• facebook
  • whatsapp
  • telegram

continents

     A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, with up to seven regions commonly regarded as continents.
     Africa, the Americas, Antarctica, Asia, Australia together with Oceania, and Europe are considered to be Continents.
     The term continent is used to differentiate between the various large areas of the earth into which the land surface is divided. So, a continent is "a large, continuous area of land on Earth". All continents together constitute less than one-third of the earth's surface, that means more than two-thirds of the earth's surface are covered with water. Two-thirds of the continental land mass is located in the Northern Hemisphere.

Asia

     Asia is the largest continent in the world in both, area and population, constituting nearly onethird of the landmass, lying entirely north of the equator except for some Southeast Asian islands. It is connected to Africa by the Isthmus of Suez and borders Europe (part of the same landmass) along the Ural Mountains and across the Caspian Sea.
Area: about 49,700,000 km² (19,189,277 sq mi) it covers about 30 percent of Earth's total land area.
Population: More than 4 billion human inhabitants (4.3 billion in 2013), about 60 percent of the world's population. 133 billion of these people live in China. Seven out of ten of the most populated countries are in Asia (2010).
Highest Point: Sagarmatha (Chomolungma; known as Mount Everest) 8,848m (29,028 ft) Nepal.
Largest Lake: Caspian Sea (salt lake) 371000 km² (143250 sq mi), Ozero Baykal, Lake Baikal 31500 km² in Siberia is the world's largest freshwater lake by volume.
Longest River: Yangtze China, 6,380 km (3,964 mi).
Languages of Asia: Arabic, Chinese, Hindi, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Russian, Thai, Turkic, Vietnamese and other.
    The history of Asia can be seen as the distinct histories of several peripheral coastal regions: East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Middle East, linked by the interior mass of the Central Asian steppes.  The coastal periphery was home to some of the world's earliest known civilizations, each of them developing around fertile river valleys. The civilizations in Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and the Huanghe shared many similarities. These civilizations may well have exchanged technologies and ideas such as mathematics and the wheel. Other innovations, such as writing, seem to have been developed individually in each area. Cities, states and empires developed in these lowlands.
    The central steppe region had long been inhabited by horse-mounted nomads who could reach all areas of Asia from the steppes. The earliest postulated expansion out of the steppe is that of the Indo-Europeans, who spread their languages into the Middle East, South Asia, and the borders of China, where the Tocharians resided. The northernmost part of Asia, including much of Siberia, was largely inaccessible to the steppe nomads, owing to the dense forests, climate and tundra. These areas remained very sparsely populated.
            Of all the seven continents, the continent of Asia is the largest with respect to both area and population while Australia being the smallest in both regards. The total area of Asia is calculated to be 43,810,582 kilometers square, covering 30% of the total earth's land and 8.66% of the total earth's surface. This continent shares its border with Ural Mountains to the East, the Arctic Ocean to the North, the Pacific Ocean to the West and the Indian Ocean to the South. The highest point in the World is Mount Everest with a height of 8,848 meters. This mountain is situated in the Tibetan region of the Himalayas that is situated in this gigantic continent. Other Asia facts include the facts about Asian rivers. As, the rivers are considered to be the most needed natural phenomenon on earth and are immensely important geographically, biologically, historically and culturally. So, the 3rd longest river in the world; river Yangtze (6,211 km) is in Asia and flows through China. Desert is an area or landscape which gets least precipitation thus providing unfavorable conditions for the growth of plants and the survival of life. The largest desert in Asia is the Gobi desert measuring 281,800 km square.
    Climate and weather are important factors in tourist's decision making and influence the successful operation of tourism. Climate of Asia largely depends on its location and physical geography. This continent comprises of 53 countries including Russia and Turkey which lie both in Asia and Europe. Other major economically developed countries of Asia include Japan, China and India that are currently known as the engines of the world's economic growth. As oil and petroleum play a significant role in the economic uplift of any country.
The major oil and petroleum producing countries like Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and Iraq are also located in Asia. The plant and animal life of Asia is wide and varied and differs primarily according to the climatic regions.

