What is WiFi?
Wifi – wireless fidelity
A wireless network uses radio waves, just like cell phones, televisions and radios do. In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot like two-way radio communication.
Here's what happens:
1. A computer's wireless adapter translates data into a radio signal and transmits it using an antenna.
2. A wireless router receives the signal and decodes it. The router sends the information to the Internet using a physical, wired Ethernet connection.
The process also works in reverse, with the router receiving information from the Internet, translating it into a radio signal and sending it to the computer's wireless adapter.
The radios used for WiFi communication are very similar to the radios used for walkie talkies, cell phones and other devices. They can transmit and receive radio waves, and they can convert 1's and 0's into radio waves and convert the radio waves back into 1's and 0's. But WiFi radios have a few notable differences from other radios:
What is WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
WiMAX is a wireless digital communications system, also known as IEEE 802.16, that is intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks". WiMAX can provide broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).
With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened. WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-licensed frequencies, providing a regulated environment and viable economic model for wireless carriers.
WiMAX can be used for wireless networking in much the same way as the more common WiFi protocol. WiMAX is a second-generation protocol that allows for more efficient bandwidth use, interference avoidance, and is intended to allow higher data rates over longer distances.
Bandwidth has several related meanings:
Bandwidth (computing) or digital bandwidth: a rate of data transfer, throughput or bit rate, measured in bits per second (bps)
baud: (computer science) a data transmission rate (bits/second) for modem
What is RSS?
RSS stands for "Really Simple Syndication". It is a way to easily distribute a list of headlines, update notices, and sometimes content to a wide number of people. It is used by computer programs that organize those headlines and notices for easy reading.
The Indian FInancial NETwork [INFINET] is the communication backbone for the Indian Banking and Financial Sector.
IDRBT –Institute for development and Reasearch in Banking Technology
Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage technology that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It is primarily used in memory cards, USB flash drives, and solidstate drives for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products
SI decimal prefixes
See also: Multiples of bits Orders of magnitude of data
A dead key is a key on a typewriter or a computer keyboard that allows modification (such as by placement of diacritics) on the following letter. For example, option-e produces on the Macintosh U.S. keyboard layout. On a typewriter, this was accomplished mechanically by striking the diacritic mark without advancing the carriage (thus, the paper is still in the position to accept the next letter at the same spot the diacritic was placed).
In computing, a modifier key is a special key on a computer keyboard that modifies the normal action of another key when the two are pressed in combination.
For example, Alt+F4 in Microsoft Windows will close the program in the active window ; in this instance, Alt is the modifier key. In contrast, pressing just F4 will probably do nothing unless assigned a specific function in a particular program. By themselves, modifier keys usually do nothing, that is, pressing Alt alone does not trigger any action from the computer.
An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or network operating system within that organization. The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization.
Sometimes the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure.It may host multiple private websites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration.
An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company, usually via the Internet. It has also been described as a "state of mind" in which the Internet is perceived as a way to do business with a selected set of other companies (business- to-business, B2B), in isolation from all other Internet users. In contrast, business to consumer (B2C) models involve known servers of one or more companies, communicating with previously unknown consumer users.
A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main memory locations. As long as most memory accesses are cached memory locations, the average latency of memory accesses will be closer to the cache latency than to the latency of main memory.
COMPUTER : IMPORTANT TERMS AND GLOSSARY
Access Bus : It is a new standard intended to connect relatively low-speed devices such as keyboards, mice, modems and printers. It runs on a thin four-wire cable that resembles the one that currently connects the keyboard or mouse to your computer. It also supports hot plugging i.e., one can disconnect peripherals and plug them in without letting computer shut down or reconfigure the system.
Access-time: The time interval between the instant at which data is called from a storage device and the instant delivery begins.
Account: A form of access to a computer or network with specified user name and password.
Accumulator : A local storage area called a register, in which the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is formed. It is a register in which one operand of an operation can be stored and subsequently replaced by the result of that operation,
ACK : Acknowledgement from a computer that a packet of data has been received and verified.
Acoustic coupler : A communications device (modem) which allows an ordinary telephone to be used with a computer device for data transmission.
Ada : A high level programming’ language named after Ada Augusta, co-worker with Charles Babbage.
Adder : A logic circuit capable of forming the sum of two or more quantities.
