• facebook
  • whatsapp
  • telegram

IMPORTANT TERMS AND GLOSSARY

COMPUTER AWARENESS


What is WiFi?
 Wifi – wireless fidelity
      A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication.

Here's what happens:
 

1. A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna.
2. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. The router sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection.
        The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a radio signal and sending it to the computer's wireless adapter.
        The radios used for WiFi communication are very similar to the radios used for walkie talkies, cell phones and other devices. They can transmit and receive radio waves, and they can convert 1's and 0's into radio waves and convert the radio waves back into 1's and 0's. But WiFi radios have a few notable differences from other radios:

 

What is WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
 

       WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system, also known as IEEE 802.16, that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks". WiMAX can provide broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).
      With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened. WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-licensed frequencies, providing a regulated environment and viable economic model for wireless carriers.
      WiMAX can be used for wireless networking in much the same way as the more common WiFi protocol. WiMAX is a second-generation protocol that allows for more efficient bandwidth use, interference avoidance, and is intended to allow higher data rates over longer distances.

 

Bandwidth has several related meanings:
 

      Bandwidth (computing) or digital bandwidth: a rate of data transfer, throughput or bit rate, measured in bits per second (bps)
 

baud: (computer science) a data transmission rate (bits/second) for modem
 

What is RSS?
 

 RSS stands for "Really Simple Syndication". It is a way to easily distribute a list of headlines, update notices, and sometimes content to a wide number of people. It is used by computer programs that organize those headlines and notices for easy reading.

 
The Indian FInancial NETwork [INFINET] is the communication backbone for the Indian Banking and Financial Sector.
IDRBT –Institute for development and Reasearch in Banking Technology
Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage technology that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It is primarily used in memory cards, USB flash drives, and solidstate drives for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products

See also: Multiples of bits Orders of magnitude of data
 

       A dead key is a key on a typewriter or a computer keyboard that allows modification (such as by placement of diacritics) on the following letter. For example, option-e produces on the Macintosh U.S. keyboard layout. On a typewriter, this was accomplished mechanically by striking the diacritic mark without advancing the carriage (thus, the paper is still in the position to accept the next letter at the same spot the diacritic was placed).
 

       In computing, a modifier key is a special key on a computer keyboard that modifies the normal action of another key when the two are pressed in combination.
 

       For example, Alt+F4 in Microsoft Windows will close the program in the active window ; in this instance, Alt is the modifier key. In contrast, pressing just F4 will probably do nothing unless assigned a specific function in a particular program. By themselves, modifier keys usually do nothing, that is, pressing Alt alone does not trigger any action from the computer.
 

        An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or network operating system within that organization. The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. 

 
                Sometimes the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure.It may host multiple private websites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration.

            An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company, usually via the Internet. It has also been described as a "state of mind" in which the Internet is perceived as a way to do business with a selected set of other companies (business- to-business, B2B), in isolation from all other Internet users. In contrast, business to consumer (B2C) models involve known servers of one or more companies, communicating with previously unknown consumer users. 

 
          A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main memory locations. As long as most memory accesses are cached memory locations, the average latency of memory accesses will be closer to the cache latency than to the latency of main memory.

 

 

