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 Statements and Assumptions - Implicit Assumptions

          One of the important topics of the logical reasoning is 'Implicit Assumptions'. This topic tests the candidates' skill knowing about the hidden opinion of the speaker. 
          In these kind of questions, there is a statement followed by some number of assumptions. Generally there are two assumptions for each statement. The candidate is supposed to understand the underlying opinion (i.e. assumption) and decide which of them is implicit. See the common pattern of these kind of questions given below.

         Instructions: In each question given below consists a statement, which is followed by two assumptions, numbered I and II. You are required to examine the two assumptions and decide which of given assumptions is/ are implicit in the statement.

Give answer
          1. if only assumption I is implicit,
          2. if only assumption II is implicit,
          3. if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit, 
          4. if neither I nor II is implicit,
          5. if both the assumptions are implicit.
         But it is not necessary that only the above given format is given in the examination. Some times a statement can be followed by three assumptions. For this type of question marking of an answer will have different cambinations i.e. 1) Only I and III implicit 2) Only III implicits 3) Either II or III is implicit 4) All the three assumptions implicit 5) None of the assumption implicits and many more combination. So, every question will have its answer marking options below it.
          In another type each statement will have five assumptions and the candidate is instructed to identify the valid assumption given in the statement. For this answer marking will be as follows....
          1) if only I assumption implicits
          2) if only II assumption implicits
          3) if only III assumption implicits
          4) if only IV assumption implicits
          5) if only V assumption implicits (some times in the V choice you may be given the option - None of the above assumptions is implicit).
          Before we get into sample questions and exercise questions, let us have a discussion or let us understand the meanings of the terms...
a) statement b) implicit c) assumption.


Statement: The statement is an account of certain views, facts, suggestions, situations, argument or problems expressed in words.

Implicit: The synonyms are implied, indirect but in our context 'implicit' means, something that is suggested or supposed to be understand though it is not directly expressed. We can say it is nothing but the hidden opinion of the speaker, in the statement.

Assumption: It is an idea which is thought to be true or certain to happen, but is not plainly/ directly expressed or supported by known facts.
           In our personal life or professional life i.e. in our day to day affairs we meet number of people in different situations and we make a lot of statements as a part of our communication. Over a period of time in this process of communication we take certain things for granted and we make short and indirect statements. So, we leave a few of our ideas unsaid. But these unsaid ideas are very much implied in the statement. As we are taking certain facts are granted we do not feel to express these directly. This is the characteristic feature of the speaker in the statement. So, the speaker doesn't show any intention or try to prove his idea or view directly to be understood.
          An implicit assumption is the hidden agreement made in the logical statement of the speaker. The following are the other characteristic features of an implicit assumption.
    *  An assumption can be proved one or a disproved one.
    *  It cannot be a question.
    *  It cannot be any argument against the statement.
    *  It is not said in bits and pieces.


Let us take one situation.......

             Your brother has joined Civil Engineering but always spends his time in a play ground, practicing cricket and preparing himself for cricket tournaments and completely neglecting his engineering studies. Now we can say that.. "He is forced to join engineering studies. He wanted to become a cricketer". So, here we are co-relating two different aspects. "spending time in playground" and "neglecting studies". How we are able to relate such different aspects? obviously by assuming spending all his time in practicing cricket, shows the intention to become a cricketer.

  The following are a few tips to crack these kind of questions.


I. Key words: The words like "all" "only" "each" "every" "must" etc. are definitive in nature. But the words like "some" "many" "a few" etc are not definitive in nature. So, you must be able to differentiate between statements like "spends all time in a play ground" and "spends some time in a play ground".
           Study the following example carefully that would help you in interpreting the key words.
Statement: "Ramdev has revolutionised yoga and made it a people's movement".     - BJP Leader Narendra Modi
          I. Only Ramdev in best yoga Guru.
          II. Mr. Narendra Modi Knows all yoga methods.
          III. Mr. Narendra Modi Practices yoga every day.
          IV. People have understood the goodness of yoga.
          V. Indians are good yoga practiosners.
          In the above example only assumption IV is valid, we can assume that in the statement's part .... peoples movement. Where as in assumption I only, in assumption II all, in asumption III every and assumpetion IV good words are definitive. For these words there are not any supportive suggestions made by the speaker. In the statement there is a mention of yoga guru "Ramdev", but not with any intention he is the only yoga guru.
          Mr. Modi said "yoga is revolutionised" but not with intention that he knows all yoga methods.
          He Said, "yoga has became people movement" but it doesnot mean he is practicing yoga every day. Let us study a few more examples.


