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CODING-DECODING

SOLVED EXAMPLES
 

Example 1 :-

If GOODNESS is coded as HNPCODTR, then how GREATNESS can be written in that code?

    (a) HQZSMFRT      (b) HQFZUFRTM     (c) HQFZUODTR     (d) HQFZUMFRT

Sol. (d) Clearly, the letters in the word GOODNESS are moved one step forward and one step backward alternative to obtain the letters of the code.

As,

 

Example 2:-

If in a certain code ‘INTELLIGENCE’ is written as ‘ETNIGILLENCE’, then how can ‘MATHEMATICAL’ be written in the same code?

(a) AMHTMETACILA

(b) TAMMEHITALAC

(c) HTAMTAMELACI

(d) LACITAMEHTAM

Sol. (c)

As,


 

Example 3 :-

In a certain code language, ‘STARK’ is written as ‘LBFMG’ and ‘MOBILE’ is written as ‘TNRSPJ’. How will ‘BLAME’ be written in that same code language?

   (a) TSFRJ      (b) RPFTJ     (c) NJFTP     (d) TSFGJ     (e) None of these

Sol. (b) Using direct letter coding method. 

 

Example 4:-

In a certain coding system, ‘SHEEP’ is written as ‘GAXXR’ and "BLEAT’ is written as ‘HPXTN’. How can ‘SLATE’ be written in that same coding system?

   (a) GPTNX     (b) GPTXN      (c) GPXNT     (d) PTGXN     (e) None of these

Sol. (a) In both the words ‘SHEEP’ and ‘BLEAT’, the letter E is common and code for E is substituted X. Hence, using direct letter coding method, we have

Example 5:-

If ‘WORK’ is coded as ‘4-12-9-16’, then how will you code ‘WOMAN’?

    (a) 4-12-14-26-13     (b) 4-26-14-13-12  c) 23-12-26-14-13

   (d) 23-15-13-1-14       (e) None of these

Sol. (a) We have,

                        

       Then,

                    

Here, each letter is coded by the numerical value obtained by subtracting its ‘position value’ in English alphabetical order, from 27, e.g. letters W, O, M, A, N are at 23rd, 15th, 13th, 1st and

14th position in alphabetical order. So, their codes are (27 – 23), (27 – 13), (27 – 1), (27 – 14) i.e. 4, 12, 14, 26, 13, respectively i.e. their backward order position.  
 

Example 6 :-

If MADRAS is coded as 517916 and TENANT is coded as 432124, then how would you encode RMATSN?

    (a) 851353       (b) 951363       (c) 951462       (d) 941562

Sol. (c) We have,

 

Example 7 :-

In a certain code language, ‘it pit sit’ means ‘I am boy’, ‘it nit sit’ means ‘I am girl’, which of the following means ‘girl’?

      (a) it         (b) pit       (c) sit     (d) nit      (e) None of these

Sol. (d) We have

                                      

Here, ‘it’ and ‘sit’ are common in both the messages and ‘I’ and ‘am’ are common in both codes. Hence, code for girl will be ‘nit’.
 

Example 8 :-

In a certain code language,

481 means ‘sky is blue’ 246 means ‘sea is deep’ and 698 means ‘sea looks blue’. What number is the code for blue?

        (a) 1                 (b) 6                   (c) 8            (d) 9

Sol. (c) Given

                       

From Eqs. (i) and (iii),

It is clearly shown that, the code for blue is ‘8’.

 

Example 9 :-

If ‘white’ is called ‘blue’, ‘blue’ is called ‘red’, ‘red’ is called ‘yellow’, ‘yellow’ is called ‘green’, ‘green’ is called ‘black’, ‘black’ is called ‘violet’ and ‘violet’ is called ‘orange’, then what would be the colour of human blood?

    (a) Red         (b) Green     (c) Yellow     (d) Violet       (e) Orange

Sol. (c) We know that, the colour of the human blood is ‘red’ but here ‘red’
 

Example 10 :-

If ‘parrot’ is known as ‘peacock’, ‘peacock’ is known as ‘swallow’, ‘swallow’ is known as ‘pigeon’ and ‘pigeon’ is known as ‘sparrow’, then what would be the name of Indian National Bird?