Address : Identification in the form of a name/ label/ number used for designating particular location in storage area.
Address register : A local storage register in the CPU which contains the address of the next instruction to be executed.
ALGOL (Algorithmic Language) : An algebraic high-level language.
Algorithm: A sequence of precise and unambiguous instructions for solving a problem in a finite number of operations.
Alphanumeric : A character set that contains letters, digits, and other special characters such as $,@,+,*,% etc.
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) : One of the components of central processing unit (CPU) of the computer that performs mathematical and logical operations.
Analog computer : A computer that operates on data which is in the form of continuously variable physical quantities.
Anonymous FTP : The Internet file transfer protocol. EFF sites that allow anonymous FTP do not require a password or access. One has only to log in as anonymous and enter his E-mail address as a password.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) : A USA based national organization that establishes uniform standards in several fields of computers.
APL : A high level language for specifying complex algorithms. It is a real-time language primarily for scientific applications.
Application program : Software designed for a specified purpose application.
Architecture: The overall design, construction, organization and interconnecting of the various components of a computer system.
Archive : Backup storage.
Arithmetic operator: A programming instruction or statement that initiates arithmetic calculation by a computer.
Artificial intelligence (AI) : A branch of computer science that deals with computers that possess reasoning, learning and thinking capabilities that resemble those of human beings.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange): A standard coding system for computers. ASCII-7 is a 7-bit code and its extended version ASCII-8 is an 8-bit code.
ASCII File : It is a document file in the universally recognized text format called ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange).
Assembler: A program that translates mnemonic statements into executable instructions. An assembler translates the programs written in the mnemonic assembler language into executable form.
Assembly language: A low-level programming language in which mnemonics are used to code operations and alphanumeric symbols are used for addresses. This language lies between high-level language and machine language.
Asynchronous communication: Communication between independently operating units.
Audio response: An output medium that produces verbal responses from the computer system.
Autoexec.BAT file: A special-purpose batch file (set of commands) that is automatically carried out by the MS-DOS operating system whenever the computer is started or restarted.
Automated Office : Refers to the merger of computers, office and telecommunications technology in an office environment.
Auxiliary storage : Often referred to as secondary storage. Here computer’s memory is characterized by low cost per bit stored also it has an operating speed far slower than that of the primary storage.
Background processing: The automatic execution of lower-priority (background) computer programs when higher-priority (foreground) programs are not using the system resources.
Backup: Alternate facilities of programs, data files, hardware equipments, etc. used in case the original one is destroyed, lost, or fail to operate.
Backup files: These are the files which are generated automatically in when one save a document. These files help in protecting the document due to out of order of the computer or power failure.
Bandwidth : The range of frequencies available for data transmission. The wider the bandwidth of a communications system the more data it can transmit in a given period of time.
Bar Code : A coding structure in which characters are represented by means of a series of parallel bars.
Base : The total number of digits (symbols) available to represent numbers in a positional number system.
Baseband System : A networking system in which the channel support, a single digital signal.
BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code): A high-level interactive programming language frequently used with personal computers and in timesharing environment.
Batch processing : Running of several computer programs one after another without human interaction to run each program individually. This is also known as stacked job processing because several jobs are stacked together and processed in group (batches) for efficient operation.
Baud : A unit for measuring data transmission speed that describes the capacity of a carrier. Baud is identical to bits per second.
BCD (Binary Coded Decimal): One of the early coding systems used by computers which is based on the idea of converting each digit of a decimal number into its binary equivalent rather than converting the entire decimal value into a pure binary form.
Benchmark: In the electronic information disciplines, it is as an established performance standard for processing data, aligned with which new equipment and/or software can be evaluated.
Beta Test: A process of trying out a new product by independent users before it was finally manufactured/developed.
Binary : A selection, choice, or condition involving two possibilities.
Binaries newsgroup: A Usenet newsgroup dedicated to the posting of unary-coded binary files, often .gif or .jpg image files.
Binary number system: A number system with a base of two. It consists of two digits 0 and 1.
BIOS (Basic Input Output System): Responsible for handling particulars of input/ output operations.
BISYNC: (binary synchronous): A process of transmitting data. It is a half-duplex, character oriented, synchronous data communications transmission method.
