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Questions - Answers

1. Describe India's climate controls. (Conceptual understanding)

A: The factors that affect climate are called climatic controls. Those are

    (i) Latitude              (ii) Land-Water relationship

    (iii) Relief and         (iv) Upper air circulation.

i) Latitude: 

a) The intensity of temperature depends upon the latitude.

b) The Lower latitudes receive more insolation than the higher latitudes.

c) So, as we move away from the equator towards the poles, the average annual temperature decreases.

e.g.: The climate of Kanyakumari is entirely different from that of Delhi.

ii) Land and water relationship:


a) The ocean absorbs and loses that more slowly than land.

b) This lead to the formation of land and sea breezes.

c) Due to the effect of the sea the places situated on coast line experience moderate climates.

e.g.: Visakhapatnam is cooler than Guntur.

iii) Relief:


a) Temperature decreases as latitude increases.

b) Hence, hills and Mountains will have lower temperature than locations on the plain.

c) Therefore, relief or altitude of a region influences the climate of the area.

e.g.: Shimla, Nainital, Darjeeling etc.

iv) Upper air circulation:

a) The upper air circulation causes permanent winds.

b) They blow permanently from high pressure areas to low pressure areas and affect the climate.

c) The climate of India affected by the movement of upper air currents.

2. How are human activities contributing global warming?

(Reflection on contemporary issues and questions)


A: * Global warming is the increase of earth's average surface temperature due to the effect of green house gases.

* More and more green house gases are released due to industrialisation.

* Burning fossil fuels like coal to generate power to run Industries is one of the human activities.

* Release of chloro fluoro carbons also leads to global warming.

* Deforestation is also one of the human activities which contributes global warming.

* Emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by burning petrol and gas in automobiles is one more human activity.

* Using aero sols, refrigiration, Air conditioning etc also indirectly contribute to global warming.

3. What are disagreements between 'developed' and 'developing' countries about AGW?

A: * The current global warming trend is called AGW (Anthropogenic Global Warming) Anthropogenic means caused by humans.

* An international organization called "Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed to address the issues to reduce the emissions of green house gasses between developed and developing countries in 2013.

* Developed countries wants developing countries to cut down on burning coal and other activities that added green house gases to the atmosphere.

* Developing countries argue that developed countries developed precisely by burning fossil fuels in their development and their economic development will be seriously damaged, if they don't burn fossil fuels.

* Developing countries also argue that developed countries should do their fair share of work to find alternatives that can help the developing countries to progress.

4. On an out line Map of India. Show the following.

i) Areas recorded with more than 40oC annual mean temperature.

ii) Areas recorded with annual mean temperature less than 10oC.

iii) The directions of the south-west monsoons over India.

A: (i), (ii)




5. Observe the following climograph and answer the following questions.

(Information Skills)

Questions and Answers:

A) Which month received highest Rainfall?

A: August received highest rainfall.

B) Which month experience highest and lowest temperatures?

A: Highest Temperature - May

Lowest Temperature - December

C) Why is the Maximum amount of rainfall between June and October?

A: Due to South-West Monsoons which blow between June to October we receive maximum amount of rainfall.

D) Why is the temperature high between March and May?

A: The Sun is vertical over the tropic of cancer during this period. Hence we experience summer from March to May.

E) Identify relief conditions causing variation in temperature and rainfall.

A: Hills and Mountains will have lower temperature than locations on the plain due to their altitude. The movement of monsoon winds and upper air currents influence the rainfall variation.

In-Text Questions and Answers

1. The climographs below show the temperature and rainfall vary in different parts of the country. Refer to your Atlas and identify the relief region where these places are located. Also, read the graphs below and fill the table on the following page.






2. The lines on the Map below indicate places that have the same average temperature for January.

Read the map given above and answer the following questions.

a) What would be the range for the average temperature in A.P. for January?
A: The Average Temperature of January in AP is 20oC to 25oC


b) Using your Atlass find some places located on 15oC.

A: i) Madhura in Uttar Pradesh

     ii) Jalpaigiri in West Bengal

     iii) Kohima in Nagaland

     iv) Dispur in Assam are some places located on 15oC.

c) Close to the line showing places where average temperature is 25oC, there's a small circle of place on 20oC. How is this possible.

A: 25oC average temperature line is run along the western coast and eastern coast lines. In between these two coasts, there are two hill ranges i.e. Nilgiri hills and Cardamom hills. These hill ranges are at an altidue of 2600 Mt average height.

3. How does deforestation affect global warming? (You will need to recall your study of photosynthesis in your science class). (Reflection on Contemporary issues and questions)

A: * Forests are God's gift to control global warming.

* Forests through photosynthesis absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) and release Oxygen (O2).

* When we cut down the trees, we make the forest non-functional.

* Average rainfall will be reduced and eventually average temperature raises and the soil starts to erode at once.

* It becomes impossible to grow new trees on that thinning soil.

* During photosynthesis, plants convert carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide into oxygen. Due to falling of trees the amount of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide increase in the atmosphere. The gases are responsible for global warming.

4. Does deforestation happen only in forest areas? How about in your local area, even if there are no forests? (Reflection on contemporary issues and questions).

A: * No. Deforestations happens not only in forest areas but also in industrial towns, mining areas, cities, villages and our neighbouring areas also.

* Deforestation means not only cutting down of forests but also cutting down of trees in villages and neighbouring places.

* Therefore deforestation is occuring in our local areas also.

* Deforestatin is meant for extention of Roads, for construction of buildings, for agriculture land, to produce the paper etc.

Additional Questions - Answers

1. What are climographs? (Conceptual understanding)

A: Climographs are the graphs which show average monthly values of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall for a specific place.

2. What is the relation between temperature of Atmosphere and insolation? (Conceptual understanding)

A: The Temperature of the atmosphere at a particular place near the Earth's surface depends upon the insolation (Heat from Sun rays), received at that location. This is more intense in the low latitudes than in the high latitudes. As we move away from the equator towards the poles, the average annual temperature decreases.

3. What is known as October heat? (Conceptual understanding)

A: October - November is a period of transition from a hot wet condition to dry winter condition. The threat of the monsoons is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. The land is still moist. Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes rather oppressive. This is commonly known as October heat.

4. What are Western disturbances?

A: Cyclone depressions coming from mediterranean sea are called Western disturbances.

5. What is AGW?

A: The warming that has been occuring since the Industrial revolution is because of human activities. Hence the current global warming trend is called Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW). Anthropogenic means caused by humans.

6. Write about Mango showers in Andhra Pradesh. (Reflection Contemporary issues)

A: Towards the end at the summer season, Pre-Monsoon showers (Bursting monsoon) are common in the Deccan Plateau. This help in the early ripening of mangoes and other plantation crops in peninsular India. Hence they are locally known as mango showers in Andhra Pradesh.

7. Methane is a Green House Gas. Explain it. (Reflection on contemporary issues)

A: More recently Scientists are discovering large volumes of Methane under the frozen Tundras of the far northern latitudes. As global temperature increases, the ice in the tundra melts more. The Methane that is trapped under the ice escapes into the atmosphere, increasing the global atmospheres. In turn, this causes even more ice to melt, releasing even more Methane, and so on. Methane is said to be even more powerful than carbon dioxide as a green house gas.

Posted Date : 29-11-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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