Questions - Answers
1. How did human life styles change with settlement?
A: * Early humans were nomadic, they kept moving from place to place. After a long time, owing to changes in the obtaining of food, some bands took to the deliberate production of food grains. This was only 10,000 years ago, practice of agriculture, was a cause of sedentary life style.
* As agriculture progressed, people organised their life around patterns observed in nature.
* The size of population also increased. As population increased, there was more specialisation weavers, potters, metal workers and other professions emerged.
* Rulers began to encourage craft persons to settle in urban areas.
* As settlements became larger, they also became more complex because there were more functions to be performed. Food production was not the only concern. With in each settlement, people specialised in certain skills, many goods were produced for the market and sold to traders who carried them to far off places.
2. How does the census of India define various kinds of places? How does it organise them in order of size and other characteristics.
A: The census of India organises settlements in India using certain criteria. It defines various kinds of places according to their size, population, available eminities, facilities like infrastructure transport, communications, education, medical and other characteristics.
In the below table the census of India defines various settlements as follows.
3. What is an aerotropolis? How is it structured? (Conceptual understanding)
A: * An aerotropolis is an urban plan in which the layout, infrastructure and economy is centered on an airport existing as an airport, city.
* This is a new kind of settlement is occurring in many countries, including India. These settlements are centered around large airports.
* Aerotropolis typically attract Industries related to sensitive manufacturing, e-commerce fulfillment, tele-communication and logistics, hotels, retail outlets, entertainment complexes and exhibition centres and offices. Clusters of business parks, distribution centres, Information technology parks, and wholesale merchandise marts will become parts of the clustered buildings around the airport.
In Text Questions & Answers
1. Talk to people in the selected area and find out the changes in the settlement during the past twenty years and the reason for this. (Information skills)
A: * According to people I have met the village Rangaraja Puram 20 years ago there was no even a single puccka house in that village.
* The most important changes in that village like transformation of settlement pattern from kucha houses to pucca houses.
* Now we cant see any open space in the village. We can find number of houses constructed in the village.
* Most of the people changed from single - individual houses to multi storey houses.
* There used to be only a government high school, but right now there are more corporate schools established.
* But now they feel the facilities like improvement of proper drainage system, extension of existing roads, providing regular safety drinking water, electricity and other infrastructure facilities.
2. Find out what factors have influenced the settlement of your place in the past ten years.
A: i) I live in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh. As it is known as temple town and financial capital.
ii) There are many factors that influence the settlement of our place in the past 25 years.
Some of those are....
* It is surrounded by many hills, So it is safe on secure.
* In recent years, due to establishment of medium and small scale industries and providing wide varieties of services in service sector like banking, transport, education, IT, entertainment etc., the city has expanded on all directions to accomidate the influx of rural to urban migrated population.
* The transport facilities also expanded.
* Many educational institutes are established from KG to PG.
* Provided Communication facilities.
* And other factors like security, policing etc.,
3. Population of Visakhapatnam.
A. In the population data given above, are the numbers reported for every decade? If not, which decades data are not reported here?
A: Yes, the population data of all decades have given.
B. From which decade to which decade has the populations increase been the highest (in percentage)?
A: From 1991 - 2001 the increase of population is higher.
C. From which decade to which decade has the population increase been the least (in percentage)?
A: From 1911 to 1921, the population increase is less.
D. Plot the absolute population of Visakhapatnam on a line graph covering
1901 - 2011. What observations can you make about the changes in the absolute population size?
4. What is the centre of an aerotropolis? (Conceptual understanding)
A: i) Airport acts as centre of an aerotropolis.
ii) Aerotropolis is defined as settlements that are centered around large cities.
iii) This is a new pattern of settlements being observed recently in megacities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Metropolitan cities like Hyderabad.
5. On an outline map of the world, locate the lable the cities given in the examples above. Name the country and airport also on the map. Remember to use different types of text to identify the name of the country and the names of the cities and Airports. Thus, it will be very easy to see which words are names of countries and which are for cities and their Airports. (Mapping Skills)
Location of Airports and Their Cities in Map.
A: (1) Begaluru International Airport
(2) Indira Gandhi International Airport (Delhi)
(3) Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (Hyderabad)
(4) Suvarnabhoomi International Airport (Bankok, Thailand)
(5) Dubai International Airport (Dubai, UAE)
(6) Cairo International Airport (Cairo, Egypt)
(7) London Heathrow Airport (London)
Additional Questions And Answers
1. Read the text given below and answer the question.
Increasing urbanisation is not just about great opportunities for people, but creates number of problems in urban areas, In India 350 Million i.e. one third of population lives in cities and towns.
Q: What are the problems do you observed in your area/near by urban area.
A: i) Increasing urbanisation not only providing facilities and opportunities, but also create number of problems in urban areas.
ii) I have observed the following problems in urban areas.
Problems in Urban areas.
(a) Over population
(b) Urban slums are emerged in large scale due to migration.
(c) Problems in supplying water.
(d) Proper sanitation and maintaining drainage especially at rainy season.
(e) Over pollution due to number of vehicles as well as factories near by
(f) Disposal of solid waste become major problem.
2. Study the following table and answer the Questions. (Information Skills)
1. Which settlements occupy major share of population is Delhi?
A: Planned colonies.
2. Which two settlements occupy same percentage of population?
A: Unauthorised colonies and rural villages.
3. What is least occupied settlement?
A: Urban villages.
4. By How much percent Juggi Jhopdi clusters differ from slum designated areas?
A: By 4.3% (19.1 - 14.8)
5. What is share of regularised - unauthorised colonies in 2000?
3. Heavy migration leads to Urban slums. Suggest to prevent the urban slums. (Appreciation and sensitivity)
A: i) Due to heavy migration from villages to towns/cities slums are formed, where there is no proper planning.
ii) The people living in slums may become a problem for the entire city. The people should be sheltered in any other locality.
iii) Most of the people living in slums are coming from rural places in search of jobs. Creating jobs in rural areas is the best measure for slums.
iv) Based on possibility, the slums should be replaced with multi storey buildings to provide shelter for the slum people.
v) Proper town planning by town planning department can control the slums into better settlements.
4. What is metropolitan city?
A: A city having population between one million to ten millions is called metropolitan city.
5. What is master plan? Explain. (Conceptual Understanding)
A: i) Usually each and every city has a master plan to design and allocate different types of areas.
ii) In each and every city there should be housing areas, markets, schools, industrial areas, offices, parks and recreational areas and so on. Based on this planners can decide what types of roads, how much water or electricity, how to dispose waste, how to clean sewage etc., would be necessary.
iii) A planned colony usually has all facilities in a place.
iv) Government has to announce areas demarcated for different purposes. The construction in that area are expected to follow such an order.