Bit (binary digit): It stands for one binary piece of information which can be either 0 or 1.
BLOB (Binary Large Object) : A long bit string representing complex data.
Block : A group of related items / section of program coding treated as a unit.
Block move : An operation in which data is moved to a different location.
Blocking factor : The number of logical records in a physical record.
Boolean algebra : An algebra that deals with logical propositions which are either true or false.
Boolean function : A mathematical function in Boolean algebra.
Boolean variable : A variable used in Boolean algebra. It assumes a value that is true or false.
Boot (bootstrap) : The initial loading of an operating system/ programs into a computer.
Bootstrap : A program that is invoked to draw larger /comprehensive programs into a computer.
Branch statement : An instruction that transfers program control to one or more possible paths.
Broadband channel : The fastest carriers where data transfer rates is of 1 million baud (bits/ second) or more.
Broadband system : A network system where several analog signals share the same physical network channel.
Bubble Memory: A compact data storage device made of thin wafers of garnet (a semiconductor material) in a magnetic field. Bubble memory devices are non-volatile i.e., data contained in them is not lost when the power turned off.
Buffer: A device/ storage area where data are temporarily stored.
Bug : An error in a computer program.
Bulletin Board System (BBS): A computer-based electronic mail/message system that provides a common forum for users to check/post messages, actively exchange ideas and participate in ongoing discussions.
Bus: Circuits that provide a communication path between two or more devices of a digital computer system.
Bus Topology: A network geometric arrangement in which a single connecting line is shared by a number of nodes.
Byte: A fixed number of adjacent bits that represent a particular character or symbol. Usually a byte consists of eight bits.
Cache memory: A small buffer storage, smaller and faster than main storage (habitually made of Static RAM). It is used to hold a copy of instructions and data in main storage that are likely to be needed next by the processor and that have been obtained automatically form main storage such as hard disk. It increases the speed of processing by making current programs and data available to the CPU at a rapid rate.
CAD (Computer Aided Design): Utilize of computers in automate design operations.
CAI/CAE (Computer Aided Instruction/ Education): Teaching with the help of computer.
Call statement: A program statement which transfers program control to a subroutine.
CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing): Utilizing computers in automate manufacturing operations.
Canned Programs : Programs developed by an outside supplier and provided to the user in a machine readable form.
Canonical form: A Boolean function whose terms contain all variables (or their complements). This is the unreduced form of the Boolean function in min./max. form.
Carrier: A device that is used to transmit data from one location to another.
Cartridge: A device used to contain a prerecorded program.
Cassette tape: A secondary storage medium used to store serial and sequential files.
Chain printer: A printer in which the characters are embossed on a chain or a band. The chain is in the form of a loop that rotates at a high speed and print heads are activated to print specified characters.
Channel: (i) A pathway through which information can be transmitted, (ii) Track on a magnetic tape or a band on a magnetic drum.
Character addressable storage: A storage device in which each character has one unique location with its own address.
Character printer: A printer with a print mechanism that prints one character at a time.
Charge-coupled device (CCD): An electronic storage device fabricated on semi-conductor chips that stores data as packets of charge in a semiconductor.
Chip : A thin wafer of silicon on which integrated electronic components are deposited.
Circuit switching: The method of data consummation in which a dedicated physical path is established between sender and the receiver through nodes of a network for the complete duration of information exchange.
Client/Server architecture: A configuration of computers on a network such that computing tasks are done on server computer and used by client customers.
COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language): A high-level programming language developed for business data processing applications.
CODASYL (Conference On Data Systems Languages): This is a committee that helps to establish standards for various programming languages.
Code : A set of rules outlining the way in which data may be represented/ converting data from one representation to other.
Coding : The process of writing computer instructions in a programming language.
Coding sheet : The form on which program instructions are written.
Collate : To combine items from two or more sequenced files into a single one.
Collating sequence : Ordering assigned to characters of character set, used for sequence purposes.
COM (Computer Output Microfilm) : An output device that records computer output on microfilm.
Combinational circuit : A group of logic gates interconnected to form a logic circuit.
Comment: An entry in a computer program for the purpose of documentation or explanation.
Communications channel : A medium through which data (in the form of electrical signals) is transferred from one location to another.
