Voice refers to the arrangement of the subject and the object in a sentence along with the change in the tense in the clause. Verbs in English are inflected to show five main traits: person, number, tense, voice, and mood. In English, there are two voices: the active and the passive. Modern English is an S+V+O order language i.e. Subject + Verb + (direct) Object.
e.g. The student took the book. (Active)
On the other hand, in the passive voice the subject of the active voice (doer) and the active voice direct object (receiver) interchange their relative position in the clause. Thus, the order becomes: Object+ Helping Verb + Past Participle of the Main Verb + by + Subject
e.g. The book was taken by the student. (Passive)
Please note the structural difference in the above sentences in the corresponding transformation from the Active Voice into the Passive Voice of the sentence offered under the example given above.
However, not every active sentence in English can be transformed into corresponding passive form. There are two rules which are required to make this transformation. They are: 1.Only transitive verbs can be made passive, since it has to have a direct object to make it into passive. 2. Linking verbs cannot be transformed for a passive clause.
The important thing is nothing but the changing the voice of the verb in the transformation of Change of Voice. Please do observe this note. When the verb of a sentence is changed from the Active Voice to the Passive Voice and the other words in the sentence are left unaltered, a change in meaning results. In the following examples, the verbs are underlined.
e.g. Active Voice: He is driving to the airport.
Passive Voice: He is being driven to the airport. (Wrong)
* Explanation: The person referred to by the subject of the first sentence is behaving actively; the person is doing the driving. The person referred to by the subject of the second sentence is behaving passively; someone else is doing the driving. Further the verb ‘drive’ in the given sentence is INTRANSITIVE and has NO PASSIVE FORM. Language encounter! Don’t you feel so? Then, this is not the transformation desired.
We have to change only the form and not the meaning. If this precautionary step is programmed into our minds, transformation of voice becomes easy on our part. In order to preserve the meaning of a sentence when the Voice of the verb is changed, it is necessary to alter the order of the words in the sentence.
It should be noted that, when changing the Voice of a verb in a sentence while preserving the meaning of the sentence, it is necessary to make sure that the verb (tense) agrees with its new subject.
e.g. Active: The boys are mowing the lawn.
Passive: The lawn is being mowed by the boys. (Right)
Voice Transformation Made Easy
At first, we have to locate the main verb in the given sentence. Then ask "Who?" (Who performed the action?) You will get the "Subject". Now read the "Subject and Verb" together and ask "What" or "Whom" to know what is or who is involved in the action and you will get the "Object".
Now, take the "Subject" and place it at the end and bring the "Object" to the first place. Change the verb into "Past Participle". Add suitable "be" form verb to indicate the tense and degree.
If there is no answer for the questions "what / whom" then the verb happens to be an ‘intransitive’ one. The ‘intransitives’ cannot be changed into the ‘Passive Voice’. You need an "Object" to change the ‘Voice’.
e.g. Namratha goes to school. - (No object – Intransitive Verb – No Passive)
Namratha tells stories everyday. ↔ Stories are told by Namratha everyday.
THE PROCESS OF THE VOICE CHANGE
కర్త ప్రధానంగా ఉన్న వాక్యాలను Active Voice లో ఉన్నాయని, కర్మ లేదా పని (క్రియ) ప్రధానంగా ఉన్న వాక్యాలను Passive Voice లో ఉన్నట్లు చెప్తారని మనకి తెలుసు. అయితే Tenses విభాగంలో, వీలైన అన్ని Tense లకి, వాటి Passive నిర్మాణాలను మీరు చూశారు. మరి కొన్ని విభిన్న సహాయక క్రియలతో కూడిన వాక్యాల Passive రూపాలు ఎలా ఉంటాయో, ఈ విభాగంలో చూస్తారు. ఒక సూత్ర రూపంలో ఏర్పాటు చేసిన TABLE ని, ఇక్కడ పొందుపరిచాం. ముందుగా Active Voice లో ఉన్న ఒక వాక్యాన్ని passive Voice లోకి మార్చడానికి రూపొందించిన సోపానాలను ఒక ఉదాహరణ సహాయంతో నేర్చుకోండి.
e.g.: Sheela is learning English now. (Active Voice లో ఉన్న వాక్యమిది.)
