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 Under the british rule all sections of Indians were affected by their exploitive policies. The Growth of consciousness among various sections of Indians of having been exploited by a colonial power contributed to the rise and growth of nationalism.
Early Political Associations  With the failure of 1857 revolt, the politically conscious Indians felt the need for starting a new type of Nationalist political organisation. In 1866, Dadabhai Naoroji organised the first Indian Political Association. In 1870, Justice Govinda Ranade, and others organised 'Poona sarvjanik sabha'. Surendranath Benerjee and others formed the Indian Association in 1876. In 1885 Feroz shah Mehta, Justice Telang and others formed the bombay presidency Association in Bombay.
  The leaders of the Early Political Association felt the need for an all India Organization for a common programme of activity with a view to create a broad based freedom struggle. It was this feeling that brought the birth of 'Indian National Congress' in 1885.
       The Bombay group of Nationalists in co-operation with A.O. Hume, an English retired civil servant worked to bring together at Bombay in December 1885, the political leaders from different parts of the country. These leaders decided to start the Indian National Congress. It's first session was held at Bombay between 28 to 31 December 1885. 72 Delegates from all over India attended session and W.C. Benerjee presided over the first Congress session.
National movement - Three phases:
The Indian National Movement is broadly divided into three phases:
1) The Moderate phase of Nationalism (1885 - 1905)
2) The Extremist phase of Nationalism (1905 - 1919)
3) The Gadhian phase of Nationalism (1919 - 1947)
Moderate phase:
       During the moderate phase, the National leaders adopted methods such as holding meetings, passing resolutions, sending petitions and expressing protests. They led a peaceful and non-violent struggle against the British. It was due to moderate methods adopted by them that this phase is called the 'Moderate phase' of Indian national movement.
       The most prominent leaders of this phase were Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Feroz shah Mehta, Dadabhai Naoroji... etc., their main demands were....
1) To establish representative bodies 
2) To establish indian council
3) To grant individual liberty
4) To reduce military expenditure
5) To separate judiciary from executive
6) To aid Indian industries.
       Moderates believed and followed constitutional methods. They could not get any substantial concession from the British, for the struggle that they have put up for a long period of 20 years.This made lot of younger elements in Congress dissatisfied and they broke away from the Congress and started the extremists wing with more radical methods.
Extremist Phase:
       The main objective of the Extremists was the attainment of Swaraj or Independence. The methods of the extremists were passive resistance, Non - cooperation with British, promotion of 'Swadeshi' and boycott of foreign goods. The important leaders of the extremist phase were Balagangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajapath Rai, Bipin Chadrapal and Aurobindo Ghosh. The 'Vandemataram Movement' was launched in response to the partition of Bengal in 1905 by Lord Curzon. Swadeshi and Boycott were also organised as a part of this movement.

Mahatma Gandhi - Indian National Movement:
       In Inidan freedom struggle, Gandhi's role was predominant. Between 1893 to 1914, Gandhiji engaged himself in a heroic struggle against the racist authorities in South Africa. It was during this long struggle lasting for two decades that he involved the technique of 'Satyagraha' based on truth and non-violence. The ideal Satyagrahi was to be truthful and perfectly peaceful but at the same time, he would refuse to submit to what he considered wrong.
    Gadhiji returned to India in 1915 at the age of 46. He decided first to study the conditions in India before deciding the field of his work. In 1916, he founded the 'Sabarmati Ashram' at Ahmadabad, where his followers taught to practice the ideas of Truth and 'Non - violence'. He successfully conducted the agitations of Champaran Satygraha, Non - cooperation movement and 'Salt - Satygraha'... etc. He actively participated in Round table confernene - II and demanded ''Poorna Swaraj''.

1935 Indian Government Act:
       In 1935, British Parliament made indian Government Act. According to this, elections may be held in provinces and governments may be formed by parties that war in the elections. But, the right to vote was given to a small section of the population. When elections were held to the assemblies of the all provinces of British India in 1937, congress won a comprehensive victory. Eight out of eleven provinces had a congress ''Prime Minister", working under the supervision of a British Governor. A difficult question arose before the Congress leaders. Should they help the British in fighting the Second World War against Germany, Japan, Italy and other Axis powers. British had not even consulted them before deciding that India will participate in the war.
       The British were willing to give India dominion status under the British crown some time after the war but the Congress wanted a promise of full freedom. The Congress also demanded that setup the national government at centre but the British objected it. The Congress was upset at the obstinacy of the british and decided to walk out of the provincial governments. All Congress ministries resigned in October 1939 after having come to power in 1937.
The British Policy: 'Divide and Rule'
       The British were desperate with the Indian people revolting against their rule. They looked for ways to punish the Congress and weaken its hold over the people. The British actively raised doubts about the right of the Congress to represent the people of the country. Now, they followed the Divide and Rule Policy more vigorously. Towards this end, the British government supported and encouraged the plans of the muslim league and down played the importance of the Congress. 