Communications processor : A processing unit that coordinates networks and data communications. In a computer network it ensures that data flows to/ from, different computer systems correctly and efficiently.
Communications protocol : A set of rules and procedures established to interconnect different computers and communicate between them.
Communications satellite : Microwave relay stations precisely rotate above earth with an orbit speed that exactly matches the earth’s rotation speed. Used for data transmission between any two randomly chosen points in a very large area.
Compile : To convert or translate a program written in a high-level language to an absolute or machine language form.
Compiler : A system software package that converts a high-level language program to machine language.
Computer: An electronic device designed to automatically accept and store input data, process them and produce output results under the direction of a detailed step-by-step stored program or instructions.
Computer graphics: The area of computer science which is concerned with the generation, manipulation and display of pictures with the aid of a computer.
Computer network: A distributed data processing system in which multiple computers are linked together for the purpose of data communication and resource sharing.
Computer system: The various components (input and output devices, storage, CPU) of a computer integrated together to perform the steps called for in the program being executed.
Computer operator: A person in the computer center whose duties include setting up the processor and peripheral equipments, starting the program, run/checking on processor operation and uploading equipments at the end of a run.
Conditional transfer: An instruction that may cause a departure from the sequence of instructions being followed, depending upon the result of an operation.
CONFIG.SYS: A special text file that controls certain aspects of operating system behavior.
Connector symbol : Used in a flowchart to represent a junction in a flow line, this symbol is often used to transfer flow between different pages of a lengthy chart.
Console : The part of a computer system that enables human operators to communicate with the computer.
Constant: A value written into a program instruction that does not change during the execution of the program.
Contention: The method a network uses to determine access to a channel when two or more nodes wish to use it at the same time.
Control program: An operating system program which controls the operations and management of resources of a computer system.
Control unit: The part of the central processor which directs the sequence of operations, interprets the coded instruction and sees the execution of program instructions.
Cost/benefit analysis: A procedure for evaluation and selection of hardware and/or software in which lists are made of all the costs and benefits of each proposed data processing system.
Counter: A device/register/ storage location for storing integers that are suitably incremented or decremented to represent the number of occurrances of an event.
CP/M (Control program/Microprocessor): A disk operating system.
CPU (Central Processing Unit): The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit of a computer system are jointly forms the CPU. All calculations and comparisons are done inside the CPU and the CPU is also responsible for activating and controlling the operations of the other units of a computer system.
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube): Electronic tube with a TV like screen upon which information may be displayed.
CSMA/CD (Carrier sense multiple access/ collision detect): Here a transmitting node first tests the channel and if the channel is clear then transmits the desired message. If two stations transmit at the same time the collision is detected and retransmission is forced.
Cyber space: A synonym for the Internet. A term used by author William Gibson for the shared imaginary reality of computer networks.
Cycle time: The time interval between the instant at which a read/write command is given to a memory and the instant when the next such instruction can be issued to the memory- (also known as memory cycle time).
Cylinder: In a disk pack, a set of corresponding tracks in all the surfaces is called a cylinder. All tracks of a cylinder are accessible by a single movement of the access mechanism.
Daisy wheel printer: A letter-quality printer that uses a printing head with the appearance of daisy and/or a wheel. Each petal of the daisy wheel has a character pre embossed on it.
DASD: Acronym for Direct-Access Storage Device.
Data : A collection of facts in raw form that become information after proper processing.
Database: A collection of data files integrated and organized into a single comprehensive file system which is arranged to minimize duplication of data and to provide convenient access to information within that system to satisfy a wide variety of user needs.
Data communications system: A system consisting of carriers and related devices used to transport data from one point to another.
Data dictionary: The document that contains clear definitions of the data that will be used in setting up data base management systems.
Data element: A meaningful collection of related characters.
Data entry: The process of entering new data into computer memory typically from a keyboard.
Data file : A file consisting of data distinct from a program file of executable instructions.
Data Flow Chart: A flow chart showing the path of the data step by step in a problem solution or through a system.
Data processing: A series of operations that convert raw facts (data) into useful information.
Data processing system: A system that accomplishes data processing. It includes the necessary resources, which are people, materials, facilities, and equipments.
Data processor: A digital device that processes data.
Data transfer rate: The speed at which data is transferred from the main memory to another medium on which data are recorded.