 

Climate change
     A survey carried out in 2010 by global risk analysis farm Maplecroft identified 16 countries that are extremely vulnerable to climate change. Each nation's vulnerability was calculated using 42 socio, economic and environmental indicators, which identified the likely climate change impacts during the next 30 years. The Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan and Sri Lanka were among the 16 countries facing extreme risk from climate change. Some shifts are already occurring. For example, in tropical parts of India with a semi-arid climate, the temperature increased by 0.4°C between 1901 and 2003. A 2013 study by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) aimed to find science-based, pro-poor approaches and techniques that would enable Asia's agricultural systems to cope with climate change, while benefitting poor and vulnerable farmers. The study's recommendations ranged from improving the use of climate information in local planning and strengthening weather-based agro-advisory services, to stimulating diversification of rural household incomes and providing incentives to farmers to adopt natural resource conservation measures to enhance forest cover, replenish groundwater and use renewable energy.

 

Largest Countries of Asia
    Asia comprising of 53 different countries contains a diverse mix of people, cultures and governments. Asia contains the largest countries in the world with respect to both area and population. Russia is Asia's largest country with respect to area followed by China, India, Kazakhstan and KSA. Russia also keeps the reputation of being the largest country of the world as well. Its total area is 17,075,400 square kilometers. The humid continental climate in Russia is mainly due to its enormous size and remoteness of many areas from the sea. Russia also has the world's largest forest reserves known as "the lungs of Europe". It has the 10th largest economy in the world. India is the seventh-largest country by area and the second most populous country of the world. India is the world's most populous democracy with the world's fastest growing economies. Indians have shown tremendous progress in the field of IT. Coming to the third largest country in Asia: Indonesia is the largest Muslim country in the world too. It is often termed as the "land of Islands". The country's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian and Australian tectonic plates makes it vulnerable to volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.

 

Famous Tourist Resorts in Asia
      Tourism occupies an important position in any county's development. Travelling can be regarded as one of the most popular ways of spending free time. Beijing, one of the most important resorts in Asia, attracts a large number of tourists from all around the world. The top sights of Beijing include The Great Wall Sections, the Forbidden City, Tiananmen Square, Summer Palace and the great wall.
    The second major tourist place in Asia is Goa. Goa has always been one of the most famous tourism spots in India. Goa is best known for its beaches, churches and temples. Major tourist attractions in Goa include Palolem beach, Bom Jesus Basilica and

Fort Aguada. Singapore is one of the most developed countries in Asia and the third major tourist spot in Asia. It is also regarded as one of the cleanest and safest countries of its size. A large number of tourists make their way to Singapore every day. Singapore stands among the top 5 countries in the world for night-life, fine dining and shopping. Famous spots include National Orchid gardens, Singapore Zoo, Marina bay, Mega Zip adventure Park and Singapore Flyer.
Internationally Recognized Universities of Asia
     Asia has got good reputation in the education sector while housing few of the oldest and biggest Universities in the world. Let's have a glance at the leading universities of Asia.  University of Tokyo leads the list as one of the best universities in Asia with a global ranking of 30. The University of Tokyo is Japan's top university, a top class centre for research and a vibrant academic community. University of Hong Kong stands among the top-notch universities of Asia and the world(ranked 34). HKU is internationally recognized for its research centre and scholarly achievements. Widely known for its business studies, the National University of Singapore is globally ranked among the top universities of Asia. It was ranked 40th in the world and 3rd in Asia. Business students from all around the world dream to come here to pursue their higher studies.

 

Longest Asian Rivers
   Rivers are the most vibrant natural phenomenon that exists on the face of this universe. They extend from one country to another thus exercising a profound influence on the climatic conditions of that region. Two-third Asian Rivers extend over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) in length.

Among the rivers of Asia, Yangtze of China is the longest river in Asia with a length of 6300 km. it extends from Qinghai-Tibet plateau and falls into the East China Sea at Shanghai while contributing a lot in the agriculture and energy sector of rapidly growing China.
     Yellow river in Huang-He is the second longest river in Asia with a length 5,464 km. It flows through the nine provinces of China and empties into the Bohai Sea. The yellow river is also known as the "cradle of Chinese civilization" as it was the birth place of ancient Chinese civilization and the most prosperous region in early Chinese history.
Most Popular Sports in Asia
    As we are quite familiar with the fact that Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world. So, it's natural for the inhabitants of Asia to be the fans of different sports. The inclinationtowards any sports largely depends on the history of the country together with prevalent circumstances. 
    European soccer is extremely famous in Asian countries. Football is played and watched all over the world. Countries like China, South Korea and Japan have developed a real enthusiasm for football and their players are inclined towards improvement.
Cricket fever strongly grips the Asian countries too. It is very popular and loved in various Asian countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Srilanka.
    Traditional Asian fighting styles, better known as martial arts are also famous in most of the Asian countries. There is a wide variety of such traditional sports like Kung-Fu in China and Karate in Japan.

