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Questions - Answers

1. Compare and contrast the migration from rural to urban area and rural to rural area.


2. Do you think migrants are trouble Makers/ trouble shooters in their destinations? Justify your answer.
A: i) Yes. I think migrants are trouble makers.
ii) Basically migration takes place to earn livelihood. No migrant wants to be a trouble maker or trouble shooter.

iii) In longer course, the migrants challenges locals in every field of opportunities like jobs settlements, rights etc., the locals feel insecurity as they face severe competition from migrants from every opportunity.
iv) For example the migrants from Bangladesh to Assom, the Tamil millitants in Srilanka are posing troubles.
v) Some of the migrants who came from North India engage in robbery and murders for money.
vi) Initially the migrants are not (in the beginning) trouble makers. In due course to prove their identity they became trouble makers.


3. Most children of migrant families became drop-outs. Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer. (Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning)
A: i) Yes. I agree with this statement.
ii) Basically migration takes place for livelihood.
iii) When family migrates, children also accompany them to their destinations.
iv) Migration of families to other places emerged out to be one of the most prominent reasons of school dropout.

v) It is very difficult to re-admit the children in other schools without transfer certificates. Even though they admitted it is not confirmed.
vi) Finally most of the children became dropouts.


4. Why are only professionals are able to go to developed countries? Why can not unskilled workers migrate to these countries? (Reflection on Contemporary Issues and Questioning)
A: i) Professionals are needed in every part of the world.
ii) Migration of skilled human resource from less developed countries to developed countries. It called as 'Brain Drain" also.
iii) For better standards of living and quality of life, higher salaries, access to advanced technology professionals choosed the developed countries.
iv) Developed countries will not prefer the un-skilled workers because they are burden to their economy as immigrants.

5. Describe the similarities and differences between the impacts of internal and international migration. (Appreciation and Sensitivity)
A: People morv from one place (birth place) to another (work place) place for searching work for livelihood, whether it is temporary or long period is called migration.

In text questions and answers 

1. Estimated major net urban to urban inter - state migration.
Map 1: Estimated Major Net Urban to Urban Inter - State Migration Urban - Inter - State Migration: 2001 - 2011
(Mapping Skils)

A: i) The above map estimate the urban Migration to Delhi from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
ii) From Uttar Pradesh, it is about three lakhs and from Bihar it is about one lakh only.

2. Map - 2: Indicates the Rural to urban migration from Karnataka to Andhra Pradesh.
 Estimated major net rural to urban Inter - State Migration
Urban Inter - State Migration: 2001 - 2011

A: Total migration from Karnataka to Andhra Pradesh is about one lakh.

3. Map - 3: Estimated Major Inter - State Migration Streams: 2001 - 2011.


Source: IIHS Analysis based on the data from Census of India 2001, 2011 and NSS 64th Round.
A: Map - 3 indicates migration from Kerala to Tamilnadu.
The reasons for out of Migration from Kerala to Tamilnadu:
i) The main reason for out of migration are poverty, un-employment and poor wages.
ii) The main reasons for in migration are in search of better employment, for education facilities, for better opportunities in entertainment industry etc.


2. Observe the following graph and answer the questions that follow.
(Expansion of urban population in India, 1961 - 2011 (million)
Graph - 1: Expansion of Urban Population in India, 1961 - 2011 (million)


a) How would you construct a table to show the effect of migration for the entire period 1961 - 2011?

b) When people move out of rural areas which sector of the economy in the rural area losses the most number of people? Why?
A: i) Agricultural Sector losses most number of people.
ii) Rural economy depends on agriculture.
iii) Landless labourers, daily wage earners, small and marginal farmers in rural areas migrate to urban areas.

c) In urban areas, what are the common sectors of the economy in which migrants from the rural areas find employment? What are some reasons for this?
A: * Most urban migrants have to work as labourers, and find employment in the unorganised sector.
* They could be working as hawkers, painters, repair persons, rickshaw pullers, auto drivers, construction labourers etc.,
* For some people from rural areas, moving to cities, and towns to work in Industry and other service activities.