DBMS (Data Base Management System): The software, used for the management, maintenance and retrieval of the data stored in a data base.
Debugging : Process of finding/ correcting program errors (bugs).
Decision symbol: A diamond-shaped symbol used in flowcharts to indicate a choice or branch in the processing path.
Decision table : A table used for representing program logic. It displays the different conditions that could exist and the different actions that the computer should take as a result of these conditions.
Design phase : A phase in the life-cycle of a software system during which the detailed design of the system is carried out.
Desktop Publishing Packages : Software that combines text and graphics manipulating capabilities to allow users to format charts and pictures with text and headlines.
Desktop Publishing System : A system that combines a computer and suitable peripherals with software that can produce attractive page layouts complete with pictures and text printed in a variety of typefaces.
Development phase : A phase in the life-cycle of a software system during which a system is constructed to meet the requirements specified in the design phase.
Diagnostic routines : Programs used to print error messages by a computer to indicate system problems and improper program instructions.
Dictionary Disk : It contains the dictionary files, which are used for checking spelling.
Digital Computer : A computer that works with discrete quantities. It uses numbers to simulate real-time processes.
Digitizer : An input device used to convert graphic and pictorial data into binary, numeric inputs for a digital computer.
Direct access : A storage devices where the access time is effectively independent of the location of the data.
Directory access protocol (DAP) : A protocol governing communication between a directory’s user agent and a directory’s system agent.
Disk : A flat, circular plate coated with a magnetic material on which data can be stored by magnetization of portions of the flat surface.
Disk operating system (DOS): An operating system which contains the disk-oriented commands and uses disk devices for permanent storage.
Disk pack : A removable direct-access storage medium containing multiple magnetic disks mounted vertically on a single-shaft.
Diskette : A low-cost, thin flexible magnetic disk storage device used on small computer systems.
Distributed data processing (DDP) : The decentralization of a computer system through the use of multiple computers interconnected by a communications network. It facilitates data processing capabilities at the location of the end-user.
Document reader : An optical input device that is used to read documents printed in a special type font.
Documentation : It involves collecting, organizing, storing and otherwise maintaining a complete historical record of programs and other document used or prepared during the different phases of the system.
Downtime : The period during which a computer is malfunctioning or not operating correctly due to machine failures.
Drum printer : A line printer that uses a solid, rotating, cylindrical drum on which the characters to be printed are embossed.
Dumb terminal: A terminal that has no local processing capability.
Dumb: A process whereby the contents of all or a part of primary storage are copied onto some secondary storage device or displayed on a printer or screen.
Duplex : A data communication facility on which data can be transmitted in two directions.
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code): An 8-bit coding system developed by IBM that is used to represent characters in many modern computers.
Edit: To modify format of the data.
Edit mode : A mode of operation in which a program accepts changes in the contents of a document.
Editor: Software used to interactively review and modify text materials and other program instructions.
EDP (Electronic Data Processing): A data processing through equipment that is predominantly electronic such as digital computer.
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer): An electronic computing device similar to the ENIAC although faster, and having greater capability. It was built in 1952.
Electronic funds transfer (EFT): A cashless approach used to pay for goods and services. Electronic signals between computers are often used to adjust the accounts of the parties involved in a transaction.
Electronic Mail/Message System (EMMS): A system that can stare and deliver by electronic means, text and messages that would otherwise, be forwarded through the postal service or sent verbally over telephone lines.
Electronic mail: A general term to describe the transmission of messages by the use of computers and telecommunications facilities.
Electronic spreadsheet: An application package usually available with microcomputers that displays the equivalent of a work sheet made up of rows and columns. It is used for computation or display of information in a tabular form.
Electrostatic printer: A high-speed printer that uses charged pins to form character matrices on chemically treated paper.
Electro-thermal printer: A high-speed printer that uses heated elements to create characters as matrices of small dots on heat-sensitive paper.
Elementary data item: A data item which is not broken down into smaller units.
Emulator: A program that permits one computer to execute the machine-language instructions of another computer of a different make.
End user: Any individual who uses the information generated by a computer based system.
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator): The first all-electronic digital computer developed by Mauchly and Eckert around 1946.
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory): A semiconductor memory which allows the eraser of the information stared in it so that new information can be stared in it.
Execution error: An error detected during the execution of a program.
