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Profit And Loss

The money spent to purchase an article is cost price of the article, and the money received for selling an article is called selling price.
                               Profit = selling price – cost price
                                Loss = cost price – selling price

Profit or loss percent is always calculated on C.P unless it is required to calculate on S.P.

        The price at which the article is marked is the marked price or listed price or labeled price or catalogue price.
        The discount is allowed on marked price for the cash payments.
       When discount is deducted from the marked price, the remainder becomes the selling price.
       To find Marked price from Cost Price we can use the following formula


Example 1.   Ram sold a cow for Rs.136 at a loss of 15%. At what price should he have sold it to gain 15%?
Sol: Let the cost price be Rs.100 then for 15% loss the S.P = 85 and for 15% profit it should  be Rs. 115.
         Rs. 85 is the first S.P, then second S.P. = Rs. 115
         Rs. 136 is the first S.P =  

Example 2.   A sells a radio to B at a gain of 10% and B sells it to C at a gain of 5%.If C pays Rs. 462 for it, What did it cost to A?
Sol: Let the cost price of A be Rs. 100
        Then the cost price of B be Rs. 110 

Example 3. A dealer allows 10% discount on the list price of a certain article and yet makes a profit of Rs. 25% on each article. Find the cost price of the article when list price is Rs. 50.
Sol:  Let the cost price of articles be Rs. 100
          Then for 25% profit, S.P.  = Rs. 125
          If list price is Rs. 100, S.P.  = Rs. 90
          If S.P. is Rs. 90, list price  = Rs. 100

       Example 4. A person purchases 90 clocks and sells 40 clocks at a gain of 10% and 50 clocks at a gain of 20%. Had he sold all of them at a uniform profit of 15% he would have got Rs.40 less. Find the cost price of each clock.
Sol: Let the C.P of clock is Rs. 100 each.
        By the profit of 10% S.P. of 40 clocks =  = Rs. 4, 400
        By the profit of 20% S.P of 50 clocks =   = Rs. 6, 000
        Total S.P. = Rs. 4400 + Rs. 6, 000 = Rs. 10, 400
        C.P of 90 clocks =   = Rs. 9000
        By the profit of 15% S.P. of 90 clocks =   = Rs. 10, 350
        Difference = Rs. 10, 400 – Rs. 10, 350 = Rs. 50
        If the difference is Rs. 50 then C.P. = Rs. 100
        If the difference is Rs. 40 then C.P. =  = Rs. 80


Example 5.  A man buys 5 horses and 10 cows for Rs. 1,600. He sells horses at a profit of 15% and cows at a Loss of 10% if his over all profit was Rs. 90, what was the cost price of a horse and a cow?
Sol:  Let x be the cost price of a horse and y be the cost price of a cow
          C.P. of 5 horses = Rs. 5x and C.P of 10 cows = Rs. 10y
        Hence     5x + 10y = 1,600……..(i)
        Since the profit is 15% on the horses  

   (Writer - G.S.Giridhar) 

Posted Date : 10-02-2021



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