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Rampur: A Village Economy

Questions - Answers

1. What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.

A: * People follow the two most common ways of increasing production on the same piece of lands. They are

(i) Modern Farming Method: It helps in increasing the yield of the land. For example, use of High Yield Variety (HYV) of Seeds, Pesticides, Chemical Fertilisers, help in increasing the land productivity.

(ii) Multiple Croping: Under multiple croping system, more than one crop is grown on a piece of land, it increases the production on same piece of land. For example, Wheat, Bajra and Potato can be grown on the same piece of land.
 

2. How do the Medium and Large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is different from the small farmers?  (Conceptual Understanding)

A: * The small farmers with less than two hectares of land have to face much more problems than the medium or large farmers.

* As compared to small farmers, medium and large farmers can quite easily obtain capital for farming.

* The small farmers depend on loans from the traders and the village money lenders at a high rate of interest.

* The medium and large farmers generally have their own savings to spend for the improvement their farms these can get loan from Banks it needed at a reasonable interest.
 

3. Talk to some elderly persons in your region and write a small report on the changes irrigation and changes production method during the last 30 years.      (Reflection on contemperory issues)

A: (i) I talked some elderly people of my village and got know the changes in production methods during the last 30 years.

(ii) Earlier irrigation was depend on rains, canals from ponds etc. There was no water supply to use for farm the land. The production was less.

(iii) But slowly the irrigation methods are changed. High yielding variety seeds are used, pesticides are using, modern irrigation facilities came in the place of french wheels, using tractors for ploughing, different machines, chemicals, multi crop system are in practising.

4. What are the main non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Write a brief report on any one such activity.   (Reflection on contemporary issues and questioning)

A: There are many farms of non - farm production activities in our region. Some of them are
    1) Dairy
    2) Shop keeping and Tailoring
    3) Brick Making
    4) Readymade Garments
    5) Weaving
    6) Pottery
    7) Blacksmith
    8) Carpenters
    9) Basket Making
    10) Transporting
    11) Hotels, Sweet Stalls
    12) Computers (Hardware and Software) etc.

5. Water is a natural resource for production, particularly agricultural production, now requires greater capital for its use. Can you explain the statement?
A: * Agriculture is a major user of water resources and the consumption of water increasing day by day.
* Most of the irrigation in India based on tapping underground water. As a result underground water levels have fallen rapidly across the country.
* And also Indian Agriculture mainly depends on rains which are unpredictable. As a result the agriculture has to depend on irrigation facilities such as Dams, Anicuts, Check Dams, Bunds, Pools etc. which are most expensive to construct.
* So I can say that water is a natural resource for production, particularly agriculture production now require greater capital for its use.

 

In-Text Questions and Answers

1. What do you know about agriculture? How do crops change in various seasons? Do most people depend on agriculture belong to land owning groups or are labourers?  (Conceptual understanding)
A: (i) Agriculture consists of ploughing the field, sowing seeds, irrigating it and spraying pesticides, harvesting etc.

(ii) Agriculture is the primary source of employment for us and it comes under primary sector.
(iii) The farmers change the crops as per the seasons. The crop seasons are Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
(iv) Most of the people who depend on agriculture in India are belonging to Labourers.

 

2. The following table shows the land under cultivation in India in units of million hectors. Plot this on the graph provided. What does the graph show?
Year

 


     

Cultivated area over the year:
* The graph shows that from 1950 to 1960 the cultivated area has increased by 10 hectares.
* However from 1960 to 2000, it has remained constant at 140 hectares except for 1960 to 1970 when it is increased by 10 hectares.
* If we look at the overall scenario the cultivated area has not increased in proportion to the increase in population during the 1950 to 2000.

 

3. What are the reasons for multiple croping in a rural area?    (Reflection on contemporary issues)
A: * Land is a scarce factor of production, cultivated land area is less. To make the maximum use of the existing land, farmers use multiple croping to increase production of crops.
* To reduce the duration of crops hybrid seeds are using.
* Multiple croping helps to maximum utilizing of water, fertilizers.
* Advanced technology helps to get maximum profits.

 

4. What do the arrows indicate? Would you agree that the distribution of cultivated land is unequal in India? Explain.   (Information Skills)

 
 

A: * The arrows indicate that 87% of the total farmers are cultivating 48% of the total cultivated land.
* The remaining 13% of the farmers are cultivating the remaining 52% of the land.
* This indicates that there is no equal distribution of land among farmers.
* Yes. I agree that distribution at cultivated land is unequal in India.
* In Rampur, 240 families cultivate small plots of land less than 2 hectares in size, where as remaining cultivate more than 2 hectares of land. A few of the large farmers have land extending over 10 or more hectares. We find the similar situation in India also.

 

5. Read the para given below and answer the question.   (Reading the Text (given) understanding and interpretation)
     Dala is a landless farm labourer who works on daily wages in Rampur. He searches for work regularly. His wages are less than what the Utter pradesh government has set as minimum wages for labourers. There is a heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Rampur.
Q: Why are farm labourers like Dala poor?
A: * They are all landless farm labourers.
     * They do not get regular work like Dala.

* They work for low wages due to heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in Rampur.
* As large farmers are increasingly relying machines, the number of days of work available to a worker is declining in rural areas.

 

Additional Questions and Answers

1. Read the table given below and answer the questions. (Information skills)

i. What are the works done only male workers?
A: Ploughing only.

 

ii. What are the works done only by female workers?
A: Transplanting and picking cotton.

iii. In which works, the wages are different for male and female?
A: Weeding, Harvesting, Winnowing.

 

iv. What are the reasons for paying less wages to female workers than male workers?
A: The reasons for paying less wages to female workers than male workers...
     * Some hard physical work like ploughing is done only by men.
     * The strength and stamina of male labour is more than that of the female workers.
     * Critical work like climbing the heights, cutting the trees is given only to men.
     * In some cases it has become a tradition that women will be paid less.

 

2. Name the Economic Activities at Rampur?
A: The activities of Rampur are as fallows.
* The Primary Economic activity in Rampur is Agriculture.
* Most of the people of Rampur are Agricultural Labourers.
* Other than Agricultural Activities in Rampur are "Tailoring, Washermen, Shoemaker, Goldsmith, Blacksmith" etc.
* Poultry and Dairy is also adopting in this village.
* Installed Sugar cane Machines, Shopkeepers, Transport operators also there.

3. Write about "MNREGA".
A: "MNREGA" means "Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act".
* It is introduced in 2005.
* It is meant to provide livelihood to the people of Rural Areas.
* According to this act every rural family is guaranteed employment of a 100 days in a year for which they would be paid not below the minimum wages.
* The workers undertaking "water conservations, water harvesting, drought proofing, providing irrigation facility to land owned by the Schedule Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
* MNREGA introduced compulsory social audits.

 

4. Write about irrigation in India.
A: * India have high levels of irrigation except in some villages.
     * Apart from the Riverine plains, coastal regions in our country are well irrigated.
     * Plateau region such as Deccan plateau have low levels of irrigation.
     * A little less than 40% of the total cultivated area in our country is irrigated.
     * In remaining areas, farming is largely dependent of rainfall.

5. Give the characteristics of rural industries.
A: * Rural industries are small scale manufacturing units.
     * They involve very simple production methods.
     * The output is very small.
     * The work is usually carried out by the members of the family.
     * The work is carried out at home and not in workshops.
     * The profits earned are also less.

Posted Date : 03-12-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

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