Questions - Answers
4 Marks Questions
1. Write about the main causes responsible for the two World Wars.
A: The main causes of two World Wars are mentioned below.
A) Aggressive Nationalism: Italian Fascism from 1923 and National Socialism of German Nazis were the other forms of Aggressive Nationalism in destructive mode. This ideology could also be used to create pride in oneself and hatred against neighbours. In Balcon islands Aggressive Nationalism and Disturbed areas were formed.
B) Imperialism: By the end of the 19th centaury there was a race for colonies among the industrial developed European countries for markets and raw materials. This created much stress often leading to wars.
C) Secret Alliances: Triple Entente formed with Russia, France and England. Triple alliance led by Germany along with Austria and Italy. These Alliances were created an atmosphere of fear and armed peace in Europe instead of real peace.
D) Militarism: Germany, Austria, Russia, Italy, France and England etc., each of these countries built massive standing armies, competed with each other in increasing their armaments and built a mindset among the people to support wars.
E) Immediate provocation: Austrian prince Ferdinand was assassinated by Serbian in Bosnia. Austria declared war on Serbia was the curtain raised incident for the First World War. Hitler's attack on Poland was the immediate cause for the outbreak of the Second World War.
F) Lack of Peace Organisations: During World War times, we observed the absence of strong peace organisation. The league of Nations was also failed to control the countries like Germany and Italy.
2. What are the different impacts/consequences of the World Wars?
A: The World Wars lead a long lasting impact on the politics, society and economy of the World. These can be enumerated as follows...
1) Enormous Human Cost: The Two World Wars were caused for vast deaths... 10 million in the First and 20 to 25 million people were killed in the Second World War.
2) Political Consequences: The Wars ended Britains leadership of the World. It was now taken over by America and Russia, which were run the Capitalist and Communist groups. With the process of decolonisation, after World War - II, the colonies rose to independence across Asia and Africa.
3) Economic Consequences: The financial loss of both side countries can't be estimated by experts. For example in World War - II, Russia had drained one fourth of her entire national wealth.
4) Setup Peace Organisations: The league of Nations was formed as a result of the First World War. But it was failed to stop the Second World War. Then the united Nations Organisation (UNO) was setup to control the future wars.
5) Democratic Principles asserted: After the two World Wars, the big powers were strengthened the democratisation of power. Also the newly independent countries accepted the principle of democratic rule.
6) Enfranchisement of Women: During 20th Century women fought for political rights. Being with the confidence of being bread winners, women began raising their voice for equality in all walks of life. Getting the right to vote was a big step in that direction.
3. How did the idea of nation states and nationalism influence desire for war during World War?
A: * The ideology of nationalism was a positive impulse. It is the feeling of belongingness of the people in a country called Nationalism.
* It was the foundation of modern nation states and the force behind the unification of Germany and Italy.
* But this ideology could also be used to create pride in oneself and hatred against neighbours.
* This hatred was slowly building up in the 19th century between the states of Europe.
* Fascism and Nazism in Germany played up the spirit of aggressive nationalism and make their people for war against other European nations.
* The Aggressive Nationalism led to the formation of secret alliances like triple alliances and triple entente... etc.
4. Study the following Timeline chart and answer the following Questions.
a) What was the immediate cause for outbreak of the First world War?
A: Ferdinand the crown prince of Austria was murdered along with his wife Sophia by a Serb in Sarajevo.
b) What is the relation between two incidents occurred in 1919?
A: Formation of League of Nations and the Treaty of versailles... these two were the results of the First World War.
c) Which organisations were setup to promote peace and cooperation among nations?
A: The League of Nations and the United Nations Organisation.
d) How many years gap had taken between the two World Wars?
A: 21 years gap between the First and the Second World Wars.
5. What were the Terms of Treaty of versailles? At what extent it was caused for outbreak of the Second World War?
A: * The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June 1919 between Allied Powers and Germany in the mirrered palace of Versailles in France after the World War - I. To weaken Germany, the treaty of versailles imposed some territorial penalties and military cuts on it.
* According to this treaty, Germany agreed to give France the right to exploit the coal fields of the Saar valley for a period of fifteen years.
