Questions - Answers
Expected 4 Marks Questions
1. Russian Revolution brought in many changes in their society. What were they? and what challenges did they face?
A: Changes After Revolution:
* The new governments after Russian Revolution brought many changes in administration by way of introducing Five Year Plans for economic development.
* Setup Collective Farms, where people pooled their lands and worked together, and the production was divided among them.
* Agricultural production soon rose and helped USSR to build its industries on an unprecedented scale.
* An extended schooling system developed, and arrangements were made for factory workers and peasants to enter universities.
* Cheap public health care was provided.
* USSR achieved full employment for all its citizens and was able to improve their standard of living.
* All industries and banks were nationalised.
Challenges that they faced:
* Collective Farms was opposed by thousands of peasants especially the large farmers. They had to face imprisonment and even death.
* All the industries were owned by the state which did not allow free market.
* Rapid construction led to poor working conditions.
* The effect of all this was uneven, though, since government resources were limited.
* Many social thinkers were horrified by the violent elimination of opposition and denial of multiparty democracy and freedom in the USSR.
2. Compare different points of view about Great Depression, which one would you agree with? Why?
A: The Great Depression began around the end of 1929 and lasted almost till 1939 when the Second World War began. During this decade there was a worldwide economic decline triggered by a decline in demand and fall in prices.
Economists and Politicians have argued ever since over the causes of this decline, ways to get over it and possible ways of preventing its recurrence. Their arguments are...
* Marxist economists argued that this kind of crises is an essential nature of capitalism and can be got rid of only with the establishment of socialism.
* J.M.Keynes argued that the state has a crucial role to play in keeping the economy going and if it fails to intervene effectively it can lead to situations of depression. He argued that during the time of economic decline when demand decreases, the state should invest funds and generate employment which will help people to learn money and demand goods in the market.
My Opinion: I agree with J.M.Keynes opinion. He opinioned the generation of demand through state action will help the economy revive.
3. Study the following time - line table to answer the following Questions.
i) What was the immediate cause for outbreak of Second World War?
A: Germany invades Poland was the immediate cause for outbreak of the Second World War.
ii) Write the incidents occurred in 1941.
A: Mass murder of the Jews begins, The United States joins the Second World War.
iii) Which country side did Hitler participated in the war?
iv) When did America join the Second World War?
A: On 8th December 1941, America join the Second World War.
4. In what ways were Jews persecuted during the Nazi Germany? Do you think in every country some people are differentiated because of their identity?
A: Persecution of Jews by Nazi Germany:
* Hitler mobilized his supporters on the promise of establishing racial supremacy of Aryan Germans over the world and by targeting minority communities like the Jews as the main cause of all problems.
* As the war proceeded the Nazi regime unfolded its horrible programme of building the racial supremacy of Germans by mass extermination of minority communities.
* Under the shadow of the Second World War, Germany had waged a genocidal war, which resulted in the mass murder of selected groups, included about 6,00,00,000 jews, 2,00,00,000 Gypsies etc., besides innumerable political opponents or people of different religious faith.
* Nazis devised an unprecedented means of killing people, that is by gassing them in various killing centres like Auschwitz.
* I don't think that this type of racial discrimination exists in all the countries.
* In South Africa, Nelson Mandela fought against the racial discrimination of whites against blacks and he was succeeded.
* We faced lot of troubles with the whites (British) discrimination before independence.
* Martin Luther King in USA fought against racial discrimination.
5. What challenges were faced by Germany during Great Depression and how did Nazi rulers and Hitler make use of it?
A: Germany during Great Depression:
* The German Economy was the worst hit by the depression.
* By 1932, industrial production was reduced to 40 percent of the 1929 level.
* Workers lost their jobs or were paid reduced wages.
* The number of unemployed touched an unprecedented 6 million.
* Unemployed youth played cards or simply sat at street corners, or desperately queued up at the local employment exchange.
* The middle classes, especially salaried employees and pensioners, saw their savings diminish when the currency lost its value.
* Small businessmen, the self-employed and retailers suffered as their business got ruined.
* The large mass of peasantry was affected by a sharp fall in agricultural prices and women, unable to fill their children's stomach's, were filled with a sense of despair.
* This caused acute political instability as government after government collapsed and could not provide a stable rule.
