of Schooling and average years of schooling for India is 6.3 years.

5. What main criterion is used by the World Bank in calssifying different countries? What are the limitations of the above criterion, if any? (Conceptual Understanding)
A: * The main criterion used by the world bank in classifying different countries is the per capita income or average income of a person in a country.
* There are other criterions to be considered in classifying the countries. For example infant mortality rate, literacy rate, standards of living, purchasing capacity to the people, life expectancy and employment rate are the other criterions and limitations.

6. Usually behind each social phenomenon there would be several contributing factors and not one. What is your opinion are the factors that came together for the development of schooling in Himachal Pradesh? (Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning)
A: The factors for the development of schooling in Himachal Pradesh are
i) The schooling revolution in Himachal Pradesh was the main reason for high average of school children.
ii) The government of Himachal Pradesh and the people were keen on education.

iii) They introduced free and compulsory education.
iv) Implemented mid-day meal programme.
v) Free supply of text books and note books.
vi) Encouragement scholorships and also parental care.
vii) Improved attendance rate.
viii) The government tried to ensure that these schools had the minimum facilities of teacher, class rooms, toilets and drinking water etc.
ix) More schools were started, teachers were appointed etc.


7. In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank? (Appreciation and Sensitivity)
A: * The UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) uses the criterion of Human Development Index.
   * It (UNDP) compares the countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health and per capita income.
   * The World Bank uses only per capita income to measure the development of the particular area.

8. Do you think there are criterion other aspects, other than those discussed in the chapter, that should be considered in measuring human development? (Appreciation and Sensitivity)
A: * Along with per capita income by World Bank and the education levels of people and health status are considered by UNDP. There are other aspects to be considered.
(i) Security (ii) Respect from other (iii) Equal treatment (iv) Freedom and (v) Pollution free environment.

9. Why do we use average? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development. (Conceptual Understanding/ Information Skills)
A: * We use average for comparisons. It treats the whole as a unit.
* But there is no equity in measuring.
* There may be differences in between the different aspects in it. For example comparison of two countries.

* In the above table though the average of two countries may same. Individual incomes of the persons are so different particularly in country - B.
* So these are the some limitations to the use of average.

10. Why do you think parents accord less priority to girls education as compared to boys? Discuss in class. (Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning)
A: * In many states of our country parents give less priority to girls education as compared to boys.
* The main reason behind this is gender bias.
* Parents believe that boy is their heir and spreads their clan.
* For a long time India remained a male dominant society.
* Girls are expected to domestic work and bring up children only.
* All the parents should see the Himachal Pradesh parents and send their children to school irrespective gender bias.
* Many Himachal women are themselves employed outside the home and they expect their daughters to work outside home even after marriage.
* Education is the base for bright future for both the girls and boys.

11. Right to Education Act (RTE) declares that all children of the age 6 to 14 years have the right to free education. And the government has to ensure building of sufficient schools in the neighbourhood, appoint properly qualified teachers and make all necessary provisions. In the light of what you have read in this chapter and already know, discuss and debate the importance of this act for (i) children and (ii) human development.

A: I. The importance of the RTE to children:

* The government of India brought the right to education act 2009 and it came into force from 1st April, 2012.
* As per this act, the children of 6 to 14 age group have the right to get free education.
* As a part of this act, the government is providing school buildings, infrastructural facilities in the neighbourhood.
* Govrenment is implementing mid-day meals also.
* All schools are equipped with qualified teachers, good labs, in service training to teachers and providing other facilities also.

II. For Human Development:

* Education is the key concept of human development.
* After reading the lesson and by knowing the RTE - 2009, it is the time to send our children between the age group of 6 to 14 to schools, to get the quality education.
* If all the children are educated, automatically there may be quality in the society.

Additional Questions and Answers 

1. Read the following passage and answer the question given below.
Himachal Pradesh is the land mark of shooling revolution in Indian states. There are so many factors contributing in this development.  (Understanding and Interpretation)
Question: What are the factors contributes in development of schooling in Himachal Pradesh?
A: The reasons for the development of schooling in Himachal Pradesh are
* The school enrolment growth rate was improved in Himachal Pradesh.
* At the time of our Independence, Himacahl Pradesh also very low level of education.
* The government of Himachal Pradesh and the people were keen on educaton.

* Free educaton is introduced for 6 to 14 years children.
* They tried to ensure that all the schools had the minimum facilities of teachers, classrooms, toilets, drinking water etc.
* More schools were started, teachers were appointed etc.

2. Observe the table given below containing the literacy rates of the following states and Union Territories and comment on it. (Information Skills)

A: * The above table tells us about the literacy rates of states and union territories of India.

* According to 2001 and 2011, the highest literacy state is Kerala in 2001 (90.92%) and in 2011 93.91% of lieteracy rate.
* The decadal growth rate of Kerala is 2.99%.
* The decadal growth rate of Andhra Pradesh is 6.55%.
* The Lakshadweep is having highest literacy among the union territories. i.e. 92.28%
* Rajasthan recorded lowest gorwth rate in 2001 and 2011 also. In 2001 it recorded 61.03 and in 2011 it is  67.06% by comparing the remaining states in the table.

3. What is HDI?
A: HDI means Human Development Index. It indicates about the quality of life by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme).


4. What is adult literacy rate?
A: The rate of percentage of people aged 15 years and above, who can understand read and write a short and simple statements in their life is known as adult literacy rate.

5. Why some states are having lesser infant mortality rate?
A: Some states are having lesser infant mortality rate because they have adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.


6. What are the factors of production?
A: The factors of production are (i) Land (ii) Labour (iii) Capital and (iv) Enterprise.


7. Explain the calculation of BMI?
A: BMI (Body Mass Index) can be calculated by dividing the total weight of a person by the square of his height.

Posted Date : 07-06-2021


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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