     (a) Parrot    (b) Swallow      (c) Peacock     (d) Pigeon     (e) Sparrow

Sol. (b) We know that, peacock is the Indian National Bird but here peacock is known as swallow. So, the answer is swallow.


 

EXERCISE

1. In a certain code language, ‘GIVE’ is written as ‘VIEG’ and ‘OVER’ is written as ‘EVRO’. How will ‘DISK’ be written in that same code?

A: SIKD

Solution:

 

2. In a coding, system, APPLE is represented as ZKKOV. In such system, COW will be represented as

A: XLD

Solution:                      

3. If CUP = 40, then KITE = ?

A: 45

Solution:

   As,

   3   21   16

  C    U    P     3 + 21 + 16 = 40

  Similarly,

   11   9   10  5

   K    I     T    E   11 +  9 + 20 + 5 = 45

  (using forward letter positions)

 

4. If BAG = 71, then VICE = ?

A: 69

Solution:

   As,

   25   26   20

   B    A    G      25 + 26 + 20 = 71

   Similarly,

   5   18   24  22

    V    I    C    E    5 +  18 + 24 + 22 = 69

   (using backward letter positions)

 

Study the following letters and their corresponding digits codes following by certain conditions of coding and then answer the questions given below them by finding out which of the

digits combinations given in (a), (b), (c) and (d) is the coded form of the letters-groups given in each question and mark your answer accordingly.
 

Conditions :
 

(i) If both the first and the last letters in the group are vowels, both should be coded as $.

(ii) If both the first and the last letters in the group are consonants, both should be coded as #.


           
5. KUNAJB

A: #0391#

Solution:

We know that, in English alphabets A, E, I, O, U letters are vowels and remaining letters are consonants.

From condition (ii),

 

6. RBUKAE

A: 670892

Solution:

We know that, in English alphabets A, E, I, O, U letters are vowels and remaining letters are consonants.

Does not follow any condition.

7. EBNAPI

A: $7395$

Solution:

We know that, in English alphabets A, E, I, O, U letters are vowels and remaining letters are consonants.

From condition (i),


 

8. If the word ‘TABLECLOTH’ is coded as ‘XEMRANRIXT’, then how can ‘HOTEL’ be coded?

A: TIXAR

Solution:

 As,


       
9. If ‘CARING’ is coded as ‘EDVGKC’, and ‘SHARES’ is coded as ‘UKEPBO’, then how will ‘CASKET’ be coded as in the same code?

A: EDWIBP

Solution:

10. If DEMOCRATIC is written as EDMORCATCI, then how CONTINUOUS will be written in the same code?

A: OCNTNIUOSU

Solution

 

Coded Inqualities - Basics

Model - 1

Reverse symbols:

Symbol                  Reverse symbols                                                                  

A > B                     B < A      

A < B                    B > A

A B                    B A

A B                    B A

A = B                    B = A

 

 Opposite symbols:

Symbol                    Opposite symbols

     >                         < or

     <                         > or

                                  

                                

     =                            =

Directions (Q.1-10): In these questions, relationship between different elements is shown in the statement(s). The statement(s) is/are followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. Study

the conclusions based on the given statement(s) and select the appropriate answer.

Give answer:

1) If only conclusion I follows

2) If only conclusion II follows

3) If either conclusion I or II follows

4) If neither conclusion I nor II follows

5) If both conclusions I and II follow

1. Statement: E > A = B C H > N

   Conclusions: I. E > N   II. C < E

2. Statement: Y X Z = A D = E

   Conclusions: I. A Y II. X E

3. Statement: K O < L = G > H T

   Conclusions: I. K < G II. L > T

4. Statement: P M = D < E W > J

   Conclusions: I. J < D II. E > P

5. Statement: P > S O = M Z L = D

   Conclusions: I. S = Z II. Z > S

6. Statements: P > L A = N E D;  R N > D

   Conclusions: I. E L II. R < P

7. Statements: K E M = C S > H; U < L M T > B

   Conclusions: I. T K II. H < U

8. Statements: A C < N = K G < E; Q K > M O; H > F K P < R

   Conclusions: I. G < H II. N > O

9. Statements: E F < G H; J < H K I Q; L < N > H T = M

   Conclusions: I. G < M II. M = G

10. Statements: A < Q = R Z > T; Q M < B > Y = L; S < I > T = B J

     Conclusions: I. Z < B II. Y > S

 

Directions (Q.11–15): In these questions, relationship between different elements is shown in the statements. The statements are followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. Study the

conclusions based on the given statement and select the appropriate answer.

