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Indian Rivers and Water Sources

Questions - Answers

1. Create a table to describe major river system in India with the following items: direction of flow, countries or regions through which they pass through, and relief features of the areas. (Information skills)

2. What are the different inflow and outflow processes in the context of water resource?

A: The water budget of a small or large region such as a village or district depends on the inflow and outflow of water in that region.


Inflow = Precipitation + surface flow + ground water flow

* Surface flows includes rivers, streams, canals and other flows on the surface of water bodies.

* Precipitation include rainflow, snow dew, hail etc

* To estimate precipitation of an area, we take an average over many years, since precipitation varies from year to year.

* Ground water flow is difficult to estimate, but it can be done.


Evapotranspiration: The total amount of water added to the atmosphere from both evoparation and transpiration is called evapotranspiration.

Water flows out: Some amount of water would flow out of the village as surface flows through streams.

Transpiration: Trees also give off water into the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis.

* Water for agricultural use, domestic purpose and animal use.

* Water for industrial use

* Water flowing out via surface flows and ground water.

3. Make a list of challenges faced in the water resources in the Tungabhadra basin. Identify the solutions that have been discussed in the context of these problems either in this chapter or else where in different classes. (Information skills)

A: Tungabhadra is shared by the two southern states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. It is one of the tributaries of Krishna. Tungabhadra is facing some challenges and the suitable solutions are listed below.

4. Which aspects of forming practice were regulated in the context of Hiware Bazar to improve the water conservation? (Conceptual Understanding)

A: Hiware Bazar village was selected under the Adarsh Gram Yojana of Maharashtra Government. Some of the aspects they regulated to improve the water conservation.

 * Continuous Contor Trenches (CCT) were dug on the hill slopes to arrest the erosion of soil, water harvesting, and encourage the growth of grass.

*  A number of water harvesting structures were also built in the village check dams, percolation tanks, and loose boulder structure. 

* The soil and water conservation work in Hiware bazar were implemented on common land and private land.

* Social control over ground water extraction and use no borewells for irrigation, no water-intensive crops like sugarcane.

 * Ban on free grazing imposed strictly.

 * Plantations on forest lands and road sides were also part of the programme.

 * If they get good rainfall, then they can take full rabi crop, if the rain fall is less, then they bring down the area under Rabi.

 * They keep rain fall data meticulously and use it for crop planning and water use prioritisation.

5. How significant are the laws, people's actions, in the context of water resources? Write a short note based on the ideas discussed in the last two sections of the chapter. (Reading the text (given), Understanding and Interpretation)


 * Water is a collective pool resource.

 * The current laws about ground water in many states are both out dated and inappropriate.

 * The basic link between access to ground water and land ownership on which these rules are based are flawed. Land owners are not restricted in the amount of water they can take out.

 * Each farmer competes to go deeper than their neighbour and soon all tube wells upto a certain depth dry up.

 * Water use for any region, whether small water shed or river basin has to take into account all the inflows and outflows.

 * Inefficient and unfair way of water usage should be discouraged. Hiware bazar should be the role model.

 * Water resources require both collective action at the local level and appropriate laws and policies at the state and national level.

6. In what way is water bought and sold in your area and for what purpose do you think their should be some checks and balances for this? Discuss.

(Appreciation and Sensitivity and Reflection on Contemporary Issues)



* Water in our area is bought and sold for various purposes like drinking, construction and domestic purposes.

 * Water is bought in the form of municipality drinking water.

 * For agricultural purpose to get water we pay the money to the owner of boring pumps.

 * Even drinking water is purchased by using packed water.

 This can be controlled.

i) Creating awareness among the people.

ii) Using alternate resources.

Text Book Questions - Answers

1. 70% of our surface water resources are polluted. Why? (Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questions)

A:  * Surface of water pollution occurs due to discharge of pollutants in the water bodies without any treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution adversely affects not only aquatic plants and animals, but it also affects human beings and ecosystems.

 * Urban source contributes water pollutants such as sewage and garbage.

 * Industrial effluents from the industries.

 * Various types of chemicals used in the chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides.

 * Washing of animals, clothes etc.

 * Dumping solid wastes and littering by humans, in rivers, lakes and oceans.

 * Oil pollution caused by oil spills from tankers, oil does not dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge.