II. Appeal
Statement: "Please do not waste water. Water is very precious"- G.H.M.C
Assumptions: I. People waste water.
                             II. Water is more precious than any other liquid.
Answer: only assumption I implicits.
Explanation: The suggestion made by G.H.M.C to people is "not to waste water" shows the clear intention of G.H.M.C. that people are wasting water. Since there is no comparison of water with any other liquid, the II assumtion becomes invalid.


III. Notice
Statement: "All the students are here by instructed to follow a strict dress-code."      - Director of the college
Assumptions: I. Dress-code is desirable for students.
                             II. Students follow the instructon of the director.
Answer: Both the assumptions are implicit.
Explanation: This is the hidden opinion of the director that the students obey his instructions, he had sent a notice (II assumption implicits). He feels it is good to have a dress-code for students (assumption I implicits) he wanted the students to follow a dress code.


IV. Advertisement:
Statement: "Buy our environmental friendly, a five star sheetal AC ; It consumes less
power and makes no noise".          - A Doordarshan advertisement.
Assumptions: I. Some ACs make noise.
                             II. Fans are better than ACs
Answer: Only assumption I implicits.
Explanation: Noise is not a desirable quality of AC, is the intention of the speaker. When he advertised that his company AC does not make noise, has also hidden opinion that "some ACs make noise" (If no AC makes noise, then there is no point saying his company AC does not make noise).
              There is no intention of the speaker to compare the ACs with the fans. Hence assumption II becomes invalid.


V. Suggestion/ Advice
Statement: "Do not chew tobacco products, it leads to mouth cancer".         - Head oncology department, General Hospital.
Assumptions: I. Not only tobacco there are many other reasons, responsible for mouth cancer.
                          II. only doctors knew that tobacco chewing alone is responsible for mouth cancer.
Answer: Neither I nor II implicits.
Explanation: The speaker does not show any interest in other reasons which may/ may not responsible for mouth cancer. So, the I assumption does not implicit in the statement. Since it is the advice of the doctor, we can assume that doctors knew that tobacco chewing is dangerous to health, but nowhere it is intended that only doctors knew and alone tobacco chewing leads to mouth cancer. Infact we have already discussed earlier the definitive words such "only" "alone" need the definite idea of the speaker.


VI. Existence/ Non-existence of the subject: If the speaker talking about a hypothetical situation or an unestablished idea, it means he feels that it is existing. Similarly, if its absence is being talked about, it must not be existing.
Let us look at the following examples.
Statement: "Parents give better advice than friends"
Assumptions: I. Parents give advice.
                             II. Friends are better than parents some times.
Answer: Only I assupmtion implicits.
Explanation: It is a definite feeling of a speaker hence I assumption definitely implicits, where as the II assumption is the contradiction of the idea of the speaker. Hence it is invalid.
VII. Statement: "Hell and Heaven both exist on this earth. Choice is yours". 'A' said to 'B'.
        Assumptions: I. Some choose Hell.
                                    II. Some choose Heaven.
Answer: Both I and II are implicit.
Explanation: When the speaker said, 'choice is yours' makes it clear that he feels certainly people make choice of their own and obviously either of the two.


VIII. Statement: "May God bless you with a child".
           Assumptions: I. God exists.
                                       II. Children are blessings of God.
Answer: Both I and II are implicit.

Explanation: Since we find in the statement, "God Blesses..." speaks the unsaid part of the statement that 'God exists' and the children are the blessings of God.

IX. Statement: 'Inspite of heavy rains, there is no outbreak of Malaria'    -A news report.
      Assumptions: I. Rains are the cause of Malaria.
                               II. When Malaria breaks, it starts raining.
Answer: Neither I nor II is implicit.
Explanation: Assumtion II is the contradiction to the feeling of a speaker and there is no discussion of causes of Malaria. As per the statement we can understand that during the rainy season, Malaria outbreaks but there is no any suggestion about the causes of Malaria.