Hitler and Nazi Rulers making use of the situation as follows:
* In such a situation of the Great Depression, Nazi Party's propaganda stirred hopes of a better future.
* Hitler was its unquestioned leader and a powerful speaker. His passion and his words moved people.
* He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the 'Versailles treaty', and restore the dignity of the Germans.
* Nazis promised employment for those looking for work, and a secure future for the youth.
* Hitler mobilized his supporters on the promise of establishing the racial supremacy of Aryan Germans over the world and by targeting minority communities like the Jews.
6. What were the political changes brought under the Nazi/Hitler rule?
A: * Hitler came to power and immediately took steps to establish an undemocratic and autocratic rule and dismantled all democratic institutions like Parliament.
* This included arbitrary arrest of political opponents, especially the communists and putting them in concentration camps.
* The famous enabling act established dictatorship in Germany.
* All political parties and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi Party and its affiliates.
* The state established complete control over the economy, media army and judiciary.
* Hitler pursued an aggressive foreign policy of recovering the territories lost after the First World War.
2 Marks Questions
1. What were the Agricultural Reforms of Joseph Stalin in USSR?
A: Agricultural Reforms of Stalin:
* Stalin introduce the policy of Collectivisation of Agriculture and Collective Farms.
* Collective Farms pooled in all the land in the village along with tools and machines and animals.
* Mechanisation of Agriculture.
* Farmers worked together and divided the production.
2. What were the Economic Reforms of the Hitler?
A: Economic Reforms of Hitler:
* Hitler aimed at full production and full employment through a state funded work-creation programme.
* He encouraged heavy investment in armament industry.
* He took up welfare activities.
* He controlled the inflation and reduced tax burden.
3. Write short-notes on Enabling Act.
A: Enabling Act:
* On 3rd March 1933 the famous Enabling Act was passed. This act established dictatorship in Germany.
* It gave Hitler all powers to sideline Parliament and ruled by decree.
* All political parties and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi Party and his affiliates.
* The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
Observe the following Map to answer the questions.
i) Which neighbouring country of India was occupied by Japan?
A: The neighbouring country of India that was occupied by Japan was Burma (Myanmar).
ii) Mention any two countries which are located in the Western side of Japan controlled area?
A: Thailand, Singapore, Burma...
1 Mark Questions
1. What does the word Great Depression Signify?
A: * There was a worldwide economic decline triggered by a decline in demand and fall in prices. It was called Great Depression.
* The Great Depression began around the end of 1929 and lasted almost till 1939.
2. What is Weimar Republic?
A: * After the First World War German National Assembly met at Weimar in 1939 to discuss the future.
* Here the National Assembly agreed already prepared constitution and it was called as Weimar Constitution.
* This constitution proposed Republic was called as Weimar Republic.
3. What are the two Ideological, Political camps emerged after the Second World War?
A: * Communist Block led by the USSR.
* The Democratic - Capitalist Block led by the USA.
4. What is Bolshevik Revolution?
A: The Revolution that occurred in Russia in October 1917, Under the leadership of Bolsheviks is known as Bolshevik Revolution.
5. What is meant by social security system?
A: It is a permanent system of universal retirement pensions, unemployment insurance and welfare benefits for handicapped and needy children in families without father present.
6. What is Marshal Plan?
A: With World War - II, many European countries badly affected. Marshal Plan is announced by the USA to give economic support to the European countries to reconstruct and rebuilt after the world War - II.
7. Who were the Indians get inspired by Communist Party?
A: M.N.Roy, Tagore and Jawaharlal Neghru.
8. What is the idea of Socialism?
A: * The Socialist idea is From each according to his capacity, to each according to his work.
* Means of production are owned by the state. There is no scope of private property.
9. What did Czarist Russia comprise of?
A: Czarist Russia comprised of Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkomanistan... etc.
10. Name some countries that got freedom after Second World War?
A: India, China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Nigeria etc.
11. Who led the Civil War in Russia?
A: The Civil War in Russia was led by White Armies of Russian monarchists and anti-communist soldiers with the help from Britain, France, USA and Japan. These were all defeated by 1920.
12. Expand the following.
(i) USSR (ii) GDR (iii) FRG
A: (i) USSR - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
(ii) GDR - German Democratic Republic.
(iii) FRG - Federal Republic of Germany.