11. Statements: N W; W > H; H < T

Conclusions: I. H < N II. T > W

1) Neither I nor II follows    2) Only I follows     3) Only II follows    4) Both I and II follow    5) Either I or II follows

 

12. Statements: F > R; H < R; L H

Conclusions: I. R L II. F > L

1) Only II follows    2) Either I or II follows   3) Only I follows    4) Neither I nor II follows   5) Both I and II follow

 

13. Statements: J K; K < M; M > T

Conclusions: I. K < T II. K T

1) Both I and II follow   2) Either I or II follows   3) Only II follows    4) Neither I nor II follows   5) Only I follows

 

14. Statements: F M, M > A, R < A, E > R

Conclusions: I. F E II. F < E

1) Only I follows       2) Both I and II follow

3) Only II follows      4) Either I or II follows   5) Neither I nor II follows

 

15. Statements: A B, M > B, D < M, F = D

Conclusions: I. B < A II. M > F

1) Neither I nor II follows  2) Both I & II follow   3) Only I follows  

4) Either I or II follows   5) Only II follows

 

Directions (Q.16-20): In these questions, relationship between different elements is shown in the statement. The statement is followed by some conclusions. Study the conclusions based

on the given statement and select the appropriate answer.

16. Statement: A < D > C < E > B

Conclusions: I. C > B II. A < E

1) Either conclusion I or II follows   2) Only conclusion I follows   3) Neither conclusion I nor II follows

4) Both conclusions I and II follow   5) Only conclusion II follows

 

17. Statement: M < O = U N > T D

Conclusions: I. O > D II. M T

1) Either conclusion I or II follows     2) Only conclusion I follows   3) Neither conclusion I nor II follows   

4) Both conclusions I and II follow    5) Only conclusion II follows

 

18. Statement: P R > Q = T S

Conclusions: I. T < P   II. S = Q   III. Q > S

1) Either conclusion II or III follows    2) Only conclusion I follows   

3) Only I and either conclusion II or III follows     4) All follow   5) None follows

 

19. Statement: S U W P = C > M

Conclusions: I. M < U  II. C > S  III. U = M

1) Either conclusion I or III follows     

2) Only conclusion I follows   

3) Only II and either conclusion I or III follows   

4) Only II follows   5) All follow

 

20. Statement: J O < A N T > Z R

Conclusions: I. A > J   II. N < R   III. A = T

1) Only I follows     2) Only II and III follow     3) Only conclusion II follows   

4) Only II and either conclusion I or III follows    5) All follows 
 

Solutions

1. Two opposite symbols between E and N, Hence, I does not follow. Between E and C the symbol > is common. Hence, E > C is true, obviously C < E is also true.

∴ Only II follows.

2. Between Y and A, the symbol is common, Hence, Y A is true obviously A Y is also true. Between X and E two opposite symbols, hence no conclusion can be drawn

∴ Only I follows

3. Between K and G, the Symbol < is common. Hence K < G follows. Between L and T, the symbol > is common. Hence L > T follows.

∴ Both I and II follow

4. Two opposite symbols between D and J. Hence, I does not follow. Between P and E, the symbol < is common. Hence P < E is true ⇒ E > P is also true

∴ Only II follows.

5. Between S and Z, the symbol is common. Hence, S Z true ⇒ Z S is also true.

∴ Either I or II follows6. Two opposite symbols are there in between L and E. Hence I does not follow. Combining both the statements, we have P > N R. So P > R is true ⇒ R < P is also true.