 

Significant Land Marks of Asia
     Each country has certain specific structures, monuments and landmarks that earn them global recognition. For instance, Eiffel tower in Paris, Statue of Liberty in USA and Colosseum in Italy. Let's bring into account the famous landmarks in Asia.
     Taj Mahal located in Uttar Pardesh, Agra in India-is known as one of the most significant tourist resorts in Asia. People in flocks come over to view this breath taking architectural epitome. The Taj Mahal is a symbol of love for India. The Great Wall of China is an amazing landmark and the most celebrated symbol of China. In earlier time this great wall was also recognized as a symbol of brutality and tyranny of early emperor's

 

Africa

Area: About 30244000 km2 (11700000 mi2) including its adjacent islands it covers about 20 percent of Earth's total land area.
Population: 1,072 million human inhabitants, about 14 percent of the world's population.
Highest Point: Mount Kilimanjaro - Uhuru Peak on the volcano Kibo, 5895 m (19340 ft) in Tanzania.
Largest Lake: Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza; 68870 sq. km.
Longest River: Nile (6695 km)
Languages of Africa: About thousand languages classified in four major language families: Afro-Asiatic (e.g. Berber language), Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo (Bantu), and Khoi-San.
      Africa is the second largest and the second most populous continent of the world. This is the continent of wonder and the place for evolution of human history. Africa is a continent with diverse culture, uncountable languages and immense natural resources. Considered as the oldest inhabited territory on the earth, Africa had no nation states for a long time. This Saharan-Nile complex has always been the center of interest for the world as the slave trade was the major occupation of this region.

Later on, the slave trade was replaced with commerce trade that opened a new chapter in the history of this continent. Africa is not only important due to its geographical location but also for its extensive natural resources which are playing an important role in the development of this continent. Its eye catching places and magnificent sights along with climatic diversity have made it premium spot for the tourists.
      Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the middle of the 20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps as early as 7 million years ago. Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to approximately 3.9 – 3.0 million years BC), Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3 – 1.4 million years BC) and Homo ergaster (c. 1.9 million – 600,000 years BC) have been discovered.
     After the evolution of Homo sapiens approximately 150,000 to 100,000 years ago in Africa, the continent was mainly populated by groups of hunter-gatherers. These first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the out of Africa migration dated to approximately 50,000 years ago, exiting the continent either across Bab-el-Mandeb over the Red Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar in Morocco, or the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt.

   Other migrations of these modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa and the Sahara.
     The size of the Sahara has historically been extremely variable, with its area rapidly fluctuating and at times disappearing depending on global climatic conditions. At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara and large populations discovered in Tassili n'Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia. However, the warming and drying climate meant that by 5000 BC, the Sahara region was becoming increasingly dry and hostile. Around 3500 B.C., due to a tilt in the earth's orbit, the Sahara experienced a period of rapid desertification. The population trekked out of the Sahara region towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since this time, dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa and, increasingly during the last 200 years, in Ethiopia.

    The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures. It is speculated that by 6000 BC, cattle were already domesticated in North Africa. In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria to Nubia. In the year 4000 BC, the climate of the Sahara started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace. This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa.
    By the first millennium BC, ironworking had been introduced in Northern Africa and quickly spread across the Sahara into the northern parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and by 500 BC, metalworking began to become commonplace in West Africa. Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in many areas of East and West Africa, although other regions didn't begin ironworking until the early centuries AD. Copper objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia and Ethiopia dating from around 500 BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that Trans- Saharan trade networks had been established by this date.


Geography
   Geographically, Africa has occupied the southward landmass of the earth. It separates from Europe through Mediterranean Sea and Asia through Red sea. Isthmus of Suez connects Africa from Asia. It also includes Arabian Peninsula and the Zagros mountains of Iran.

Top Economies of Africa
    Africa has occupied distinct place in the world's economy. Its natural resources, youth power and its geographical position have quadrupled its charm in the world. Despite its financial crunch, Africa continues to maintain its growth. Many international agencies are gaining interest in investing in the emerging economies of Africa. Most progressing economy of Africa is South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia. These countries are rich in mineral resources and fossil fuel.