Subject Verb Object Adv
పై వాక్యం subject తో ప్రారంభమైంది కాబట్టి ఇది Active Voice లో ఉందని మనకు తెలుసు. దీన్ని Passive Voice లోకి మార్చడానికి ఈ కింది సోపానాలను follow అవుదాం. పైన ఇచ్చిన వాక్యాన్ని Passive లో ఇలా రాద్దాం.
1. object ని ముందుగా రాయాలి. (English . . .
2. is సహాయంతో Passive కు తగిన helping verb రాయాలి. is being...
3. main verb యొక్క Past Participle రాయాలి. learnt
4. సాధారణంగా by ని చేర్చాలి. (కర్త స్పష్టంగా తెలిసినప్పుడే by)
5. ఇప్పుడు కర్తను రాయాలి. కర్త స్పష్టంగా తెలిసినప్పుడే Sheela
6. చివరగా Adverb ను రాయాలి. (Active Voice లో ఇచ్చిన now)
e.g.: English is being learnt by Sheela now.
Object helping verb Past Participle Preposition Subject Adverb
VOICE TRANSFORMATION IN DIFFERENT VERB TENSES
Passive Voice Strucutres for Modals
* Modal Verbs can have their Passive forms with the verb ‘be’ following them in their passive constructions. Modals like can, should, ought to, have to, must, had better, might, could, would, had to, has to, need to, may, will have to become can be, should be, ought to be, have to be, must be, had better be, might be, could be, would be, had to be, has to be, need to be, may be, will have to be respectively.
e.g. Active : Neha can perform the trick easily.
Passive: The trick can be performed by Neha easily.
Miscellaneous Cases in Voice Transformation
* Imperative sentences (those that do not have the subject in them) can also be transformed into their Passive Voice with a special formula. ( Let + Obj + be + not + V3+ by + Sub.)
e.g. Active : Please close the door.
Passive: Let the door be closed by you.
* When there are two objects i.e. the direct object and the indirect object in a sentence, the
passive construction takes place in either of the forms given below.
e.g. Active : I have taught the classbe first lesson.
Passive : The first lesson was taught by me to the class.
Passive : The class was taught the first lesson by me.
* By making the clause itself as the subject in the passive voice.
e.g. Active : I hope that he will realize his mistake.
Passive : That his mistake will be realized is hoped by us.
* Phrasal verb cases should be taken care of.
e.g. Active : We are looking at the game.
Passive: The game is being looked at by us.
* By substituting the clause with pronoun it.
e.g. Active :I expected that they would win the match.
Passive: It was expected by me that the match would be won by them.
* Interrogative sentences
e.g. Active : How else would you learn it?
Passive : How else would it be learnt by you?
Active : Who broke it?
Passive : By whom was it broken?
* Sentences starting with ‘Let…’
e.g. Active : Let me see the picture.
Passive : Let the picture be seen by me.
As a general rule, however, the active voice is shorter, more direct, and more dynamic than the passive voice. When you are writing, try to find all of your passive voice sentences and change them into the active voice. Keep those sentences for which passive voice is an improvement and return to your first construction for the others.
ఈ అధ్యయనాంశంలో చెప్పిన విషయాలను నిశితంగా గమనిస్తే వాయిస్ ఛేంజ్ ప్రక్రియ సులభమవుతుంది. అయితే అన్ని టెన్స్లకు సంబంధించిన, ప్రత్యేక సందర్భాలు ఇమిడి ఉన్న వాక్యాలను వాయిస్ ఛేంజ్ విషయంలో ప్రాక్టీస్ చేస్తే ఆ ప్రక్రియపై పట్టు వస్తుంది. అందుకోసమే ఒక అభ్యాసాన్ని ఇచ్చాం.. ప్రయత్నించి తర్వాత మీ జవాబులను ఇచ్చిన సమాధానాలతో సరిచూసుకోండి.