X. Statement: "Unless you take training in Java course we cannot take you as a
programmer in our company"- H.R. Manager of Xyz ltd.
 Assumptions: I. A training is available in java.
                          II. Company needs a Java programmer.
Answer: Both I and II are implicit.
Explanation: It's a clear intention of a H.R. Manager, he needs a Java programmer
(II), and when he says 'take trainig....' the intention is training is available (I).


XI. Statement: "Solar LED home lights 5 watts to 100 watts LED lights are
available. And we also offer home service".  - An advertisement of Xyz solar light..
I. The solar LED home lights are the best substitutes for the electric  lights.
                         II. People buy solar LED home lights.
Answer: Only assumption II implicits.
Explanation: There is no definite intention of the speaker to compare solar LED lights to electric lights. So we cannot answer the I assumption. His intention is to do a business. Hence he feels that the people buy.


XII. Statement: "Service to human is service to God".
Assumptions: I. God exists in a human form.
                        II. God is found in human beings.
Answer: Only II assumption implicits.
Explanation: The speaker did not discuss about any definite form of God's existance. But definitely suggests that giving direct service to human being is an indirect service doing to God.


XIII. Statement: "Songs in old movies are more musicial and more situational". - A film critic.
I. The latest movie songs are not as situational as old movie songs.
                         II. Music makes a song melodious.
Answer: Both I and II are implicit.
Explanation: The film critic, when he says 'The songs in old movies are more situational'
it is clear that his intention is to compare with the latest movies and obviously the music in the main component in making of a song. So, his intention is clear that music brings melody in a song.


XIV. Satement: "The party aims to attract the votes from the business and professional
communities which want a faster pace of political reform". - A news report on Xyz party campaign.
 Assumptions: I. The political reforms are needed.
                         II. The business and professional community people are far-sighted.
Answer: Both I and II are implicit.
Explanation: The new report clearly shows that the professional and business people are far-sighted (II). We can understand this suggestion in the statement ".... which want a faster pace of political reform". We can directly understand that the assumption I is the suggestion of the speaker.


XV. Statement: "Two cars gave them freedom and mobility to go their separate ways".   - A told B about his friend and his wife.
Assumptions: I)  Having two cars is convienient.
                        II) Earlier A's firend and his wife were not happy.
Answer: Only I assumption implicits.
Explanation: When the two cars gave them freedom and mobility, its a clear suggestion
that, having two cars is definitely convienient. Where as the II assumption is irrelevent to the statement.
         After going through all these examples and their explanatory notes, we can clearly approach the questions in these kind. Now let us recall a few points on 'Statement-Assumption' topic.
i) We need to consider the given statement is true, and the assumption is the unsaid part or hidden part of the statement but is still implicit from the statement.
ii) Use the key words used in the statement and assumptions. Differentiate between word which are definite and those which are not.

iii) There are different types of situations found in the statements.

for example................
      - in case of a notice, the assumption would be read and will have some effect.
      - in case of an appeal, the assumption would be what is mentioned in the statement
would be desirable or harmful.
iv) In case of a hypothetical situation, which is being talked about in a statement, the assumption would be it is existing. In case of the absence of the subject is being talked about, the assumptions would be not existing.
v) The key words like, hence, so, because, though, etc., of statement lead to make the assumption that there is certainly an effect.
vi) In case of a suggestion or advice, the assumption would be-
          - the speaker is talking/ about/ something/ in a statement that he knews
          - The situation or the person certainly needs an advice.
          - The situation needs to be corrected.
          - The suggestion or advice given in the statement certainly would improve or
solve the situation.
vii) Always think from the point of view of the speaker.


Directions for questions 1 to 25: In each question below - a statement is given
followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You need to understand the statement
carefully and required to answer the two assumptions and decide which of the given
assumptions is/ are implicit and give your answer as-
(1) If only assumption I is implicit
(2) If only assumption II is implicit
(3) If either I or II is implicit
(4) If neither I nor II is implicit
(5) If both I and II are implicit

1. Statement: "If you want success in your examination, write your answers with our 'X' Gel pens."  - An advertisement
Assumptions: I) People buy 'X' Gel pens.
                       II) 'X' Gel pens give success.
Answer: (1)
Explanation: Because the speaker feels 'X' gelpen will certainly have some business. Hence assumption 'I' implicits. Assumption II is a business strategy to take the attention of the render, but not the definite statement of the speaker.


