Questions - Answers
4 Marks Questions
1. Integration of various princely states into the new Indian nation was a challenge. Discuss.
A: * At the time of withdrawal of British from India, there were around 550 princely states in Indian territory.
* They become independent after the British rule.
* They were asked by the British to decide if they wanted to join India, Pakistan or remain Independent.
* In Hyderabad and Travancore peasants were revolting with arms against the ruling Zamindars.
* Sardar Vallabhai Patel was given charge of this matter of merging princely states into Indian Union in July 1947.
* He began discussing with princelys the necessity to join India.
* All Princely states agreed to join Indian Union except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh. These three states were also made to join in the next two years.
* With great efforts of Patel, this challenging task was completed by merging these states.
2. What Principles of Gandhi that you like most?
A: We got Independence under the leadership of Gandhi. Hence his period from 1919 to 1947 was considered as Gandhian era in Indian Freedom Movement.
I like the following Gandhian Principles.
Truth and Non - violence: He evolved the technique of Satygraha based on truth and Non-violence and led many movements against the British in a peaceful way.
Constructive Programmes: He evolved constructive programmes spinning, weaving khadi, Boy-cott of foreign goods, encourage native goods etc., his Swadeshi Movement was meant to encourage Indian industries.
Mass Movements: He led Mass Movement against British by the way arouse political awakening among the people.
Satyagraha: Gandhi used Satyagraha as moral force against physical force. He organised many movements with the help of Satyagraha based on moral values and ideals. Hence, Indian people called him as Mahatma and Father of Nation.
3. Make a list of various reasons for the partition of the country (India).
A: The following reasons responsible for the partition of India.
* The Britisher's Divide and Rule policy had been weaken the Indian National Congress (INC) party by it will not represent the all Indians.
* The Muslim League, formed in 1906, demanded separate seats in all councils for Muslims.
* British Government Supported the Muslim League and give separate seats in councils for Muslims as per 1909 Indian council Act.
* After 1937 elections Congress party refused to form a coalition government with the Muslim League in the United Provinces.
* The League could create the impression that the Congress was basically a Hindu Party and did not want to share power with the Muslims.
* The League was able to convince Muslim masses of the benefits and need for a separate nation, Pakistan.
* The League announced programme of Direct Action Day on 16th August 1946, on this day communal riots spread across the country and thousands people were killed.
* Hindu Mahasabha, Rashtriya Swayam Sevesangh and Muslim League were inculated communal feelings in the minds of people.
* With all these consequences, the Governor-general Lord Mount batten announced India's partition.
4. How did Partition affect the lives of ordinary people? What was the political response to mass migration following partition.
A: * The common people in two countries affected severely at the time of partition.
* The people, who were living on both sides of the newly drawn border became insecure and felt fear.
* They felt anger and hatred against each other for being forced to move out of their homes, villages and cities.
* Around 1.5 cr. people, both Hindu and Muslim, were displaced and they became refugees, lived in relief camps, moved out on trains to find new homes.
* Between two to five lakh people, both Muslims and Hindus, were Killed.
* Gandhiji moved amongst riot hit people, in camps and hospitals spreading the message of peace and brotherhood.
* At the initiative of Gandhiji and Nehru, the Congress passed a resolution on "The rights of minorities".
* India still believed that" India is a land of many religions and many of races, and must remain so".
* Whatever be the situation in Pakistan, India would be "a democratic secular state", where all citizens irrespective of their religion enjoy equal rights and freedom.
5. Arrange the following in a chronological order.
1) The Government of India Act.
2) Muslim League formation
3) Pakistan Resolution
4) Quit India Movement
5) Royal Indian Navy Protest
6) Partition Of India
7) Gandhi Assassination
8) Separate Electorates for Muslims
A: Chronological Order of Events:
1) Muslim League formation
2) Separate Electorate for Muslims
3) The Government of India Act
4) Pakistan Resolution
5) Quit India Movement
6) Royal Indian Navy Protest
7) Partition Of India
8) Gandhi Assassination
6. Study the following letter and answer the following Questions.
LETTER TO ADOLF HITLER
Friends have been urging me to write to you for the sake of humanity. But I have resisted their request, because of the feeling that any letter from me would be an impertinence. Something tells me that I must not calculate and that I must make my appeal for whatever it may be worth.
It is quite clear that you are today the one person in the world who can prevent a war which may reduce humanity to the savage state.
Must you pay that price for an object however worthy it may appear to you to be? will you listen to the appeal of one who has deliberately shunned the method of war not without considerable success?
Anyway I anticipate your forgiveness, if I have erred in writing to you.
Your sincere friend,
Source: The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi,
Vol.76:31 May, 1939-15 October, 1939.