COMPUTER : IMPORTANT TERMS AND GLOSSARY

Access Bus : It is a new standard intended to connect relatively low-speed devices such as keyboards, mice, modems and printers. It runs on a thin four-wire cable that resembles the one that currently connects the keyboard or mouse to your computer. It also supports hot plugging i.e., one can disconnect peripherals and plug them in without letting computer shut down or reconfigure the system.
Access-time: The time interval between the instant at which data is called from a storage device and the instant delivery begins.
Account: A form of access to a computer or network with specified user name and password.
Accumulator : A local storage area called a register, in which the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is formed. It is a register in which one operand of an operation can be stored and subsequently replaced by the result of that operation,
ACK : Acknowledgement from a computer that a packet of data has been received and verified.
Acoustic coupler : A communications device (modem) which allows an ordinary telephone to be used with a computer device for data transmission.
Ada : A high level programming’ language named after Ada Augusta, co-worker with Charles Babbage.
Adder : A logic circuit capable of forming the sum of two or more quantities.
Address : Identification in the form of a name/ label/ number used for designating particular location in storage area.
Address register : A local storage register in the CPU which contains the address of the next instruction to be executed.
ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) : An algebraic high-level language.
Algorithm: A sequence of precise and unambiguous instructions for solving a problem in a finite number of operations.
Alphanumeric : A character set that contains letters, digits, and other special characters such as $,@,+,*,% etc.
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) : One of the components of central processing unit (CPU) of the computer that performs mathematical and logical operations.
Analog computer : A computer that operates on data which is in the form of continuously variable physical quantities.
Anonymous FTP : The Internet file transfer protocol. EFF sites that allow anonymous FTP do not require a password or access. One has only to log in as anonymous and enter his E-mail address as a password.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) : A USA based national organization that establishes uniform standards in several fields of computers.
APL : A high level language for specifying complex algorithms. It is a real-time language primarily for scientific applications.
Application program : Software designed for a specified purpose application.
Architecture: The overall design, construction, organization and interconnecting of the various components of a computer system.
Archive : Backup storage.
Arithmetic operator: A programming instruction or statement that initiates arithmetic calculation by a computer.
Artificial intelligence (AI) : A branch of computer science that deals with computers that possess reasoning, learning and thinking capabilities that resemble those of human beings.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange): A standard coding system for computers. ASCII-7 is a 7-bit code and its extended version ASCII-8 is an 8-bit code.
ASCII File : It is a document file in the universally recognized text format called ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange).
Assembler: A program that translates mnemonic statements into executable instructions. An assembler translates the programs written in the mnemonic assembler language into executable form.
Assembly language: A low-level programming language in which mnemonics are used to code operations and alphanumeric symbols are used for addresses. This language lies between high-level language and machine language.
Asynchronous communication: Communication between independently operating units.
Audio response: An output medium that produces verbal responses from the computer system.
Autoexec.BAT file: A special-purpose batch file (set of commands) that is automatically carried out by the MS-DOS operating system whenever the computer is started or restarted.
Automated Office : Refers to the merger of computers, office and telecommunications technology in an office environment.
Auxiliary storage : Often referred to as secondary storage. Here computer’s memory is characterized by low cost per bit stored also it has an operating speed far slower than that of the primary storage.
Background processing: The automatic execution of lower-priority (background) computer programs when higher-priority (foreground) programs are not using the system resources.
Backup: Alternate facilities of programs, data files, hardware equipments, etc. used in case the original one is destroyed, lost, or fail to operate.
Backup files: These are the files which are generated automatically in when one save a document. These files help in protecting the document due to out of order of the computer or power failure.
Bandwidth : The range of frequencies available for data transmission. The wider the bandwidth of a communications system the more data it can transmit in a given period of time.
Bar Code : A coding structure in which characters are represented by means of a series of parallel bars.
Base : The total number of digits (symbols) available to represent numbers in a positional number system.
Baseband System : A networking system in which the channel support, a single digital signal.
BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code): A high-level interactive programming language frequently used with personal computers and in timesharing environment.
Batch processing : Running of several computer programs one after another without human interaction to run each program individually. This is also known as stacked job processing because several jobs are stacked together and processed in group (batches) for efficient operation.
Baud : A unit for measuring data transmission speed that describes the capacity of a carrier. Baud is identical to bits per second.BCD (Binary Coded Decimal): One of the early coding systems used by computers which is based on the idea of converting each digit of a decimal number into its binary equivalent rather than converting the entire decimal value into a pure binary form.
Benchmark: In the electronic information disciplines, it is as an established performance standard for processing data, aligned with which new equipment and/or software can be evaluated.
