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National Liberation Movements in the Colonies



1. Unlike Vietnam or India, Nigeria did not have to struggle so hard for freedom. Can you find some explanations for this?

A: * Vietnam had paid great loss in the freedom struggle.

* Vietnam also faced a war with the USA in the struggle.

* India also paid great loss in the freedom struggle.

* Indians fought against the British to get freedom.

* In Nigeria a section of western educated intellectuals developed the idea of a common Nigerian nation and began to fight the British rule.

* In Nigeria, the people of different regions were fought together against the colonial power.

* Nigerian nationalism grew in popularity.

* Considering the wave of nationalism, the British decided to hand over power.

* Thus, Nigeria simply got independence from the British.

2. Trace the changes in the role of women seen in China over the decades. Why is it similar or different from that of USSR and Germany?

A: Women role in China:

* China under Chiang Kaishek was a conservative and he encouraged women to cultivate the four virtues of 'Chastity, appearance, speech and work' and recognise their role as confined to the household.

* Mao had become aware of women's problems and supported the emergence of rural women's associations, promulgated a new marriage law that forbade arranged marriages, stopped purchase or sale of marriage contracts and simplified divorce.

* The Peoples Republic of China Government also managed to enact laws to protect women, their rights and abolition of polygamy. This enabled women to assume new roles and enjoy equal status vis a vis men in various fields.

Comparing with Germany and USSR:

* During Nazi rule in Germany, they treated women were not allowed to interfere in the matter of men. They treated her, just only as giving birth to children.

* In Russia around 10000 women made a procession demanding 'peace and bread' in St.Peterburg on 8th March 1917. The women workers formed as trade unions and encouraged male workers.

* Thus in China, the role of women changed through decades. In Germany the role of women was miserable and had no importance. In Russia the women were equally treated with men.

3. What role did schooling play in national movement of the countries in China, Vietnam and Nigeria?

A: China:

* During Chiang Kaishek rule in China, Social and Cultural change was helped along by the spread of Schools and Universities. The noble Peking University was established in 1902. Journalism flourished the growing attraction of this new thinking.

* The People Republic of China Government made a massive effort for setting up adult peasant schools to spread literacy and political education was undertaken along with the land reforms. This was also accompanied by setting up of primary schools for both young children and adults in the village.


* Teachers and students of Vietnam did not blindly follow the false curriculum given by the French. While teaching, teachers and students discussed present state of Vietnam and plan to freedom.

* They were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of the society.

* Vietname students went to foreign countries to study modern education to drive out the French from Vietnam. They also formed various political parties or associations.


* The British colonial policy helped to promote modern education and administrative modernisation in the south-Nigeria.

* The educated intellectuals developed the idea of a common Nigerian nation and began to fight the British rule.

* Thus, Schooling played a vital role in national movement by way of promoting nationalism and patriotism among people in the countries China, Vietnam and Nigeria.

4. Read the following paragraph and answer the following Questions.

Pan Africanism is an idea which promotes the unity of all African peoples irrespective of country or tribe. This unity was to be used not only to fight colonialism and racial discrimination, but also to build unity among the tribes and communities inhabiting the continent based on principles of equality, social justice and human dignity. One key person in this regard was Kwame Nkrumah, a freedom fighter from Ghana.

i. What is Pan Africanism?

A: It is an idea promotes the unity of Africans irrespective of country or tribe.

ii. In what way Pan Africanism was used?

A: It was used not only to fight against colonialism and racialism but also to build the unity among tribes based on the principles of equality, social justice and human dignity.

iii. Who was Kwame Nkrumah?

A: Kwame Nkrumah was a freedom fighter from Ghana.

iv. In which Continent Ghana is located?

A: The country Ghana is located in Africa continent.

5. What are the challenges faced by the independent Nigerian nation? In what ways is it similar or different from the challenges faced by Independent India?

A: Nigeria became Independent on 1st October, 1963. The following problems are faced by the independent Nigeria.

* Unfortunately a just and democratic balance could not be worked out and soon Nigeria slipped into civil war and military rule which largely reinforced the domination of the north.