Execution time: The total time required to execute a program on a particular system.
Executive routine: A master program in an operating system that controls the execution of other programs.
Extended ASCII: It provides added capability by allowing for 128 additional characters. The codes used in extended ASCII represents the additional values made possible by using all 8 bits is a byte for coding (as opposed to the 7 bits used for the standard ASCII character set).
Facsimile (FAX): Transmission of images scanned at a transmitting point and duplicated at a receiving point.
FAQ (frequently asked question): A file containing frequently asked questions and their answers. Many mailing lists and Usenet newsgroups maintain FAQ’s to so that participants will not have to spend lot of time answering the same set of questions.
Feasibility study: A study to determine whether the proposed solution is technically and economically feasible in all respect.
Fiber optic cable: A data transmission medium made of tiny threads of glass or plastic that can transmit huge amount of information at the speed of light.
Field : In a record a meaningful collection of one or more related characters treated as a unit.
File : A collection of related records.
File Management System (FMS): A software package that allows users to define data items, place these items into specified records, combine these records into designated files and then manipulate and retrieve stored data in various ways to achieve user’s goals. An FMS can typically access records from only one file at a time.
Flip-flop: A sequential electronic circuit which can be placed in one out of two stable states. Each state may be used to represent a binary digit.
File server architecture: A configuration of computers on a network similar to a client/ server architecture except that the server is mostly a repository of a data on which it cannot itself perform queries or processing. When a client needs to make a query, the server sends all data that could possibly be relevant over the network, which is not efficient.
Fire Wire: Like Access bus, it is a new highspeed desktop serial bus.
Firmware: A sequence of instruction (software) that is substituted for hardware and stored in read-only memory (ROM).
First-in, First-out (FIFO): A technique for processing jobs on a first-come, first-served basis.
First generation computers : Computers built between 1949 and 1955 which used vacuum tubes and were programmed in assembly language. For examples are ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC.
Fixed-head magnetic disk : A magnetic disk system that eliminates the use of an access mechanism by distributing all the read/write heads over the disk surfaces.
Floating-point numbers Signed numbers held in a fraction-exponent format.
Floppy disk : See diskette.
Flowchart : A pictorial representation that uses pre-defined symbols to describe either the logic of a computer program (program flowchart) or the data flow and processing steps of a system (system flowchart).
Flow-line : In a flowchart, flow lines with arrowheads indicate the flow of operation, i.e., the exact sequence in which the instructions are to be executed.
Footer : One or more identifying lines printed at the bottom of a page.
Foreground processing : Automatic execution of high-priority (foreground) computer programs that have been designed to pre-empt the use of computer resources. Contrast with background processing.
Format : The arrangement of input data/ stored data./ output information.
Formatting: For documents, the elements of style and presentation that-are added through the use of margins, indents and different sizes and styles of type.
FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation): A high-level mathematically oriented programming language used for scientific and engineering applications.
Fourth generation computers : Computers built between 1975 and till date. They use large scale integrated circuits, semiconductor memories and powerful high-level languages and operating systems.
Fourth-Generation Language (4GL): A language that specifies results of opt-rations rather than procedures to achieve these results.
Frame : The basic package of information on a network channel.
Frequency division multiplexing: A method used to concurrently transmit data between several transmitters and receivers over a single transmission medium.
Front-end processor: A CPU designed specifically to handle the communications processing task. Its main purpose is to off-load communications processing task from the host computer so that the host computer can be dedicated for applications and data processing jobs.
Full adder: An adder which adds three binary digits and outputs a result bit and a carry bit.
Full duplex : A method of using a communication channel in which signals can be transmitted between a source and a destination in both directions simultaneously.
Function Key : A special key on a computer keyboard or a terminal device keyboard that is used to perform specific functions. These keys are programmable so that a software product can put the function keys to specific uses. Many keyboards have function keys labeled from Fl to F1O.
Gateway : A device that is used to interface two otherwise incompatible network facilities.
Generator : A computer program that constructs other programs to perform a particular type of operations.
GIGO (Garbage in - garbage out): Pertains to the fact that most computer errors are not machine errors, they are data errors caused by incorrect input data. Thus incorrect input data results in inaccurate output.
Graphic display terminal: A visual display terminal which has screen to display a graph or drawing as well as alphanumeric information.