Major Rivers of Africa
     Rivers have been of fundamental importance for human being throughout the human history. Rivers are immensely important geologically, biologically and historically. They provide settlement, food and means of transport. Major rivers of Africa are the Nile, The Congo, The Niger and Zambezi. Rivers in Africa are the blood for irrigation and fulfill the needs of human consumption.

The Nile is 600km long and the oldest of historical rivers. It is the longest river of Africa as well as the longest river of the world. It flows in Ethiopia, Egypt, and Rwanda and in Sudan. This river is historically important which had given the birth of civilized nation of the world. The second longest river of Africa is The Congo which flows westward through Central Africa. It has the largest basin delta which covers 4.1million sq.km. of the land. The Niger River flows through four countries of Africa (Zambia, Angola, Namibia and Botswana) and empty into Mozambique Channel.

Great Lakes 
    Africa is not only blessed with rivers but also with lakes too. There is a group of big lakes in central Africa that might be called the "Great Lakes" of this continent. The largest of these lakes is Lake Victoria that also holds the reputation of being the 2nd fresh water lake in the world. Another among many famous lakes in Africa is Lake Tanganyika which is the 7th largest freshwater lake in the world. Other lakes which carry equal importance for Africa are Lake Malawi, Lake Turkana, Lake Albert, Lake Kivu and Lake Edward.

 

Wonders 
     Natural wonders of Africa are spectacular, spell bound, mesmerizing and enthralling. The amazing wonders of nature are found throughout the continent of Africa. Namibia Desert is one of the natural wonders found in Africa that stretches 1,000 miles from North to South and is known for being the oldest desert on the earth.
     Mount Kilimanjaro is the tallest mountain in the entire world. It has a height of 19,341 feet with its peak covered with snow year around.
    Ecologically significant and extremely beautiful Congo caves stand among the most mysterious natural wonders of the world. They present a majestic display of limestone formation with an extensive range of natural colors. Situated between the limestone hills, this wonder attracts flocks of people every year.

Important Universities 
     Education plays fundamental role in the development of society. After a long period of ignorance, education in Africa began as a tool to prepare the youth to take their place in the respective societies. Africa has a numerous universities famous worldwide.

University of Cape Town, University of Pretoria, University of Johannesburg and Stellenbosch University are among the highly ranked universities in Africa whereas University of Cairo has crept on to 5th ranking. American university in Cairo and Mansoura university of Egypt are among the most important universities of Africa.

Major Sports 
     Sport is the emblem of peace and relation in the world. Africa can use this card well. Every country in Africa has its own sporting preferences but largely Soccer is the most common. Olympic Games and cricket are popular in some African countries. 53 countries have football teams in the Confederation of African football. According to FIFA ranking, Egypt currently has the best soccer team in Africa. Their team has won the 7 African Cups. South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe cricket teams have played internationally. Rugby is also popular sport in South Africa and in Namibia. Africa is rising as an emerging star in the sports of the world.

Why Africa is called the Dark Continent
    Africa was formerly known as Dark Continent. It was previously believed that it was primarily due to the black skin of its inhabitants and the absence of lights. This old notion has lost its significance now. It is actually known as the Dark Continent because of its stricken masses who were suffered badly in the hand of colonialism. Furthermore, it is the last of the continents to be influenced by the western civilization. This can be stated as another reason for Africa's underdevelopment.

 

North America

 

Area: 24,709,000 square km
Population: 565,265,000 (2013, 4th)
Pop. Density: 22.9/km2
        North America is the 3rd largest continent of the seven continents with respect to area while being the most populous continent after Asia, Africa and Europe. It shares its border with Atlantic Ocean to the east and Pacific Ocean to the west. The continent has a total of 23 countries. Canada, USA and Mexico are the most dominant countries in the North American continent. The North America covers an area of 9,540,198 square miles which makes it 3rd largest after Asia and Africa. Population of this continent is mainly based on data contained in US census Bureau and its average population is calculated to be 516,766,000. Mexico is the most populated country while Mexico is the city with largest population in North America. Island, as we all know, is a piece of land surrounded by water. North America is rich in islands and contains the Greenland which is the largest Island in terms of area. Its area is calculated to be 840,000 square miles. The climate of any region predominantly depends on the number and nature of rivers that flow through that country. Mississippi-Missouri is the largest river of North America and the fourth largest in the world. Its length is approximately 3600 miles. Climate plays a considerably significant role in the socio-economic development of a country.

