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The Making of Independent India's Constitution



1. Describe the Unitary and Federal Principles of Indian Government as discussed in the Constituent Assembly debates?

A. Unitary Principles of Indian Government:

* The Constitution declared India as 'Union of States'.

* The Central Legislature has more powers.

* Single Citizenship is allowing in the country.

* Single and integrated judiciary is existed in the country.

* There is a common all India Civil Services (IAS, IPS...) to fill up all the key posts in the Government.

* The Residual Powers are allocated to the Central Government.

Federal Principles:

* There is a powers distribution between the Central and the State Governments.

* The Constitution is Supreme in the Country. The Governments should follow the Constitution and obey its laws.

* Indian Constitution is written-Constitution.

* The Independent Judiciary has Judicial review power to stop the anti- Constitutional laws.

2. Write about the basic principles of Indian Constitution.

A: Indian Constitution had been implemented on January 26th 1950.

The basic principles of the Constitution of India are as follows:

Parliamentary System: India is the biggest country which is following Parliamentary Democracy system in the world.

Fundamental Rights: Every Indian has entitled to enjoy six fundamental Rights.

Fundamental Duties: Every Indian should follow the ten fundamental duties.

Single Citizenship: According to the Indian Constitution we have single Citizenship only.

Federal System: Indian Constitution divided powers between the centre and the states.

Judicial Independence: Indian Judiciary is independent. It protects Indian Constitution. It has 'Judicial review' also.

Directive Principles: Indian Constitution provides guidelines to the central and state governments.

Universal Adult Franchise: Indian Constitution provides right to vote to the citizens of India, who attain 18 years of age.

3. How has the Constitution defined and changed political institutions in the Country?

A: The Indian Constitution extract many political Systems from other countries  and edited as per our needs.

* Our Constitution prepared Parliamentary form of government and its protections. The head of the government is Prime-Minister.

* Constitution mentioned both Federal and unitary features. It make India as a strong centre with Federal States.

* The head of the federal state is President, who is titular head. The real powers are vested in the hands of Prime-Minister and his council of ministers.

* U.S. Constitution gives dual citizenship whereas in India follows single citizenship only.

* Constitution suggest uniform and independent judiciary rather than US dual System of Judiciary.

* It provides political equality, equal justice through universal Adult Franchise.

* Our Constitution gives importance to secularism.

* Elections to the legislative bodies, working of all political establishments is carried out as per the Constitution.

4. Read the following, comprehend it and answer the question given below.

The makers of Indian Constitution confronted the fact that Indian society was ridden with inequality, injustice, and deprivation and was victim of colonial policies which had exploited its economy. Jawaharlal Nehru said the Constituent Assembly represents, "the nation on a move throwing away the shell of its past political and possibly social structure and fashioning for itself a new garment in its own making".

Q: Comment on what way Indian Constitution helpful to Social change or Social Engineering?

A: The Constitution has many provisions facilitating social change.

* Article 17 of the Indian Constitution bans untouchability.

* The Constitution provides reservations for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in jobs and educational Institutions.

* Certain seats are reserved for SCs and STs in Parliament so that they can be the part of the administration.

* Directive Principles of state policy directs the government to make acts on social welfare programmes for weaker sections.

* Fundamental Rights meant for the individual development and Directive Principles for welfare of the society.

* And also several protections are given to minorities.

* Several programmes and reforms were launched to the poor and land less people to combat poverty and employment in rural areas.

5. Write any four opinions that are being raised in the constituent Assembly about 'Untouchability'.

A: Different Intellectual people have raised different opinions regarding the word untouchability'. They are...

Mr. Promatha Ranjan Thakur: Untouchability in any form is abolished. I do not understand how you can abolish untouchability without abolishing the very caste system. Untouchability is nothing but the symptom of the disease.

S.C.Benerjee: We should make no distinction between untouchability and caste distinction. Untouchability is merely a symptom, the root cause is caste distinction and unless and until the root cause, that is caste distinction is removed.

Rohin Kumar Chowdhury: Untouchability means any act committed in exercise of discrimination on grounds of religion, caste or lawful vocation of life.

Mr. Direndra Nath Datta: Untouchability in any form offence. Magistrates or judges dealing the offences differ the meaning of untouchability. I take it that the Union legislature will define the word 'untouchability' so that the courts might prescribe proper punishment.