* The unorganised sector, the industrial and service sectors need on skilled labour.
* These sector activities have been recognised as a natural response to increase their income and for better family prospects.


3. Describe an example of seasonal migration of your region?
A: * Iam living in a small village of Chittor District.
* Most of my village people are agricultural labourers regularly they are searching for work.

* In summer season they are migrating far away of my village for searching work as migrants. This migration is shorter period which is three or six months only.
* My village people are migrating with in the state only.
* At some times Government is providing work as "Food for work" (is a programme).
* During the migration period, they stay in temporary shelters built by them near to field of work.


4. Draw arrow lines on a world map depicting people from India going to different countries mentioned in the passage (International Migration Passages) (Mapping Skills)

5. How would you construct a table to show the effect of Migration for the entire period 1961 - 2011? (Information Skills)
A: The following table shows the effect of migration for the entire period of 1961 - 2011.


Additional Questions and Answers 

1. What is Migration? (Conceptual Understanding)
A: The movement of people from one place to other place in search of work to feed the family is called Migration.

2. Describe the impact of International Migration on Kerala?
A: * A study has shown that nearly one fifth of total income of Kerala is accounted for by the remittance sent by its workers from the west Asia. In 1970's the average per capita consumption in Kerala was less than National Average, but after 30 years, it has increased above the National Average by 40%.
* Over 2.5 Million Keralites living outside the country contribute over 35% of the GDP of Kerala.
* In the last fiscal year, at Rs.60,000 crore, the remittances contributed to third of the state GDP.


3. What is ment by 'Kopi'? What are the living conditions there?
A: Kopi's are in the vicinity of the fields. Each family is provided with a bamboo mat and poles. Which are converted into a small colonial hut or kopi. The kopis are cramped together and bullocks are parked infront. Animals and humans live together in congested conditions.


4. Read the paragraph given below and answer the questions (Reading the text (given), understanding and interpretation)
Maharashtra is one of the popular states of India, which produce sugar. It has 186 co-operative sugar factories. Large scale sugarcane cultivation began here in the early 1970s. after the Koina dam built. A study estimates that about 6,50,000 labourers migrate from central to western Maharashtra for sugarcane cutting each year.

5. Explain the process of work of sugarcane cutters?
A: The work units move to the fields in the early hours of the morning where they cut cane throughout the day. about 1.5 ton per person. The payment rate per ton varies between Rs.80 and 100. The field is divided into strips and each strip is assigned to one work unit. The man and women cut the cane, remove the leaves, and throw it on the ground, the child takes the cane and puts it on a pile. The piles thus made are then tied into bundles, carried on the head by men and women and put on the carts.
       The men drive the carts to the factory, where they might have to wait in quae for several hours before they get to off load the cane. The women, meanwhile, walk several kilometres back to the settlement. They have to fight exhaustion all the time.


6. What are the major reasons of Population Migration in India?
A: Migration is caused by a variety of factors including Economic, Social and Political factors.
1) Economic Factors:
        People migrate in large numbers from rural to urban areas in search of employment. Urban areas provide vast scope for employment in industries, trade transport and services.

2) Social Factors:
a) Marriage is a very important social factor of Migration. Every girl has to migrate to her in-laws place of residence after marriage. Thus, the entire female population has to migrate over short or long distance.
b) Education: Rural areas, by and large, lack of educational facilities, especially those by higher education and for this purpose rural youths have to migrate to urban centres. Many of them settledown there for livelihood after completing their education.


3) Political Factors: Political disturbance and ethnic conflicts drive people away from their homes because of lack of security. Large number of people migrated out of Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and Assom during the last few years due to disturb conditions in these states.

Posted Date : 12-10-2020


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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