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India Relief Features


Key words:

1. Perennial: Perennial is a continuous and never ending flow or process. Perennial rivers flow throughout the year and will never dry up.

2. Coral reefs: Rocky mounds or ridges formed in the sea by living things through accumulation and deposition of limestone.

3. Coastal plains: The fertile plains that are situated on the East and West coasts of peninsular India.

4. Peninsula: The land surrounded by water on three sides is called Peninsula. India is a Peninsula and surrounded by Bay of Bengal on the east, The Indian Ocean on the south and The Arabian Sea on the west.

5. Laurasia: The hypothetical ancient continental mass of the Northern hemisphere including North America, Europe and Asia

6. Dun: The valleys lying between the lesser Himalayas and Shivalik ranges are called Dunes.

7. Angara land: Laurasia is also called as Angara land. This is the part of Pangaea from which the present continents originated.

8. Gondwana land: Gondwana land is one of the two land masses from which the continents originated. It is situated to the north of Angara land.

9. Shivalik: The southernmost range of Himalayas is known as Shivalik.

10. Purvanchal: The Himalayas that are situated on the North-Eastern boundary in Arunachal Pradesh beyond the Dihang valley are known as Purvanchal. Regionally Purvanchal are known as Patkai hills, the Naga hills, Manipuri hills and Mizo hills.

11. Leeward: The rain shadow region situated opposite to the windward side of the mountain which does not receive any rainfall.

12. IST: Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of +05:30 GMT. Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.3 degrees East longitude.

13. Bhabar: The deposition of gravel and pebble sediments by the Himalayan Rivers parallel to foot hills of Shivaliks is known as Bhabar.

14. Weathering: The decay and disintegration of rocks of the earth’s crust by exposure to the atmosphere is called weathering.

15. Doab: The fertile land between two rivers.

Main points  

The geographical location of India provides its vast diversity in climatic conditions.

For India the central longitude 82.3 degrees east is taken as Standard Meridian which passes near Allahabad.

The Indian Standard Time (IST) is 5 1/2 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

World landforms originated from two giant lands namely Angara land and Gondwana land.

The Indian peninsula was part of Gondwana land.

The relief features of Indian land mass can be divided into the following groups:

i) The Himalayas ii) The Indo – Gangetic Plain iii) The Peninsular Plateau iv) The Coastal Plains v) The Desert vi) The Islands

The Himalayan rages run in the west-east direction in the form of an arch with a distance of about 2400 kms.

The Himalayas comprises three parallel ranges. They are:

1. Greater Himalayas or Himadri,

2. Lesser Himalayas and

3. Shivaliks.

The valleys lying between the Lesser Himalayas and Shivalik ranges are called as Duns. Dehradun, Kotlidun and Patlidun are some of the prominent Duns.

Regionally the Purvanchal are known as Patkai hills, the Naga hills, Manipuri hills, Khasi hills and Mizo hills.

The Himalayas act as barriers protecting the great plains of India from the cold winds of central Asia during severe winter.

The Himalayan Rivers have a perennial flow since these are fed by the glaciers and bring a lot of silt making these plains very fertile.

The three Himalayan Rivers Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries form the Great Northern plain.

The deposition of gravel and pebble sediments found parallel to foot hills of Shivaliks is called Bhabar, which is porous in nature.

Terai is the swampy and marshy region.

The Indian plateau is also known as the Peninsular Plateau as it is surrounded by the sea on three sides. Bay of Bengal on the east, Indian ocean on the south and Arabian sea on the west.

The topography of the plateau is slightly tilted towards east.

The southernmost tip of the plateau is Kanyakumari.

The Peninsular Plateau consists of two broad divisions namely, the central high lands (Malwa Plateau) and Deccan Plateau.

The Western Ghats lie parallel to the west coast and the Eastern ghats are parallel to the east coast.

The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats.

The Thar Desert is located on the leeward side of Aravalies.

‘Luni’ is the only river that passes through the that Desert.

The West coastal plain starts from the Rann of Kutch and ends at Kanyakumari.

The East coastal plain starts at Mahanadi valley and ends at Cauvery deltas in Tamil Nadu. It can be divided into three parts namely Utkal coast (Odisha), Circar coast (Andhra Pradesh) and Coramandal coast (Tamil Nadu).

The Western coast starts from the Rann of Kutch and ends at Kanyakumari. It can be divided into three parts: i) Konkan coast ii) Canara coast iii) Malabar coast.

The southernmost tip of India is found in Nicobar Island called as Indira point.

There are two groups of islands – Andaman and Nicobar Islands stretched in Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep islands in Arabian Sea.

Lakshadweep islands are of coral origin.

Posted Date : 25-01-2021


గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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