 * Acid rains also pollute the surface of water.

 * Fallout of radioactive substances is a very dangerous source of water pollution.

2. How would it help if there was a government river basin authority for over all planning of water use? (Appreciations and Sensitivity)

A:  There are so many conflicts regarding the use of water in between the states, regions for different uses.

 * The river basin authority measuring the quantum of water.

 * Explain the importance of water usage.

 * Allocation of water, among the states based on the rules and regulations.

 * Board can control the waste of water. 

 * Distributing water for drinking and domestic purpose.

 * The board can estimate the annual rainfall, storage, and annual flow.

 * Water conservation activities are encouraged.

 * Based on the quantum of water, the board can suggest the kinds of crops cultivation.

 * Encroachment of public lands for cultivation can be controlled.

3. What are the different conflicts in the use of water for Tungabhadra river basin? (Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questions)

A: There are various conflicts in the use of water in Tungabhadra river basin are:

 * Tungabhadra is the major tributary of the Krishna river.

 * It was constructed and it was the joint venture of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

 * The height and the water storage capacity of the river is the apple of discard between Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

 * Tribunals have given judgements on the water sharing proportions between Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

 * But it is still a burning water dispute between the states.

4. The ground water laws are both out dated and inappropriate. Explain.

A:  * Now a days, ground water has become the main source, especially for domestic use and agriculture.

 * The tremendous increase in the use of ground water has a significant impact on water availability and access to it.

 * Over extraction of water from one tube well often dries up other tube wells around.

 * The current laws about the usage of ground water in many states are both out dated and inappropriate.

 * The basic link between access to ground water and land ownership on which these rules are based, are flawed.

 * Ground water is a common pod resource. It should be made available for future generations.

 * There must be some restriction while using the ground water by land owners.

5. Look at the map of Ganga and name the states which are drained by the river Ganga. And also list out rivers which flow north and south directions.


A:  River Ganga originates from Gangotri glacier.

      The states which are drained by the river Ganga are

        (1) Uttarakhand

        (2) Uttarpradesh

        (3) Bihar

        (4) West Bengal


1. Read the para given below and answer the following question.

[Read the para (given), Understanding and Interpretation]

Water is a common source to all. Rivers are one of the water resources. Rivers are one of the main economic contributor to the GDP in India. The rivers are useful many ways to the mankind. These are used for agricultural purpose, domestic purpose, for industrial usage and for fishing etc.

Q: What role do the rivers play in our economy?

A: Rivers are important for the country's economy, because of the following reasons.

 * Agriculture is the main occupation to the Indians. The rivers are one of the water sources to agriculture.

 * For domestic usage, rivers are useful well.

 * Rivers carry the silt and sediment which make the floods. Plains, fertile and provide the most productive agriculture lands in the country.

 * Most of the industries are depend on rivers. Because rivers are generating power and as means of transport.

 * Recreation, tourist promotion and fishing are also being developed along the water flows.

2. What are the four bandis of Hiware Bazar?

A: The four bandis were made famous by the Ralegan Siddhi experience. The bandis are

     * Kurhad bandi (means ban on falling trees)

     * Charai bandi (ban of tree grazing)

     * Nas bandi (family planning)

     * Nasha bandi (ban on liquor)

3. How the dairy industry developed in Hiware Bazar?

A:  In Hiware bazar dairy was developed

 * Loans have been given to small farmers.

 * As a result, the number of milk animals in the village has increased.

 * Fodder availability has been increased due to better productivity.

 * Hence the milk production has witnessed a more than 20 fold increase from 140 to 3000 litres per day.

4. What are the water sources of your village/ town?

A: The main water sources of my village/ town are 

   * Borewells

   * Public taps (purified water through pipelines) through Panchayat or Municipality

   * Water tanks (mostly in rainy season) for agriculture purpose and animal usage.

   * Through under the government schemes 20 litres per Rs.2 only.

5. What are the Himalayan rivers?

A:  The three major river system arise from the Himalays. They are

* The Ganga river system

* The Brahmaputra river system and

* The Indus river system

6. What are the features of perennial rivers?
 These are seasonal.

* They flow through the shallow valleys.

* They always flow straight and linear courses.

Posted Date : 21-04-2021


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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