Tense అంటే time అని అర్థం.
There are 3 tenses in english.-
మళ్లీ ప్రతి tense ను 4 forms గా అంటే Simple, continuous, Perfect and perfect continuous గా Divide చేశారు. కాబట్టి English లో Total గా 3 × 4 = 12 forms of tenses ఉన్నాయి అని చెప్పవచ్చు.
There are as follows
1. Present Simple
2. Present Continuous
3. Present Perfect
4. Present perfect continuous
5. Past Simple
6. Past Continuous
7. Past Perfect
8. Past perfect continuous
9. Future Simple
10. Future Continuous
11. Future Perfect
12. Future Perfect Continuous
1) Present Simple: ఏ Tense రాయాలన్నా Verb నిర్మాణం ముఖ్యం. Present simple లో Verb మొదటి రూపం ఉండాలి.
* మనం రోజూ చేసే పనులు తెలుపడానికి Present Simple ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
* To denote daily routine everyday activities
* To denote Universal truths (విశ్వసత్యాలు)
* To denote General truths (సాధారణ సత్యాలు)
* To denote Morals (నీతులు)
* To denote Proverbs (సామెతలు)
* To denote axims (స్వీకృతాలు)
* To denote likes & dislikes (ఇష్టాలు, అయిష్టాలు)
* To denote Quotations
* To denote Future planned actions
* To denote running commentares
* To denote Head lines in the News papers
* To denote Facts
Structure : Subject + V1 (Verb) + Object
Note (1) Subject 3rd person Singular లో ఉంటే దాని పక్కన వచ్చే Verb కు ‘s/es’ add చేయాలి.
(2) S, H, O, X అనే Letters తో end అయ్యే Verbs కు ‘es’ add చేయాలి.
e.g.: Kiss + es = Kisses
Teach + es = Teaches
go + es = goes
Mix + es = Mixes
(3) Play = plays
(4) fly = flies
Indications: always, usually, regularly, daily, punctually, actually, generally, often,
seldom, every day, every week, every year....
e.g.: The sun rises (rise) in the east.
The birds migrate (migrate) every year.
Stars shine (shine).
They don’t go (not, go) Tirupathi every year.
Man often makes (make) mistakes.
2) Present Continuous
* To denote the actions which are going on at the time of speaking.
* మనం మాట్లాడుతూ ఉన్న సందర్భంలో జరుగుతూ ఉన్న పనులు తెలుపడానికి present continuous ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
Structure: Sub + (am / is / are) + (V1+ing) + Obj
Indications: now, at present, right now, at this time, at this movement, see, look,
observe, Don’t + V, Listen, Silence.
Exception: కొన్ని verbs ను present continuous లో ఉపయోగించరాదు.
verbs of possession - have, own, possess, belong
verbs of perception/sense - see, hear, smell, taste, notice
verbs of emotion - want, wish, like, love, hate, hope
e.g.: Don’t take that book, my mother is reading (read) it.
It is not raining (not, rain) out side right now.
See, the birds are flying (fly) in the air.
Take an umbrella, it is raining (rain) heavily.
Listen, he is singing (sing) a song.
Don’t make a noise, the baby is sleeping (sleep).
Silence, the students are writing (write) the exam.
Look, he is running (run) across the road.
3) Present Perfect
* To denote just finished actions.
* ఇప్పుడే పూర్తి అయిన పనులు తెలుపడానికి present perfect ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
Structure: Sub + (have/has) + V3 + obj
Indication: already, ever, never, just, till now, by now, just now, up to now till today, not yet, so for, recently, this year, this month, the first.
e.g.: Manohar has already completed (already, complete) the project.
She has never come (never, come) here.
Her leg is bleeding, the dog has biten (bite) her.
The police are searching for him, he has murdered (murder) a man.
The wall is wet, he has painted (paint) it.
4. Present perfect continuous
* To denote The actions which were started in the past and continueing at present also.
(ఒక పని ప్రస్తుతం జరుగుతూ ఉంది. అది ప్రారంభం అయిన సమయం కూడా తెలుపడానికి present perfect continuous tense ఉపయోగిస్తాం)
Structure: Sub + (have been/ has been) + (V1 + ing) + obj
Exception: Continuous tense లో ఉపయోగించకూడని verb ని కూడా perfect Continuous లో ఉపయోగించకూడదు. అవసరమైతే దాన్ని Present Perfect లో చెప్పాలి.
e.g.: I have been knowing him for a long time [wrong]
I have known him for a long time [right]
e.g.: I have been writing (wait) for you since morning here.
We have been doing (do) job in Hyderabad for 5 years.
Lalitha has been suffering (suffer) from fever Since monday.
How long have you been working (work) here?
All Students have been Writing (write) the exam since 9 am.
5. Past Simple
To denote completed actions with time known జరిగిపోయిన పనులు తెల్పడానికి Past Simple ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
Structure : Subject + V2 + Object
* Past Simple లో verb అనేది past form (V2) లో ఉంటుంది.
* Past Simple లో ‘be’ form అయితే was, were వస్తాయి.
Yesterday, day before yesterday, ago, long long ago, once upon a time, once there
was, In the past, In olden days, In those days, in 2010, in 2015, last year, last month,
It’s time, It’s high time.
e.g.: I saw (see) you yesterday.
We met (meet) the director day before yesterday.
She didn’t come (not, come) to my house last sunday.
He was (be) born in 2010.
Where did you go (go) last friday?
The British ruled (rule) India in the past.