The Muslim League:
       The Muslim League was a party formed in 1906. Till the 1930s it mainly represented the interests of muslim landlords of Uttarpradesh and did not have much mass support. It had demanded that the British should create separate seats in all councils for which only muslims would vote. It had argued that since the majority people in many areas were Hindus, more Hindus are likely to get elected to councils and Muslims will find it difficult to protect their interests in government. The British government implemented separate electorates for muslims from 1909. Gradually, it was turned as muslims voice.
The Hindu Mahasabha and the RSS
       These two organizations took iniative to mobilise the Hindus, overcome the divisions of caste and sect and reform their social life. Many Congress men were also impressed with the activities of these organisations. Congress argued that Hindus and Muslims were not people of two different nations, but part and parcel of one Indian nation. However the British were eagerly listening to the fear of the league about Hindu domination and suggesting ways to make the muslims secure.

The "Pakistan" Resolution: 
       Mohammad Iqbal the writer of "Sare Jahan se Achhe Hidustan Hamara ..." spoke of a need for "North West Indian Muslim state", in his presidential address to the muslim league in 1930. The name Pakistan or pak-stan (from Punjab, Afghan, Kashmir, Sind and Balochistan) was coined by a Punjab muslim student at Cambridge, Choudhry Rehmat Ali.
       As note before, the failure of Congress to address the fears of domination fanned by muslim league and the policy of 'Divide and Rule' followed by the British changed the political climate. On 23rd march 1940, the league moved a resolution demanding a measure of autonomy of the Muslim majority areas of the sub-continent. However, in later years it came to be called Pakistan resolution. The Congress also found it difficult to accommodate the demands of M.A.Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League. From 1940 to 1946, The League was able to convince Muslim masses of the benefits and need for a separate nation. From 1942 to 1945, with most Congress leaders in jail. The League made use of the time to build its mass base.

Quit India Movement (1942):
       In the spring of 1942, Prime Minister Churchill was persuaded to send one of his ministers, Sir Stafford Cripps, to India to try and forge a compromise with Gandhiji and the Congress. After the failure of the Cripps mission, Gandhi decided to launch his "Quit India" movement, which began in August 1942. Although Gandhiji was jailed at once, younger activists organised strikes and acts of sabotage all over the country. The British respond with much force yet it look more than a year to suppress the rebellion.

Subash Chandra Bose - INA:
       Originally the Indian National Army (INA) was conceived by Mohan sigh, an Indian officer of British Indian Army. The real force to INA was added with the joining of Subash Chandra Bose in 1943. He reached Singapore with the help of German and Japanese sub-marines. He set up head quarters of INA at Rangoon and Singapore. He set up a provisional government of free India at Singapore.
       However, Gandhi did not agree with the plan of Bose and felt that the Japanese cannot be the liberators of India. But Subhash persisted in his chosen path and led an army of Indian soldiers to fight alongside the Imperial Army of Japan against the British for almost three years. The Allied powers regained control and eventually won the Second World War. Bose's INA was defeated by the British Army. In the aftermath of this, it is not certain whether Bose disappeared or died.

The Popular Upsurge (1946 - 48):
       On 18th February 1946, the guards or Ratings of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay harbour came out on hunger strike to protest against bad food and behaviour of their British officers. The strike rapidly spread to other naval men on the Bombay shore and to all the naval bases in India. 78 ships, 20 shore establishments, and 20,000 Ratings took part in the strike. Hundreds of students, both Hindus and Muslims, came out on the streets of Bombay to support the cause and clashed with the police and the army.
       An agitation was started in Bengal by small and poor peasants who took land of the bigger landowners to cultivate. They demanded than their share of harvest should be increased to two portions out of three instead of half or even less, that was given to them at that time. This was called the Tebhaga movement and was led by the Provincial Kisan Sabha.

A Possible Alternative to Partition:
       In March 1946 the British Cabinet sent a three member mission, Stafford Cripps, Pethic Lawrence, A.V. Alexander to examine the League's demand and to suggest a suitable framework for a free India. It toured the country for three months and recommended a loose three-tier confederation but India was to remain united. It's proposals were rejected by Congress and Muslim League.
       The formal transfer of power from British Government to Pakistan would be done on 14th and to India it would be done on the 15th of August, 1947. This solution was the only workable solution to end the year of riots, bloodshed and hatred that was engulfing the people.

Partition and Migrations:
       With the creation of a Muslim nation, Pakistan a painful and unimaginable situation arose before many people. Most Hindus living on one side of the newly drawn border became insecure and felt forced to leave. So did many Muslims living on the other side of this newly drawn border. Not all may have wanted this, not all may have understood why this was happening. They felt anger and hatred against each other for being forced to move out of their homes, villages and cities. Around 1.5 crore people, both Hindu and Muslim, were displaced. They killed, looted and burnt. Gandhiji moved amongst riot hit people, in camps and hospitals, spreading the message of peace and brotherhood. He fasted and did not celebrate on the first Independence day.
       At the initiative of Gandhiji and Nehru, the Congress now passed a resolution on "the rights of minorities". The party had never accepted the "two-nation theory", forced against its will to accept partition, it still believed that "India is land of many religions and many races, and must remain so". Whatever be the situation in Pakistan, India would be "a democratic secular state" where all citizens enjoy full rights and are equally entitled to the protection of the state, irrespective of the religion to which they belong.