Conversely, unfavorable climatic conditions pose a serious threat to its progress and prosperity.
      It's a pleasant fact that North America is a continent with every type of climate. Mount McKinley in Alaska is the tallest point on this continent and Death Valley, in California is the lowest point. Language is considered to be the prime source of conveying ones message to the fellow human beings. English and French are the officially declared languages of Canada while English is the official language of USA. Furthermore, a large number of Hispanian populations speak Spanish to. Economically, this continent is comprised of the world's most developed nations like Canada, USA and Mexico. These countries have dominated the world in the sectors of services, mining and manufacturing. USA has the most consolidated economy in the world. Moreover, North America has gained global recognition for being the biggest producers of corn, tobacco, soya bean and a large variety of other food and raw materials.
    Laurentia is an ancient craton which forms the geologic core of North America; it formed between 1.5 to 1.0 billion years ago during the Proterozoic eon. The Canadian Shield is the largest exposure of this craton. From the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic eras, North America was joined with the other modern-day continents as part of the supercontinent Pangaea, with Eurasia to its east.

One of the results of the formation of Pangaea was the Appalachian Mountains, which formed some 480 million years ago, making it among the oldest mountain ranges in the world. When Pangaea began to rift around 200 million years ago, North America became part of Laurasia, before it separated from Eurasia as its own continent during the mid- Cretaceous period. The Rockies and other western mountain ranges began forming around this time from a period of mountain building called the Laramide orogeny, between 80 and 55 million years ago. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama connected the continent to South America about three million years ago, and the Great Lakes (as well as many other northern freshwater lakes and rivers) were carved by receding glaciers about 10,000 years ago.
     North America is the source of much of what humanity knows about geologic time periods. The geographic area that would later become the United States has been the source of more varieties of dinosaurs than any other modern country. According to paleontologist Peter Dodson, this is primarily due to stratigraphy, climate and geography, human resources, and history. Much of the Mesozoic Era is represented by exposed outcrops in the many arid regions of the continent. The most significant Late Jurassic dinosaur-bearing fossil deposit in North America is the Morrison Formation of the western United States.

 

Largest Countries of North America
     Three of the thirteen largest countries in the world are situated in North America. Canada, with a total area of 9,984,670 is the largest country of North America with USA and Mexico being the 2nd and 3rd respectively. Canada is known as one of the most developed and progressed nations in the world. According to UN, it is ranked as the best country to live. Canada is globally known for its abundant natural reservoirs, stable and consolidated economy and progressive political environments
     After Canada, USA is the 2nd largest country of North America while being 3rd in the world. It comprises of 50 different states. USA is globally recognized for its healthy economy and immensely developed technological sector. Major cities of USA include New York, Los Angeles, California and Chicago among many others.
     Mexico is the 3rd largest country in North America with a steadily growing industrialized economy. It has shown tremendous development in the field of technology and has one of the world's rapidly growing economies. Mexico has the reputation of being the 10th most visited country in the world.

 

Economic Giants of North America
     Economy occupies a back bone position in the development of a country. A flawed economy yields negative result that inhibits it from reaching the paramount of success. Fortunately, North America is blessed with highly developed countries in the world which have excelled in almost every area, be it technology, economy or education.
     USA leads the world with its extensively developed economy with a GDP of $15.7 trillion. The country has made remarkable progress in manufacturing, technology and education sectors among others. According to recent reports, the US economy is confronted with threats like indebtedness and political gridlock which would be soon surmounted, asserted a US economist.
     Canada has the second most technologically developed economy after USA. Canada is rich in natural reservoirs and makes a huge amount of profit from its energy and mineral resources. Fishing and forestry that once used to be the prime Canadian industries have been took over by energy and mineral industries that are the leading source of income for the country today. That has given Canada the status of the tenth largest exporter of oil and third largest exporter of natural gas in the world.

     Among the newly industrialized economies Mexico leads the list. It has made commendable progress over the years and has emerged as a self-sufficient country. Various surveys have revealed the fact that trade Mexico's trade with USA and Canada has been the major reason for the fillip in its economy.
 