6. Past continuous
* To denote the actions which were going on in the past
* గతంలో జరుగుతూ ఉండిన పనులు ప్రస్తుతం తెలుపడానికి past continuous ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
Structure: Subject + (was / were) + (V1 + ing) + Object
Indications: at this time yesterday
at this time day before yesterday
at this time last week
at this time last friday
Note: గతంలో ఒక పని జరుగుతూ ఉండగా వేరొక పని జరిగితే అప్పుడు జరిగిన పనిని Past Simple, గతంలో జరుగుతూ ఉండిన పనిని Past Continuous లో రాయాలి.
While ⇒ ఆ సమయంలో
When ⇒ ఎప్పుడైతే
e.g.: While I was playing (Play) in the park, I found a purse.
She jumped out of the bus, while it was moving (move).
When i stood at the bus stop, he was passing (pass) on his bicycle.
The chief observed him, while he was copying (copy).
It started raining, while they were playing (play).
Future Perfect Continuous:
భవిష్యత్తులో ఒక పని జరిగే సమయానికి ఇంకో పని ఎప్పటి నుంచి జరగబోతుంది (లేదా) ఎంతకాలం జరగబోతుందని తెలుపడానికి Future perfect continuous ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
To denote the actions which will start in the future and continueing for some time when an action takes place.
Structure : Sub (Shall have been / will have been) + (V1 + ing) + Object
Indication : Present simple + Since for How long
e.g.: When you come here, I shall have been talking (talk) to Swetha for 10 minutes.
When he enters, she will have been waiting (wait) for him since 10 AM.
When she goes to Hyderabad, He will have been working (work) in a company.
When Kiran calls me, I shall have been watching (watch) for 10 years.
భవిష్యత్తులో జరగబోయే పనులు తెలుపడానికి Future Perfect ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
To denote the actions which will happen in the future.
Structure: sub + (Shall / Will ) + V1 + Obj
Indications : Tomorrow
day after tomorrow
after 2 days, after 3 weeks
Next year, Next month
future time, future days
soon, later, in 2025.
e.g.: I shall go (go) to Rajahmundry tomorrow.
They will not eat (eat, not) biryani day after tomorrow.
Kiran will meet (meet) Sonia Gandhi next year.
I expect Vamsi will direct (direct) a new movie soon.
Will you take (take) SI Coaching after 3 years?
Past perfect: రెండు పూర్తయిన పనులు ఒకే sentence లో చెప్పే సందర్భంలో ముందే పూర్తయిన పనిని past perfect లోనూ, ఆ తర్వాత పూర్తయిన పనిని past simple లో చెప్పాలి.
(To denote two completed actions in a sentence use past perfect for earlier actionand past simple for later action)
Structure: Sub + had + V3 + object)
ముందే పూర్తయింది (Earlier action) ⇒ Past perfect (had + V3)
ఆ తర్వాత పూర్తయింది. (later actions ⇒ past simple (V2)
Indications: when, before, after, that, for what
e.g.: * The flight had taken (take) off before I reached the airport.
* They rushed upstairs to find what had happend (happen).
* Latha went to bed after she had eaten (eat) food.
* When we went to the railway station, the train had left (leave).
* By the time he reached the bus stop, the bus had already left (already leave).
* By the time they entered the theatre, the movie had begun (begin).
Future continuous: భవిష్యత్తులో జరుగుతూ ఉండబోయే పనులను ప్రస్తుతం తెల్పడానికి Future continuous ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
To denote the actions which will be going on in the future.
Structure: Sub + shall be/will be + (V1 + ing) + Obj
at this time tomorrow
at this time day after tomorrow
at this time next week
at this time next month
at this time next year
e.g.: I shall be going (go) to my house at this time tommorow.
We shall be eating (eat) a good food at the time day after tomorrow.
She will be taking (takes) coaching at this time next month.
They will be observing (observe) them in Hyderabad at this time next year.
Ramya won’t be drinking (not, drink) coffee in my house at this time tomorrow.
Past perfect continuous:
ఒక పని (క్రియ) గతంలో జరిగినప్పుడు అంతకంటే ముందు ఇంకో పని ఎప్పటి నుంచీ జరుగుతూ ఉంది (లేదా) ఎంత కాలంగా జరుగుతూ ఉందని కూడా తెలుపడానికి past continuous ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
(To denote the actions that began before a certain point of time in the past and continued up to that time)
Structure: Sub + had been + (V1 + ing) + object
Note: Past perfect Í-û¶C past simple combination లోనే వస్తుంది.
e.g.: * He had been studying (study) for 2 hours when his friend came here.
* When I joined in the bank, Raju had been working (work) as manager for 5 years.
* Before Latha went to Goa, she had been practicing (practice) dance for 6 months.
* I came to know that he had been taking (take) coaching for EAMCET for 6 months.
* He know that his wife had been depositing (deposit) money in SBI for 3 months.
భవిష్యత్తులో ఒక నిర్ణీత సమయానికి పూర్తి కాబోయే పనులను ప్రస్తుతం తెలుపడానికి Future perfect ఉపయోగిస్తాం.
To denote the actions which will have completed at a certain time in the future.
Structure : sub + shall have / will have + V3 + obj
Indication: by tomorrow, by day after tomorrow, by next week, by next month, by next year, by 2025.
e.g.: I shall have given (give) a gift by tomorrow.
We shall have seen (see) a movie by day after tomorrow.
They will not have constructed (not, construct) a building by next year.
She will have done (do) the work by 2025.
Kiran will have written (write) a story by next month.