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EMERGING POLITICAL TRENDS 1977 to 2000

 QUESTION - ANSWERS

 I. Conceptual understanding

 4 Marks Questions

1. How did regional aspirations lead to the formation of regional parties? Compare the similarities and differences between the two different phases.

A:  The people felt that they are being neglected. Thus a lot of political parties emerged in  various states.

* In the first phase the leaders were statesmen and they considered the aspirations of

* all the regions. So the need for regional parties were not felt.

* Later the leaders became arrogant and people were also aware of many things.

* In the earlier phase the role of the regional parties were very limited due to the 

* dominance of the single party (congress).

* In the later phase these regional parties have played a major role in fulfiling the local  needs. Thus people felt the need of regional parties to fulfil the regional aspirations.

2. How do different types of regional aspirations draw from cultural and economic dimensions?

A: * In South India Tamil Dravidian Parties sought greater autonomy for the states.

* In Andhra Pradesh N.T. Rama Rao stand for ''Telugu Vari Atma Gauravam'' (Self  Respect).

* Punjab Sikhs claimed greater recruitment in army.

* The Bengalis did not treat the Assamese as equals in Assam.

* These were not getting enough self respect from the National Leadership.

* They demanded for more Autonomy.

* They thought that they were being neglected.

* Thus the regional parties are trying for the decentralisation of powers.

II. Reading Text understanding and Interpretation
 

3. Read the following paragraph and answers to the Question given below.

   The Prime Minister's Apology

Dr. Manmohan Singh's statement in the Rajya Sabha
....... Four thousand people were killed in this great national tragedy that took place in 1984. This should be an occasion for introspection, how working together as a united nation, we can find new pathways to ensure that such ghastly tragedies never again take place in our country..... I have no hesitation in apologising not only to the Sikh community but the whole Indian nation because what took place in 1984 is the negation of the concept of nationhood and what is enshrined in our constitution. So, Iam not standing on any false prestige. On behalf of our Government, on behalf of the entire people of this country, I bow my head in shame that such a think took place. But, Sir, there are ebbs, there are tides in the affairs of nations. The past is with us. We cannot rewrite the past. But as human beings, we have the willpower and we have the ability to write better future for all of us.... (pmindia.nic.in/RS%20speech.pdf) 11th august 2005.

a) Do you think the Dr. Manmohan Singh's speech has National importance? What signals does this speech send out.
A: I thought that the PM's speech has national importance. In his speech he apologising the Sikh community for the operation against them. The speech sends out the signals such tragedies could never repeat, we can make our future better by letting this behind us.

 

III. Information skills (Time line chart)
4. Read the below chart and answer the following questions.
1) End of Emergency and Formation of Janata Governments - 1977
2) Formation of congress government led by Indira Gandhi - 1980
3) Operation Blue star and Assasination of Indira Gandhi - 1984
4) Rajiv Gandhi accords with Longowal on Punjab - 1985
5) Election and formation of Janatadal Governments - 1989
6) Assasination of Rajiv Gandhi and Govt. led by Congress Party with P.V. Narsimha Rao as PM - 1991
7) National Front Government with Deva Gowda and Inder Kumar Gujral as PM - 1996
8) NDA Government led by Vajpayee - 1998

Question:

a) When did the period of emergency come to an end?
A: In 1977

 

b) What did the operation Blue Star lead to?
A: Led to the assasination Indira Gandhi.

 

c) Who led the Janata Dal Governments?
A: V.P. Singh and Chandra Sekhar.

 

d) Expand NDA.
A: National Democratic Alliance

 

IV. Reflection on contemporary issues
5. Do you justify the reflections of different sections across the country after Supreme Court Judgement in Shah Bano case 1985?
A: * The Supreme Court gave its verdict in 1985 on Shah Bano case who had been divorced by her husband ordering that should be paid maintenance by her ex-husband.
     * The progressive Muslims welcomed the decision.
     * The other muslims (fundamentalists) protested against the Judgement saying that it went against Islamic Law and that if this was allowed then there may be          
         further interference in the religious life of the community.

 * The women leaders argued that it would help to reverse the gross injustice being melted
     out to muslim women who were divorced unilaterally by their husbands.
 * The government came under pressure of the orthodox muslims and enacted a new law
     in 1986 which let off muslim husbands and allow muslim religious bodies to pay
     maintenance to divorce women for a short period of three months.

 

V. Mapping Skills
6. Identify atleast any four states ruled by regional parties in India on the given Indian Political Map.
 

VI. Appreciation and Sensitivity
7. "The communal politics weaken the integrity of Indians". Write your opinion.
A: The Britisher commonalised the politics to meet their selfish needs. They used divide and rule policy. It was a weapon in their hands to weaken Indian Nationalism. After Independence many political parties are loosing their grip among the people. So they use religion as a weapon to meet their interests. Religion become an opium. Many political parties decided to use religious feelings in both Hindu and Muslim communities. So as to retain their support in Elections. This communal politics weakened the secular fabric among the Indians.

2 Marks Questions
1. Multi party system is a curse or boon to Indian Democracy. Give your opinion.
A: Multi party system is a better option in Indian Democracy. because...
* It allows the best choice of alternatives to the people.
 * It is depend upon open representation.
 * Even though it had some disadvantages like instability and uncertainty but it is better
     than single party system.