∴ Hence only II follows

7. Combining both the statements we have K M T. So, K T is true ⇒ T K is also true. Two opposite symbols between U and M So, II does not follow.

∴ Hence, only I follows.

8. Combining we have, H > K G. So, H > G is true ⇒ G < H is also true. Combining we have N = K > O ⇒ N > O is true.

∴ Hence, both I and II follow 

9. Combining we have, G H M. So, G M is true.

∴ Hence, either I or II follows.

10. Between Z and B there are two opposite symbols. So, I does not follow. Between S and B there are two opposite symbols. So, II does not follow.

∴ Hence, neither I nor II follows

11. Combining we have, N W > H So, N > H is true ⇒ H < N is also true Between W and T there are two opposite symbols, so no Conclusion can be drawn.

∴ Hence only I follows.

12. Combining we have F > R > H L From this, R L does not follow. F > L follows.

∴ Hence, only II follows

13. Combining we have J K < M > T Between K and T, two opposite symbols. So, neither I nor II follows, but between I and II, one of the conclusions must be true but
which conclusion must be true we cannot say.

∴ Hence either I or II follows.

14. Combining the statements we have F M > A > R < E Between F and E two opposite symbols. Hence neither I not II follows, But between I and II, one of the Conclusions must be true but

which conclusion is definitely true we cannot say.

∴ Hence either I or II follows

15. Combining the statements we have A B < M > D = F A B is true ⇒ B A true but only B < A is false. M > F is true.

∴ Hence, only II follows

16. Between CB, and AE there are two opposite symbols.

∴ Hence, neither I nor II follows.

17. Between OD and MT there are two opposite symbols. 

∴ Hence neither I nor II follows

18. Between P and T, the symbol > is common So, P > T is true ⇒ T < P is also true. Between Q and S, the symbol is common So, Q S is true.

∴ Hence, only I and either conclusion II or III follows.

19. Between U and M, the symbol > is common So, U > M is true ⇒ M < U is true but M = U is false. Between S and C the symbol is common. So, S C is true ⇒ C S is true but only C > S is

false.

∴ Hence, only I follows.

20. Between J and A, the symbol < is common. So, J < A is true ⇒ A > J is true. Between N and R, the symbol > is common So, N > R is true but N < R is false. Two opposite symbols between A

and T. So III is false. 

∴ Hence only I is true     

KEY: 1-2   2-1   3-5   4-2   5-3   6-2   7-1   8-5   9-3   10-4   11-2   12-1  13-2   14-4   15-5   16-3   17-3   18-3   19-2   20-1.

 

SOME MORE EXAMPLES

1. In a certain code language, if the word ‘AUTONOMOUS’ is coded as ‘SUOMONOTUA’, then what is the code for ‘GOVERNMENT’ in that language?

a) TNEMNGOVER       b) TNEMNREVOG     c) GOVERTNEMN       d) TNENMREOVG

Sol: Code for ‘AUTONOMOUS’ is obtained by reversing the order of letters.

A   U   T   O   N   O   M   O   U   S 

1    2    3   4    5   6    7    8   9  10

S   U   O   M   O   N   O   T   U   A

10  9    8    7    6   5    4   3    2    1

Similarly,

G   O   V   E   R   N   M   E   N   T  

1   2    3   4    5    6    7    8    9  10

T   N   E   M   N   R   E   V   O   G

10  9    8    7    6   5    4   3    2   1

Ans: b

2. In a certain code language, ‘PROBLEM’ is coded as ‘MPERLOB’. Then how will you code ‘ABSCOND’ in that language?

a) DANSOCB       b) DNOCSBA        c) DNASOBC       d) DANBOSC

Sol:

P  R  O  B  L  E  M M  P  E  R  L  O  B

1   2  3   4  5  6  7        7   1  6  2   5    3  4

Similarly,

A  B  S  C  O  N  D D  A  N  B  O  S  C

1   2  3   4  5   6   7       7   1  6   2   5   3  4

Ans: d

3. If blue is coded as green, green is coded as white and white is coded as black, then what will be the code for the colour of grass?

a) White       b) Green           c) Black          d) None of these

Sol: Grass is Green and Green is coded as White.