6. Observe the following diagram which shows the Constitutional amendments during 1951-2013. And you answer the questions given below.

i. In which year the highest Constitutional Amendments had been done?

A: 1971-80 and 1981-90

ii. When did the Constitution of India Implement?

A: 1950 January 26th.

iii. How many the total Constitutional Amendments had done during 1951-2013?

A: 99

iv. In which decade minimum Constitutional Amendments had done?

A: 1951-60

2 Marks - Short Answer Questions

1. Describe briefly the amendment process of the Indian Constitution.

A. * Amending the articles in the Constitution can be initiated only by the Parliament.

* It needs the approval of 2/3 members in both the houses of Parliment-Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha.

* Some articles may be amended only with acceptance from the states legislatures as well.

* It is further necessary that the President of the country also approves the new amendment bill like other laws.

2. How and who are critiquing in the Constitutional Assembly Debates.

A: * There are many criticisms on the draft Constitution. They are...

Maulana Hasrat Mohani: He argued that Constitution is merely a copy of the 1935 Act.

Damodhar Swarup Seth: He pointed out that draft does not adopt from more recent Constitutions of the time like Soviet Union, ignores the centrality of villages in the Indian context and give more emphasis on centralisation of

3. What are the duties or purpose of the Constitution?

A: * Constitution has outlining the role and rights of citizens.

* Structure and powers of the government and its organs like executive, legislature and judiciary etc.,

* Indicating the nature of future society which has to built by the joint efforts of the state and the society.

* The Constitution thus essentially maps the framework for the future highlighting how the current situation needs to be modified to move forward.

4. What is meant by Federalism?

A: A Federal Constitution is marked:

* By the existence of a central polity and subsidiary polities side by side.

* By each being Sovereign in the field assigned to it.

* In other words, Federalism means the establishment of a dual system of government central and state.

5. What are the common basic principles, across the Supreme Court Judges in Keshavananda Bharati Case, appreciate by you?

A: While there have been different opinions on what Constitutes the basic principles across judges a common listing could include the following...

1) Form of the government

2) Federal Character

3) Supremacy of the Constitution

4) Sovereignty of the nation

5) Provisions for Justice

6) Welfare state

6. While Constitution provides basic principles it is the engagement of people with the system that brings in social change. Do you agree with the statement, give reasons.

A: Yes, I agree with this statement. Because...

* If people do not come forward to make use of the facilities given to them by Constitution, we cannot expect any change.

* The aims of the Constitution fulfil only when the people utilise the opportunities and provisions, which are providing for social change.

* In our Political system Social Justice is one of the important basic principle.

* Awareness should be brought among the people so that the ideals are realised.

1 Mark - Very Short Answer Questions

1. The Constitution of India begins with the statement -- "We the people of India..." Do you think this claim to represent all the people of India was justified?

A: Yes, it was justified.

2. Liberty is gifted us by our Constitution. Mention the basic ideals like liberty of Indian Constitution.

A: Equality and Secularism...

3. What terms coined by the Indian Constitution Preamble to describe India?

A: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution declares India to a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic and Republic.

4. What is the name of Japanese Parliament?

A: National Diet.

5. Write only any two members names of Constituent Assembly?

A: Dr. Babu Rejendraprasad, K.M.Munshi, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar, S.C.Benerjee..

6. How many articles and schedules in the Draft Constitution?

A: 315 Articles and 8 Schedules.

7. "There is a dual citizenship in India." Is it right or wrong, give reason.

A: Wrong. India has single citizenship.

8. What were the two terms joined to Preamble of Indian Constitution in 1970?

A: Socialist and Secular

9. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy?

A: Guidelines provided to the Central and State Governments of India, to be kept in mind while framing laws and policies.

10. What do you understand by welfare state?

A: A country which strive to provide health facilities, educational facilities women and child welfare and social security is called a welfare state.

11. How many days drafting committee took to draft our Constitution?

A: The Drafting Committee took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to draft our Constitution.

12. Is India a 'Republic State'?

A: Yes, India is a Republic State because the head of our country is elected by the people either directly or indirectly.

13. What are the organs of the Government?

A: Executive, Legislative and Judiciary are the organs of the government.

14. Why is the Preamble very important?

A: It is important as it contains the ideals and basic principles of the Constitution.

15. Expand IAS and IPS.

A: IAS - Indian Administrative Service

IPS - Indian Police Service

Posted Date : 12-02-2021


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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