1. Who wrote this letter to whom?
A: M.K. Gandhi wrote this letter to Hitler.
2. "The War" mentioned in this letter refer to?
A: "The War" refers to the Second World War.
3. According to this letter who can prevent a war at that time?
A: Hitler can prevent the war.
4. For the whose sake wrote this letter?
A: For the sake of humanity.
7. Identify the following places in the given outline India Map.
1) Hyderabad 2) Junagadh 3) Travancore 4) Noahkhali 5) Midnapur
2 Marks Questions
1. Write a short-note on INA.
A: * INA (Indian National Army) was established by Mohan Singh and propagated by Subash Chandra Bose to fight against British forces for Indian freedom.
* Bose recruited soldiers including many women.
* He led an army of Indian soldiers to fight alongside the imperial Army of Japan against the British for almost three years.
* INA was defeated by the British army and imprisoned to punish them.
2. Write about Quit India Movement.
A: * After the failure of the Cripps Mission, Mahatma Gandhi launched Quit India in 1942 against the British Government with the slogan Do or Die.
* Although Gandhi was jailed at once, Younger activists organised strikes and acts of sabotage all over the country.
* The young in very large numbers, left their colleges to go to jail.
* 'Satara' in west and 'Midnapur' in East, independent governments were proclaimed.
* The British responded with much free to suppress the rebellion.
3. Write short-note on Tebhaga Movement.
A: * An agitation was started in Bengal by small and poor peasants who took land of the bigger landowners to cultivate.
* They demanded that their share of harvest should be increased to two portions out of three instead of half or even less, that was given to them at that time.
* This was called the Tebhaga Movement and was led by the Provincial Kisan Sabha.
4. Write about Muslim League.
A: * The Muslim League was formed in 1906.
* The British Government encouraged the League by its policy of Divide and Rule to check the congress leaders.
* Under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it started demands for separate state for Muslims, Pakistan.
* It announced August 16th, 1946 as Direct Action Day to attain Pakistan. On this day, Communal riots took place across the country.
5. Write a short-note on the Hindu Mahasabha and the RSS.
A: * The Hindu Mahasabha and the RSS (Rashtriya Swayam Sevaksangh) were engaged in active mobilisation of Hindus.
* These Organisations wished to unite all Hindus, overcome the divisions of caste and sect and reform their social life.
* They also gave out the message that India was the land of the Hindus who were in a majority.
* Many Congressmen were also impressed with the activities of these organisations.
6. Write about the Cabinet Mission Plan.
A: * In March 1946 the British Cabinet sent a three member mission to Delhi. They are A.V. Alexander, Stafford Cripps and Pathic Lawrence.
* It was intended to examine the League's demand to suggest a suitable political frame work for a free India.
* This Cabinet Mission toured the country for three months and recommended a loose three-tier confederation but India was to remain united.
* Initially all major parties accepted this plan, ultimately neither Congress nor the League agreed to the Mission's proposal.
Very Short Answer Questions
1. Expand: RSS and INA.
A: RSS - Rashtriya Swayam Sevaksangh.
INA - Indian National Army.
2. What were the Princely states not joined in India by 15th August 1947?
A: Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh
3. What Gandhian Principles do you like most?
A: Non - Violence, Satyagraha, peace
4. Write two reasons for the demand of Pakistan.
A: 1) The failure of Congress to convince to fear of Muslim League.
2) The Divide and Rule policy of the British.
5. Who merged different samsthanas in India?
A: Sardar vallabhai Patel.
6. When and by whom was assassinated Gandhiji?
A: Gandhiji was assassinated by Nathuram Godse on 30th January 1948.
7. What is privy purse? When was it abolished?
A: 1) The Government of India had taken over Princely states and the princes were given pension funds called privy - purse to meet their personal expenses.
2) They were abolished in 1971.
8. Write the three famous peasant movements during 1946.
A: 1) Tebhaga Movement in Bengal.
2) Telangana farmers Movement.
3) Punnapara - vayala movement in Travancore.
9. What were the paths adopted by Mahatma Gandhi and Subash Chandra Bose during Indian Freedom Movement?
A: 1) Gandhiji adopted individual Satyagrahas and mass movements on the basis of peace, Non - violence, protest.
2) Subhash Chadra Bose adopted military attack on British with the help of Axis.
10. What did the Naval Central Strike Committee demand?
A: The Naval Central Strike Committee demanded better food, equal pay for white and Indian sailors, release of INA and other political prisoners, withdrawal of Indian troops from Indonesia.
11. Who were POWS (Prisoners of War)?
A: Initially they were soldiers in the British army and had been captured by the Japanese when the British were defeated in Burma and Malaya. They were POWS. Bose recruited them in his army, INA.