Ans: a
 

4. If TRUTH is coded as SUQSTVSUGI, then the code for FALSE will be

a) EGZBKMRTDF       b) FGZBKNRTDF c) EGZKMRTDF          d) EGZBKMRDE

Sol: 

Ans: a


5. If in a certain code 1326 is coded as 8673, and 5470 is coded as 4529, then the code for 0009 will be

a) 9990       b) 1110       c) 8881       d) 1090

Sol:

Ans: a

6. In a certain code language 7 3 2 means ‘intelligent trained faculty’. 2 8 5 means ‘highly intelligent student’, 8 1 6 means ‘student and teacher’. Which numerical symbol in that code

language stands for ‘highly’?

a) 5             b) 8             c) 7             d) 2

Sol: Intelligent = 2,  Student = 8. Hence, highly = 5.

Ans: a

7. If ‘CPU’ is called ‘Monitor’, ‘Monitor’ is called ‘Keyboard’, ‘Keyboard’ is called ‘Printer’, ‘Printer’ is called ‘Mouse’ and ‘Mouse’ is called ‘Modem’, then which of the following is used to type?

a) CPU    b) Monitor    c) Mouse    d) Printer

Sol: We type using ‘keyboard’ which is called ‘printer’.

Ans: d

8. If DIMENSION is coded as 14159191451394, then what will be the code for FUNDAMENTAL in that language?

a) 12120135141421146        b) 12120141351414621     

c) 122012141351421613      d) 12120145131414216 

Ans: d

 

9. In a certain code language, ‘BASIC’ is coded as ‘CCVMH’, then what is the code for ‘NOIDA’ in that language?

a) OQLHF      b) OPLHF     c) OPJEB      d) OQHLF

Sol: 

Similarly,

 Ans: a

10. In a certain code language, ‘BLUE’ is coded as ‘13’ and ‘TYPE’ is coded as ‘21’. What will be the code for ‘FEAR’?

a) 19           b) 21           c) 18           d) 20

Sol: 2 12 21 5 B  L  U  E 2 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 5 = 13, 20 25 16  5

T   Y   P  E

2 + 0 + 2 + 5 + 1 + 6 + 5 = 21,

Similarly,

6  5  1 18

F  E A  R 6 + 5 + 1 + 1 + 8 = 21

Code for the above words is obtained by taking addition of digits of place values of each letter in the word.

Ans: b 

11. If ‘grass is green’ is coded as $ # @, ‘grass in park’ is coded as % @ & and ‘green colour park’ is coded as $ & *’, then what is the code for ‘colour is green’?

a) $ * &     b) & $ #     c) $ * #     d) @ $ *

Sol: From 1st and 2nd statements, code for grass is @; from 2nd and 3rd statements, code for park is & and from 1st and 3rd statements code for green is $. Therefore, code for colour is H.

Hence, code for ‘colour is green’ is $ * #.

Ans: c

12. In a certain language, ‘tir me sac’ means ‘green and tasty’, ‘pic sac for’ means ‘tomato is green’, ‘voc tir for’ means ‘food is tasty’. Which of the following means, ‘tomato is tasty’ in that

code?

a) ‘for tir doc’       b) ‘pic for tir’       c) ‘pic for sac’      d) ‘tir me for’

Sol: From 1st and 2nd statements code for green is ‘sac’. From 2nd and 3rd statements code for ‘is’ is ‘for’. From 1st and 3rd statements code for tasty is ‘tir’. So, code for tomato is ‘pic’

Hence, ‘tomato is tasty’ is coded as ‘pic for tir’.

Ans: b

13. A is coded as 1, B is coded as 3, C is coded as 5 and so on till M. Then N is coded as 2, O is coded as 4, P is coded as 6 and so on till Z. Then what will be the sum of the codes of the letters for the word ENGLISH?

a) 81          b) 71          c) 91          d) 85

Sol: E + N + G + L + I + S + H

= 9 + 2 + 13 + 23 + 17 + 12 + 15 = 91.

Ans: c

Posted Date : 16-08-2021

 

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