 

2. Do you think "Single party democracy would have been a better alternative to Multi party democracy"?
A: I don't think single party democracy would have been a better alternative to multi party democracy.
 * Single party democracy leads to development dictorial attitude.
 * There may be no more changes to take place.
 * There may be no scope to the welfare of all sections of people.
 * There may be no scope to protest against the government acts and the movements for the welfare of the people.

3. What do you think were the lasting contributions of Rajiv Gandhi to the country?
A: Rajiv Gandhi initiated telcom revolution in India.
 * He supported Panchayat Raj institutions.
 * He was instrumental to start peace initiatives in Assam, Punjab and even in Sri Lanka.
 * It was his first Government to moved towards the economic liberalisation process.

 

4. How do you appreciate the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments?
A: The 73rd Constitutional Amendment created institutions of local self government at the village level while 74th Constitutional Amendment (strengthen) did the same in towns and cities. Both these Amendments strengthen local self government system in India.

 

5. Indian Economic Liberalisation Policy is a knife which has two sharpen edges'. Comment.
A: Favourable issues:

  * Quality improved.

 * Availability of foreign goods at cheaper price.

     Negative issues:

  * Indian goods did not compete foreign goods. So Indian factories are closed.
* Privatisation take place in key sectors like education, health and transport.

6. Read the below Data and answer the following questions.

  Coalition Governments and some political parties from 1980's

  
               

a) Which party was a partner of Governments in all the three coalition governments?
A: Jammu & Kashmir National Conference.

 

b) Which party was a partner in National Front Government and United Front Government and support the National Democratic Alliance from outside.
A: Telugu Desam Party.

7. While some people feel that coalition politics has weakened the government and other feel that it has prevented any party stream rolling its agenda on the country? Explain it.
A: Coalition Govt leads to more consensus based politics, in that a government consisting differing parties would need to concur in regard to government policy.
 * These kind of governments have a tendency to be factions and prore disharmony

 

8. What were the implications of 1977 General elections?
A: Janata party won elections and formed coalition government.
 * The congress was defeated at national level for the first time.
 * Janata party dismissed 9 congress governments in states.
 * The disunity among partners had a serious effect on the governance.

 

9. Read the following paragraph and answer the questions.
A number of national and regional parties have to come together to form Government at the centre. While this enable the Government of that nation to become more sensitive, to multiple points in politics and policy matters, it is also political instability.
A: The Central Government to be come more sensitive to multiple view points in politics and policy matters in coalition governments. It caused political instability. Sometimes it caused policy paralysis. As the coalition could not implement any policy which called for serious change for fear of withdrawn of support by one or other partners.

10. What do you know about "Structural Adjustment Programme".
A: The IMF laid down certain stringent conditions called structural adjustment programme forcing India to accept a policy of liberalisation. This meant
 * Drastic reduction of government expenditure.
 * Reduction restrictions and taxes on import of foreign goods.
 * Reducing restrictions on foreign investments in India.
 * Opening of many sectors of the economy.

 

11. Why do you think the protection of share croppers led to an increase in production?
A:  * The rights of the share croppers were made hereditary and thus perpetual.
     * The share croppers were given a fair share.
     * As they felt that the land belonged to them, they took much interest in cultivating the  land which led to the increase in the production.

One Mark Questions
1. Define ethnic cleansing.
A: Forcible eviction of minority communities by even outright mass killings is called ethnic cleansing.

 

2. What is operation Barga?
A: The West Bengal government launched operation Barga to record the names of the share croppers to secure their rights.

 

3. What is operation Blue star?
A: When Bhindranwale occupied the golden temple, the army had to intervene to vacate the premises which is known as operation Blue star.

 

4. What is Regional Aspirations?
A: Strong feeling towards ones own region is known as regional aspiration.

 

5. What is policy paralysis?
A: Policy paralysis means the coalition government could not implement any policy which called for serious change for fear of withdrawal of support by one other partners.

 

6. Who are Minorities?
A: A group of people who because of their religion/ cultural characteristics are signed out from others in society are called minorities.

Additional One Mark Questions
1. What is Communalism?
A: A strong sense of religious belonging which lead to extreme behaviour to others.

 

2. BJP has secured 28 seats, INC 44, Sivasena 18, TDP 16, in 16th Loksabha
     elections.
     Which party has a chance to form the government? Why?
A: BJP has the chance to form the government because it was the single largest party in Loksabha

 

3. Write a policy of Liberalisation.
A: Liberalisation is the process of giving liberty to the companies of foreign countries to begin their companies in our country.

 

4. Give examples for Regional parties?
A: Trinamool Congress (TMC) , Assam Gana Parishad (AGP), Sivasena, DMK, AIADMK, Akalidal etc.

 

5. Who are considered as outsiders in Assom?
A: People who migrated from neighbouring states and country.

 

e.g.: Bengali and Bangladesh migrants in Assom.

Mapping Skills
Point out ruling parties of various states in a given Indian map
   A) The only state in south India in which the congress ruled the state.
   B) Trinamool Congress ruling sate.
   C) The state in which TRS is a ruling state.
   D) The state in which Biju Janatadal ruling.

Posted Date : 15-11-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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