* Corruption and suppression of human rights went hand in hand with collaboration between the military regime and multinational Oil Corporations which funded the corrupt rulers.

* The reckless oil extraction without care for the environment by foreign oil companies has created havoc in coastal environment.

* Oil spillage from oil wells has a major impact on the ecosystem.

* An estimated 5-10% of Nigerian mangrove ecosystems have been wiped out either by clearing or oil.

* Spills destroy crops and aqua culture through contamination of the groundwater and soils.

* Contamination of drinking water also leads to health disorders of the Nigerians.

* In many ways it is different from the challenges faced by the independent India. The following challenges faced by independent India at the time of early Independence.

    a) refugees problem

    b) poverty and unemployment

    c) merging of states into Indian union

* But the government is stable in India, the co-ordination between the government and the military also ideal.

6. Compare the National Movement in India and Nigeria - Can you explain why it was stronger in India.

A: Both India and Nigeria fought against the British. The British followed 'Divide and Rule' policy in both the countries. We can study their national movement in a comparative analysis.

The National Movement in India was stronger than Nigeria because..

1. The strong leadership of Gandhi, who followed the great principles of Satyagraha, Non-violence etc.,

2. Gandhiji made it with the involvement of mass.

3. Indians not cooperated and fought against the British.

4. The feeling of nationalism was inculcated into the minds of all Indians as they were more educated and civilised.

7. Study the following map and answer the Questions.


MAP INDEX: 1. Pink colour : British colonies

                           2. Blue colour : French colonies

                           3. Light Brown : Holland colonies

                           4. Light Red : Independent countries

1. Identify one Asian, one African colony of Britain.

A: Britain's Asian colonies - India, Srilanka Britain's African colonies - Nigeria, South Africa.

2. Whose colony was Vietnam?

A: Vietnam was colony of France.

3. Whose colonies were more and whose were less?

A: Britain's colonies were more in number and Holland's colonies were less in number.

4. Identify any two countries that were not colonies of any power.

A: China, Philippines, Thailand, Ethiopia were independent countries.


1. How was it possible for a small country like Vietnam to stand up the might of USA?

A: * Vietnam people had a great nationalism and patriotism towards their nation.

* USA underestimated the defensive power of Vietnamese.

* USA underestimated the commitment of the lakhs of poor peasants.

* These peasants inspired by nationalism and enthused by land reforms played the most crucial role in defeating the mightiest army in the world.

2. What were the similarities and differences between the landreforms carried out in China and India?

A: Similarities:

* The basic objectives of landreforms in China and India were uniform.

* Both countries were facing difficulties in implementation of land reforms as they are agricultural countries.


* The implementation of land reforms in China was with more speed and effectively than India.

* China confiscated the fertile land from land lords and villagers whereas India confiscated waste-lands.

3. Write about May 4th Movement in China?

A: * May 4th Movement was protest against Versailles Treaty.

* It demanded that China had to get back the territories seized from it by Japan during the First World War time.

* It galvanised a whole generation to attack old tradition and to call for saving China through modern science, democracy and nationalism.

* Revolutionaries called for driving out the foreigners, who were controlling the country's resources, to remove inequalities and reduce poverty.

4. Write a short-note on Chiang Kaishek.

A: * After the death of Sun-Yat-sen, Chiang Kaishek emerged as the leader of the Guomindang as he launched a military campaign to control the 'Warlords', regional leaders.

* He had usurped authority to militarise the nation and to eliminate the communists.

* Chiang was a conservative and he encouraged women to cultivate the four virtues of 'Chastity, appearance, speech and work and recognise their role as confined to the household.

* He also tried to suppress the trade union movement to encourage factory owners.

* He said, the people must develop a 'habit and instinct for unified behaviour'.

5. What were the evil practices against women in China?

A: The following problems were faced by the women in China.

* The Practice of foot-binding (a cruel practice of not allowing women to have fully grown feet).

* The sub-ordination of women and inequalities in marriage.

* Purchase or sale of marriage contracts.

* In favour of marriage and divorce laws to the women.