Assassination of Gandhi:
       Gandhi was unhappy with the massive communal frenzy in north-western India and tried to calm fears. Yet, sections of the people were annoyed with Gandhi and his role in Indian politics then. They tried to kill him. Finally, less than six months after Independence, the father of the nation fell to three bullets while going out for his all religion prayer in the evening of 30th January, 1948. His assassin, Nathuram godse fled the scene of crime and was later apprehended at Bombay.

Integration of states:
       When the British declared Independence to India, it also declared freedom to more than 550 princely states along with India and Pakistan. These princely states were outside the British Indian Dominion. British gave to these princely states there own independent decision to chalk out there future course. They were left free to join either of the states or to remain as separate independent states. Almost all princely states except Kashmir, Hyderabad state and Junagadh, decided to join Indian Union.

    Vallabai Patel, the first Home Minister of Independent India, played a key role integration of princely states. He Discussed with princely states to join in Indian union. The people of Junagadh rose in revolt. The Government was forced to take over the control of Junagadh. The Nizam of Hyderabad to remain Independent. But Indian Government took to police action. The Nizam's forces surrendered to the Indian troops. The Nizam state acceded into Indian Union. Pakistan encouraged people in Kashmir and also threatened to invade Jammu and Kashmir. At that movement, the Maharaja of Kashmir appealed to Indian Union and signed the instrument of accession. The Indian troops Occupied Jammu and Kashmir and thus it became a part of India.

       The modern India you know thus came into being in 1947, it was a poor nation with low human development indicators and bad infrastructural facilities. Colonialism had in two centuries blocked the development of the country and tried to devaste the self-confidence of its people. Building a modern self-dependent and equitable nation in India was both a challenge and an opportunity.

* India's National Movement briefly divided into three parts, namely the moderate Age (1885 - 1905), Extremists Age (1905 - 1919) and the Gandhian Age (1919 - 1947).
* Moderates policies were "pray-petition-protest". They were W.C. Benerjee, Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopalakrishna Gokhale etc, the extremists believed violentic policies and they were Lala Lajapath Roy, Bala Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandrapal.
* Under the leadership of Gandhi, we got Independence. He followed non-violence, Satyagraha policies. He organised many programmes to counter the British Government for Independence. Non-cooperation movement, Civil disobedience movement, Quit India movement were important programmes during this period.
* British Government also introduced many programmes to check the our national leaders activities. The British Parliament passed 1935 Act, which gave Indians right to rule themselves by conducting elections.
* British Government wanted to give India Dominion status under the British crown after the Second World War, but our National leaders demanded the promise of complete freedom.
* British Government planned to check the Indian freedom movement by way of dividing our leaders on the basis of religion. British encouraged Muslims to demand separate state for Muslims.
* By the encouragement of Britishers, "Muslim League" was formed and it's spreaded separatism concept among Muslims. Muslim League's leader Mohamad Ali Zinna strongly demanded for separate Muslim state, Pakistan.
* The Hindu Mahasabha and RSS were tried to establish national consciousness among Indians by way of strengthening our cultural basis.
* The Muslim League took a resolution for Pakistan on 1940, March 23rd. It was also organised programmes for separate Muslim country, Pakistan.
* Congress argued Hindus and Muslims were not people of two different nations but part of one nation that is India.
* In 1942, the British sent sir Stafford Cripps negotiate with Gandhiji but the negotiations were failed.
* In 1942, Gandhi decided to organise final mass movement called 'Quit India' with the slogan of "Do or Die".
* Subash Chandra Bose also planned to fight against British with the help of the Germany and other its allied powers. But unfortunately Germany defeated in the Second World War. His army INA was defeated by the British Army.
* In 1946, the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay labour came out on hunger strike to protest against bad treatment.
* In March 1946, the British Government sent the Cabinet Mission of 3 ministers to examine the Indian political situation.
* Muslim League called for "Direct Action Day" on 16th August 1946 for its separate nation demand.
* The last Governor - general of British India Lord Mount Batten announced that British India would be free and also divided.
* The formal transfer of power from British Government to Pakistan would be done on 14th and to India it would be done on the 15th of August 1947.

* The newly formed countries were facing the problem of migrations. People in both sides were felt anger and hatred against each other for being forced to move out of their homes.
* In less than six months of Independence, "Father of Nation", Mahatma Gandhi was assasinated on 30th January 1948 by Nathuram Godse.
* The First Deputy Prime Minister of Independent India, Sardar Vallabhai Patel took responsibility to make all princely states to join in Indian Union.

Posted Date : 16-11-2020


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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