Beta Test: A process of trying out a new product by independent users before it was finally manufactured/developed.
Binary : A selection, choice, or condition involving two possibilities.
Binaries newsgroup: A Usenet newsgroup dedicated to the posting of unary-coded binary files, often .gif or .jpg image files.
Binary number system: A number system with a base of two. It consists of two digits 0 and 1.
BIOS (Basic Input Output System): Responsible for handling particulars of input/ output operations.
BISYNC: (binary synchronous): A process of transmitting data. It is a half-duplex, character oriented, synchronous data communications transmission method.
Bit (binary digit): It stands for one binary piece of information which can be either 0 or 1.
BLOB (Binary Large Object) : A long bit string representing complex data.
Block : A group of related items / section of program coding treated as a unit.
Block move : An operation in which data is moved to a different location.
Blocking factor : The number of logical records in a physical record.
Boolean algebra : An algebra that deals with logical propositions which are either true or false.
Boolean function : A mathematical function in Boolean algebra.
Boolean variable : A variable used in Boolean algebra. It assumes a value that is true or false.
Boot (bootstrap) : The initial loading of an operating system/ programs into a computer.
Bootstrap : A program that is invoked to draw larger /comprehensive programs into a computer.
Branch statement : An instruction that transfers program control to one or more possible paths.
Broadband channel : The fastest carriers where data transfer rates is of 1 million baud (bits/ second) or more.
Broadband system : A network system where several analog signals share the same physical network channel.
Bubble Memory: A compact data storage device made of thin wafers of garnet (a semiconductor material) in a magnetic field. Bubble memory devices are non-volatile i.e., data contained in them is not lost when the power turned off.
Buffer: A device/ storage area where data are temporarily stored.
Bug : An error in a computer program.
Bulletin Board System (BBS): A computer-based electronic mail/message system that provides a common forum for users to check/post messages, actively exchange ideas and participate in ongoing discussions.
Bus: Circuits that provide a communication path between two or more devices of a digital computer system.
Bus Topology: A network geometric arrangement in which a single connecting line is shared by a number of nodes.
Byte: A fixed number of adjacent bits that represent a particular character or symbol. Usually a byte consists of eight bits.
Cache memory: A small buffer storage, smaller and faster than main storage (habitually made of Static RAM). It is used to hold a copy of instructions and data in main storage that are likely to be needed next by the processor and that have been obtained automatically form main storage such as hard disk. It increases the speed of processing by making current programs and data available to the CPU at a rapid rate.
CAD (Computer Aided Design): Utilize of computers in automate design operations.
CAI/CAE (Computer Aided Instruction/ Education): Teaching with the help of computer.
Call statement: A program statement which transfers program control to a subroutine.
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing): Utilizing computers in automate manufacturing operations.
Canned Programs : Programs developed by an outside supplier and provided to the user in a machine readable form.
Canonical form: A Boolean function whose terms contain all variables (or their complements). This is the unreduced form of the Boolean function in min./max. form.
Carrier: A device that is used to transmit data from one location to another.
Cartridge: A device used to contain a prerecorded program.
Cassette tape: A secondary storage medium used to store serial and sequential files.
Chain printer: A printer in which the characters are embossed on a chain or a band. The chain is in the form of a loop that rotates at a high speed and print heads are activated to print specified characters.
Channel: (i) A pathway through which information can be transmitted, (ii) Track on a magnetic tape or a band on a magnetic drum.
Character addressable storage: A storage device in which each character has one unique location with its own address.
Character printer: A printer with a print mechanism that prints one character at a time.
Charge-coupled device (CCD): An electronic storage device fabricated on semi-conductor chips that stores data as packets of charge in a semiconductor.
Chip : A thin wafer of silicon on which integrated electronic components are deposited.
Circuit switching: The method of data consummation in which a dedicated physical path is established between sender and the receiver through nodes of a network for the complete duration of information exchange.
Client/Server architecture: A configuration of computers on a network such that computing tasks are done on server computer and used by client customers.
COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language): A high-level programming language developed for business data processing applications.

Posted Date : 10-02-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్లో వచ్చే ప్రకటనలు అనేక దేశాల నుండి, వ్యాపారస్తులు లేదా వ్యక్తుల నుండి వివిధ పద్ధతులలో సేకరించబడతాయి. ఆయా ప్రకటనకర్తల ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల గురించి ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికీ, ఉద్యోగస్తులకూ ఎటువంటి అవగాహనా ఉండదు. కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచిననుసరించి కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికతతో పంపబడతాయి. ఏ ప్రకటనని అయినా పాఠకులు తగినంత జాగ్రత్త వహించి, ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల గురించి తగిన విచారణ చేసి, తగిన జాగ్రత్తలు తీసుకొని కొనుగోలు చేయాలి. ఉత్పత్తులు / సేవలపై ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎటువంటి నియంత్రణ ఉండదు. కనుక ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాల విషయంలో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యం ఎటువంటి బాధ్యత వహించదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఎటువంటి ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకీ తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు తీసుకోబడవు.

 

study-material

Previous Papers

 

విద్యా ఉద్యోగ సమాచారం

 

Model Papers

 

లేటెస్ట్ నోటిఫికేష‌న్స్‌