6. Why were the railways and canals developed in Vietnam by the French?

A: * The colonial economy in Vietnam was primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber plantations owned by the French.

* Much of Vietnam products were sent to France.

* This was followed by infrastructure projects to help transport goods for trade, more military garrisons and control the entire region.

* Vietnam also provided a good market for manufactured goods of French and it became the third largest rice exporter of the world.

* To help transports these raw materials and manufactured goods, the French built a network of roads, canals and railways.

7. Write about Ho-Chi-Minh.

A: * Ho-Chi-Minh, in February 1930, brought together competing nationalist groups to establish the Vietnamese Communist Party.

* He defeated the French during 1946-54 and won independence of North-Vietnam.

* He was the President of North - Vietnam from 1954.

* He implement land reforms successfully as the land of landlords was confiscated and distributed among the land hungry landless peasants and poor peasants.

8. Write about Sun-Yat-sen.

A: * The Manchu empire was overthrown and a republic established in 1911 under Sun-Yat-sen (1886-1925) who is regarded as the founder of modern China.

* He became the President of Provincial Republic in Nanking.

* His programme was called three principles - Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism.

* His ideas became the basis of the political philosophy of the KMT or the Guomidang Party. Through this party, he setup a constitutional government in Canton. But he died of sick in 1925 in pecking before the unification of China.

9. Write a short-note on Mao Zedong (or) Mao-Tse-Tung.

A: * Mao Zedong (1893 - 1976), who emerged as a major China communist Party leader, took a different path by raising his revolutionary programme on the peasantry.

* He organised the Chinese Peasants to fight against the landlordism and built an army of peasants.

* He led the Long March (1934 - 35)-6000 miles to Shanxi to skip the Guomindang government's blockade of the communists.

* He became the first President of peoples Republic of China and followed by the confiscation and redistribution of landlord's land and other productive property.


1. What is Agent Orange and why is it so called?

A: Agent Orange is a defoliant, a plant killer, so called because it was stored drums marked with an orange band.

2. Name the countries which form the Indo-China?

A: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia.

3. Who was Ken Saro Wiwa?

A: Ken Saro Wiwa was an eminent human rights activist and environmentalist and was executed by the military government despite International protests.

4. What were the three principles of Sun-Yat-sen?

A: San, Min, Chui (Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism) were the three principles of Sun-Yat-sen.

5. What were the four great needs recognised by CCP and KMT in China?

A: They identified the 'four great needs' as clothing, food, housing and transportation.

6. Write about Long March?

A: Mao Zedong conducted Long March (1934-35)-6,000 gruelling and difficult miles to Shanxi. It was taken up against the Guomindang blockade of Communist Soviet.

7. What were the virtues of women as said by Chiang Kaisheik?

A: Chiang Kaisheik encouraged women to cultivate the four virtues of "Chastity, Appearance, Speech and Work".

8. What was Viet Minh?

A: The Viet Minh was a revolutionary national liberation movement to seek the independence for Vietnam from France as well as the Japanese occupation. When the Viet Minh came to power in August 1945, implemented land reforms successfully.

9. What are the tribes of Nigeria?

A: Hausa fulani, Yoruba and Igbo are the main races in Nigeria.

10. Write three Nigerian Regional Parties which led their own anti-colonial movements in their regions.

A: The conservative Northern People's Congress (NPC) in the north.

The National Council for Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) in the east.

The Action Group (AG) in the west.

11. What is Pan-Africanism?

A: Pan-Africanism is an idea which promotes the unity of all African people irrespective of country or tribe.

12. Write a Short-note on Biafran War. (SHORT ANSWER QUESTION)

A: * Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a secessionist state in south-eastern Nigeria that existed from 30 May 1967 to 15th January 1970.

* The inhabitants of Biafra, were mainly the Igbo people who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria.

* The creation of the new state that was pushing for recognition was among the causes of the Nigerian Civil war, also known as the Nigerian Biafran War.

* After two-and-a-half years of war, during which a million civilians died in fighting and from famine Biafran forces agreed to a ceasefire and it was reintegrated into Nigeria.

Posted Date : 27-10-2021


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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