Haeker: A computer adept, someone who enjoys working with computers and testing the limits of systems. Also suggest someone who breaks into computer network and steals or vandalizes information. And on the Internet such malevolent hacker are called crackers.
Half adder: An adder which adds two binary digits and outputs a result bit and a carry bit (if any).
Handshake: A trade term that refers to what takes place when two computers or a computer and a terminal device are interconnected in such a way that they can exchange information.
Hard copy: Printed or filmed output from a computer device in human readable form.
Hardware: The physical components of a computer system such as electronic, magnetic and mechanical devices.
Header: In word processing and printing one or more identifying lines printed at the top of a page.
Hierarchical network: A communications network in which computers or processors are connected in a tree-like structure.
Hierarchical structure: A tree-like structure used to represent files and records in a data base system.
High-level language: A programming language whose structure is application oriented and is independent of the structure of the computer.
Host computer: The main control computer in a network of distributed processors and terminals.
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol): Internet protocol that defines how a Web server responds to requests for files made via anchors and URLs.
Hybrid computer: A combination of an analog and a digital computer. These computer systems utilize the measuring capability of an analog computer and the counting capability of a digital computer.
I/O (Input/Output): Pertaining to the techniques/ media/ devices used for man-machine interaction.
I/O bound jobs : Jobs that require more of Input/Output (I/O) operations as compared to computational operations.
IDE (Intelligent Device Electronics): Any drive with integrated controller.
Impact printer : A printer which prints characters by causing hammers to strike against the paper on which information is to be printed.
Indexed file : A file that includes an index directory to facilitate random access.
Indexed Sequential Access Method: A method whereby records are organized in a sequential order and can be referenced directly through an index based on some of characteristics.
Indexing: It is an alphabetical listing of topics, words and phrases accompanied by the page numbers where each topic word or phrase can be found.
Information: The result of data processing which can be used to help a individuals to make decisions.
Inkjet printer: A printing device uses nozzles and sprays ink onto paper to form the appropriate characters.
Input : The source data entered into a data processing system.
Input device: A device used to enter information into a computer or other data processing devices.
Instruction: A command or order given to a computer.
Integrated Software Package: A software product that combines several applications.
Intelligent terminal: A terminal having local processing capability.
Inter record gap (IRG): The separation or gap between records on a tape.
Interactive system: One that permits direct communication and dialog between system users and the operating program in the CPU.
Interface: Electronic circuit used to interconnect I/O devices to a computer’s CPU or memory.
Internal storage: The addressable storage in a digital computer which is directly under the control of the CPU.
Internet Adapter (Telephonic IA): A Unix program that enables a dial-up shell account to emulate a SLIP connections, allowing the user to run Internet software native to his or her desktop environment without the full costs/full functionality of real SLIP.
Internet work packet exchange (IPX): Novell’s NetWare network layer protocol that specifies addressing, routing and switching packets between a server and workstations and across interconnected LANs. Encapsulated IPX packets can be carried by Ethernet packets and token ring frames.
Interpreter: A language processor that translates a statement of a high-level language and immediately executes it before translating the next source language statement.
Inter process communication: The topology provided by an operating system to allow concurrent processes to communication with each other.
IOCS (Input/Output Control System): Set of routines for handling the many detailed aspects of input and output operations.
ISO protocol: A communication protocol to interconnect geographically dispersed heterogeneous computers.
Item: A group of related characters treated as a unit.
Iteration: These are defined as repetitive execution of programming steps.
Job: A collection of specific tasks constituting a unit of work for a computer.
Jump: An instruction or signal which conditionally or unconditionally specific the location of the next instruction and directs the computer to that instruction. A jump is used to alter the normal sequence control of the computer.
Justify: To align lines of text evenly along both the left and right margins of a column or page.
Key-to-disk: A device used to enter data onto a disk device.
Key-to-tape: A device used to enter data onto a magnetic tape.
Key field: A unique field in a record used to distinguish one record from another.
Label : One or more characters used to identify a statement and instructions or a data field in a computer program.
Label record: A machine-readable record that is used to identify a data file. It is the first record of the file.
LAN (Local Area Network): A digital communication system capable of interconnecting, a large number of computers, terminals and other peripheral devices within a limited geographical area.