* Germany was permitted to maintain only a small navy without submarines. It was made to restrict the production of war material.
* Germany had to paid a huge war indemnity for all the damage done to civilian population of the allies and their property.
* Infact, Germany was not intended to this conference the big powers were decided the terms and conditions of this treaty and they were imposed on Germany.
* It is not surprising, therefore, that Germans thought that the Treaty of Versailles was a diktat imposed on them and they had no respect or responsibility for it.
* Thus, Germany was waiting for chance to take revenge against allied powers and made necessary arrangements for another war under the leadership of Hitler.
6. Explain why 20th century is called as "Age of Extremes".
A: * Eric Hobsbawm, a historian, called the 20th century "The Age of extremes". During this period, so many Social, Economic, Political and other changes were occurred. They can be
enumerated as follows...
* Industrial capitalism had changed the way many people earned their livelihood but only in the western countries.
* The world was divided into the west which was experiencing economic growth and the Rest whose acute backwardness was worsened by colonial exploitation by the west.
* Politically, the world saw shoots of democratic aspirations grow amidst the rise of Fascist domination which fostend ideologies of an unquestioned power and hatred for other people.
* Literary levels and average life expectancy grew immensely for all.
* Women, who constitute half the world's population, got their right to vote in this period, starting with the west.
* Scientific knowledge rose to new heights unlocking the secrets of atom and life. New forms of art like movies emerged.
* Literally more than a hundred nations walked to independence and freedom across the world.
* This was also an age of great experimentation as people to strove to build socialist societies based on the principles of equality and fraternity or alternatively a liberal democracy based on political liberty and capitalist economy.
* This period saw the "Great Depression'' causing massive unemployment and economic breakdown.
* The two world wars in which millions died and the lives of many more millions were dislocated.
* Hence, the 20th century was a period of great expectations, experiments and dangerous developments.
2 Marks Questions
1. Write the different power Blocs during the World Wars.
A: During the First World War:
(1) Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria - Hungary and Italy.
(2) Triple Entente: England, France and Russia.
During the Second World War:
(1) Axis powers/ central powers: Germany, Italy and Japan.
(2) Allied Powers: USA, USSR, UK and France.
2. How can you say that the League of Nations was failed?
A: * The League of Nations was established in 1919.
* It showed a lot of promise and much was expected of it.
* But it was failed eventually to prevent Germany and Italy from violating International agreements and attacking other countries.
* The big powers of the world did not join the League.
* The League did not have the armed forces of its own. Lack of sufficient funds also causes of its failure.
3. In what way do you think industrialisation has created the conditions for modern wars?
A: * The industrialised countries of Europe could find markets for their surplus goods, raw materials to feed their industries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. So converted them into colonies.
* There was a race for colonies.
* As new industrial powers like Germany emerged, they wanted to redivide the colonies.
* This created enmity leading to wars.
4. Write about the UNO.
A: * The United Nations Organisation (UNO) was formed on october 24th, 1945.
* UN is a kind of world government based on four principles, viz. preserve peace, uphold human rights, respect International law and promote social progress.
* It works through organs like UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO etc.
* The UNO is succeed in some extent to control wars and promote peace and mutual cooperation among nations.
One Mark Questions
1. Which event marked the beginning of World War II?
A: Germany attack on Poland on 1st September 1939.
2. What is the immediate cause forWorld War - I?
A: The murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Serbian Fantic was the immediate cause for World War - I.
3. What were the two ideologies to which the workers turned?
A: Socialism and Communism.
4. Who were the members of Triple Alliance?
A: Germany, Austria and Japan formed Triple Alliance.
5. Name the empires ended with the First World War?
A: The Austro - Hungarian Empire, the Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the German Empire etc., were ended.
6. Expand USSR.
A: Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
7. Expand the following:
a) UNESCO - United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
b) UNICEF - United Nations Children's Emergency Fund
c) WHO - World Health Organisation
d) ILO - International Labour Organisation
8. What does the term 'Great Depression' signify?
A: * There was a worldwide economic decline triggered by a decline in demand and fall in prices. It was called Great Depression.
* It was began around the end of 1929 and lasted almost till 1939.