2. Statement: "Don't sell your vote, Be honest in casting your vote"
Assumptions: I) People are innocent.
                        II) Politicians are business people.
Answer: (4)
Explanation: Both the assumptions are irrelevent to the statement.


3. Statement: "The time passes like the wind. Keeping me busy in teaching and research in India and abroad"   - Dr. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam
I) Abdul Kalam is a teacher.
                         II) Time runs out fast.
Answer: (2)
Explanation: When the speaker compares time with wind, it is his clear understanding that time runs out fast. Hence only II assumption implicits. Where as the I assumption is irrelevent. Because teaching something doesnot always reflects a teaching profession.


4. Statement: "The total surrender is required, if the Divine has to take care of you and guide you".   - A preacher.
Assumptions: I) A devotee should take refuge in the lord.
                        II) A total surrender to almighty makes a devotee a lazy and careless person.
Answer: (1)
Explanation: Only I implicits, that is the suggestion made in the statement. The II assumption is absurd.


5. Statement: "For a person who knows he is dying, the comfort of the near and dear ones around him is the biggest solace that could be afforded, not the attention of the media and the stars."
Assumptions: I) A dying person does not bother for his name or fame.
                        II) The close relative should show their concern to a dying person.
Answer: (5)
Explanation: Both are implicit. We can see the assumption of a speaker in the statement, when he says... "not the attention of the media" (I assumption implicits)... "Solace that could be afforded" gives suggestion that one should show ones concern to his dying relative.


6. Statment: "In our solar system Mars in called Earth's little brother". - A science teacher told his students.
Assumptions: I) Earth and Mars are the childern of same parents.
                        II) Among all the planets of the solar system. Mars resembles the Earth the most.
Answer: (2)
Explanation: Assumption I is absurd. The hidden opinion of the speaker is as siblings have most of their features are common as Earth and Mars have many common features.


7. Statement: "Hydro power has been one of the first forces used by human beings to simplify their work".
Assumptions: I) Thermal power is also one of the first forces used by men.
                        II) Men has explored the use of water.
Answer: (2)
Explanation: There is no camparision of water with any other and no list is given on various forces of Nature that are used by human beings. Hence the I assumption does not implicit where as the II assumption we can understand from the statement.


8. Statement: "Canals shorter the travelling distance of ships. They mostly connect two rivers with each other, Some times also two seas."
Assumptions: I) Canals provide the short route, there is no need to take the longer roundabout route to reach the destination.
                       II) Canals reduce the duration of journey.
Answer: (5)
Explanation: both are implicit. Obviously cannals provide short routes and this results in reducing the time of a travel.


9. Statement: He earns his bread and butter as a photographer.
    Assumptions: I) He is a phtographer.
                            II) He eats bread and butter every day.
Answer: (4)
Explanation: Assumption I is directly concluded, So it is not an assumption. Assumption II is absurd.


10. Statement: The candidates all spoke pretty well, but Mr.John clearly came out on top with his brilliant argumentation.
Assumptions: I) Mr.John took the attention of the audience.
                        II) Mr.John is good at his arguments.
Answer: (1)
Explanation: Assumption II is absurd. Only assumption I implicits, because this is the suggestions made by the speaker.


11. Statement: "Don't make promises until you know for sure that you can deliver the good."    - Mr. A's suggestion to B.
Assumptions: I) Mr. B follows Mr.A's suggestion.
                       II) Making false promises are undersirable.
Answer: (5)
Explanation: Because Mr.'B' feels that 'A' needs his suggestion, so he gave, and ofcourse the hidden opinion is one should not make any false promises. So, both are implicit.


12. Statement: "It was very perceptive of you to notice that."        -'A' commented on 'B'.
      Assumptions: I) 'A' is admiring 'B'.
                              II) 'B' is wise.
Answer: (5)
Explanation: Both are implicit, because 'A' understands that 'B' shows his ability to understand things quickly, especialy things that are not obvious.


13. Statement: Every body loves watching 'X' channel T.V. serials.
Assumptions: I) 'X' channel T.V. serials are very entertaining.
                       II) 'X' channel T.V. serials are reality shows.
Answer: (3)
Explanation: Entertainment is the one which attracts the every body is the underlying suggestion of the speaker or the reality shows which bring public figures on the show, to catch the attention of the people. Hence either I or II implicits.


14. Statement: Mr.X says to Mr.Y "Join your brother in competitive examination coaching centre for better results."
Assumptions: I) Coaching is available for competitive exams.
                        II) Mr.'X' is running the coaching centre for competitive examination.
Answer: (1)
Explanation: Because the coaching for competitive examination is available Mr.'X' gave that suggestion to Mr.'Y'. Hence asumption I implicits, assumption II is not relevent to the statement.


15. Statement: "May I borrow your cellphone to make  a call" 'A' requested 'B'.
Assumptions: I) 'A' doesnot have a cellphone of his own.
                                   II) There is no enongh balance in A's cellphone to make a call.
Answer: (3)
Explanation: In either of the cases 'A' can request 'B' to lend his cellphone. So either I or II implicits.


16. Statement: 'A' says to 'B'. "Don't worry too much about what she said - she tends to dramatize things".
Assumptions: I) 'B' was worrying.
                       II) 'A' is a director.
Answer: (1)
Explanation: Because 'B' was worrying 'A' suggested not to worry is assumption that implicits from the statement, where as assumption II is absurd.


17. Satement: "His father had always taught him to be graceful in defeat" 'A' said about 'B'.
Assumptions: I) 'B' doesnot react negatively on his defeat.
                       II) 'B' knows how to manage the difficult situations.
Answer: (5)
Explanation: Both are implicit, 'A' belives that what 'B' had learned from his father, he follows.


18. Statement: "Future generation will be left with a legacy of pollution and destruction".   - A statement by an environmentalist.
Assumptions: I) There is heavy pollution at present in the world.
                        II) The present generation is careless about the environment.
Answer: (5)
Explanation: Assumption I is the belief of the speaker. Hence it implicits. Even assumption II is the opinion of the speaker- Hence both are implicit.


19. Statement: "None but rich can afford a stay in a five star hotel."
Assumptions: I) All rich people stay in a five star hotel.
                       II) People who stay in a five star hotel are rich.
Answer: (2)
Explanation: It is not necessary that all rich people stay in the five star hotels,  because the speaker is not talking about all rich people. So, the I assumption does not implicit, where as the II assumption is the indirect way of telling. Hence only the II assumption implicits.


20. Statement: P says to Q, "I saw this advertisement in 'X' news paper".
Assumptions: I) Only 'X' news paper is available.
                        II) Advertisements appear only in news papers.
Answer: (4)
Explanation: Both are not suggested in the statement. Hence neither I nor II implicits.


21. Statement: 'Cricket is a game that will occupy the youngsters for hours.'
Assumptions: I) Youngsters love cricket.
                        II) Cricket is only for youngsters.
Answer: (3)
Explanation: It cannot be assumed exactly whether the youngsters love or not the game, cricket. As given in the statement youngsters are to fill their time in playing cricket (or) may cricket is only game available for the youngsters.


22. Statement: 'The short film made by the 'X' university students rank with the greatest movies evermade.'   - A film critic.
Assumptions: I) 'X' university students are very talented.
                       II) The students are trained in film making.
Answer: (1)
Explanation: The first assumption is the hidden opinion of the film critic. Hence it implicits. There is any intention of the speaker to say about whether the students are trained or not. So, the II assumption is redundant.


23. Statement: "Why don't you take a cat nap if you're tired?" 'A' suggested 'B'
Assumptions: I) 'A' is not tired.
                        II) 'B' is tired.
Answer: (2)
Explanation: The I assumption not relavent to the statement. Where as II assumption is the underlying belief of 'A'. Hence only II assumption implicits.


24. Statement: M says to N, "If we climb the tower, we'll have a birds-eye view of the town".
Assumptions: I) No other construction in the town is as tall as this tower.
                        II) The town is very small.
Answer: (1)
Explanation: The meaning of the idiom - 'a bird's-eye view' is- a good over all view. Hence the first assumption implicits. Where as the second assumption is irrelevent.


25. Statement: People are rushing to buy shares of 'X' company.
Assumptions: I) The company is not willing to sell its shares.
                        II) No other company opened its shares.
Answer: (4)
Explanation:The first assumption is absurd, where as the second one is redundant. Hence neither I nor II implicits.

Posted Date : 21-01-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.



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