Globally  recognized universities of North America
 
  Universities, providing quality education, determine the fate of any nation. Most of the worlds highly ranked universities are found in North America. People from all across the globe have a deep settled desire to migrate to North America for getting equipped with quality education.
    California institute of technology tops the list as being the best university in North America and the world with a score as high as 94.8. It is globally recognized for its science and engineering sectors.
    Stanford University is 2nd best university in the world and North America with an aggregate score of 93.7. Established in 1885, Stanford has the reputation of being the world's leading research institute and teaching institution. One of the most interesting facts about Stanford University is its contribution to the "Silicon Valley" that generates world revenues of 2.7 trillion annually and has created 5.4 million jobs since its inception.

     Harvard University is one of the leading universities in the world which lays great emphasis in the field of research. Harvard is best known for its business school. It is ranked as the top business school in the world. It has an accumulative score of 93.6 according to Time magazine.
 

Top tourists destinations of North America
     Tourism industry has shown rapid growth over the last few years. People from all corners of the world fly to these resorts to make the most out of their leisure time. They visit different places to have a different experience of their choice. North America has countless lavish resorts that are the premium source of fascination for a large number of people. One can find everything from spectacular white sandy beaches, breath taking mountains, to the mega casinos in Las Vegas that are unmatched in the world.
     Niagara Falls, one of the natural wonder is a source of great attraction for the both the tourists and the natives especially between October to early May. With more than 14 million visitors every year, it is the most visited natural wonder on earth.
    Las Vegas, globally recognized as the Hub of casinos, is an obsession for gamblers. All the casinos are designed and embellished with extensive care to provide a fantasy-like ambience.
    The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is the largest suspension bridge in the world. Since its establishment in 1937, it has become an internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco. Its red-orange color enhances its visibility even in adverse weather conditions.

 

Most  popular  Sports  in North America
     As we are quite familiar with the fact that North America is one of the largest and most populous continents in the world. So, it's natural for the inhabitants of North America to be the fans of different sports. The inclination towards any sports largely depends on the history of the country together with prevalent circumstances.
    Ice hockey is greatly adored by the Canadians. It's a kind of field hockey that originated in Canada. It is usually played on an ice field and that is the only fact that distinguishes it from the normal field hockey. It is Canada's foremost winter sport.
     Basketball is another team sport that is very popular in Canada. The team comprises of 5 members that try to score points by throwing the ball in the opposing hoops. Micheal Jordan, one of the finest basketball players is also from Canada. Canadians possess great fervor for basketball.
    Baseball is another major league sport played in both Canada and USA. The team consists of nine players who strive to hit the ball with sheer power and score runs by turning to all of the 4 bases. The baseball field is 90-feet square and resembles the shape of a diamond.

 

Significant landmarks of North America
    Each country has certain specific structures, monuments and landmarks that earn them global recognition. For instance, Eiffel tower in Paris, Statue of Liberty in USA and Colosseum in Italy. Let's bring into account the famous landmarks in Asia.
     Famous land marks of North America include Statue of Liberty in New York, Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, and Gateway Arch in Saint. Louis, Niagara Falls that is located at the border between Ontario and New York, Pentagon in Washington DC among others.

 

South America

 

Area: 17,840,000 square km.
Population: 385,742,554 (2011, 5th)
Pop. Density: 21.4/km2 (56.0/sq mi)
      With most of its area being in Southern Hemisphere, the continent of South America is situated between the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The continent comprises of 12 independent states including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Colombia, Venezuela and the overseas department of French Guiana. South America is ranked fourth in area and fifth in population.
     Its geographical location has often been subjected to controversies. A good amount of people from various non-English speaking countries doesn't accept the idea of it being a continent in true sense of the term. They regard North, Central and South America as subcontinents. The great Amazon River that surrounds a vast area of Amazon forests is located in South America. Being extensively deep, the river is also termed as The River Sea. Before the construction of roads and other means of transport, the Amazon waterways used to be the prime routes to access the interior areas of Brazil and some Northern areas of South America. Andes, the second largest mountain range in the world after Himalayas also run down the western edge of South America. Andes also have active and dormant volcanic peaks. The largest salt lake in the world is located in Bolivia that is one of the independent South American countries.

      Portuguese and Spanish are the major languages of South America while Christianity, Islam and Hinduism remain the most practiced religion in South American land. High interest rates, unemployment and low investment are the significant features of its economy. A considerable gap between rich and poor is quite evident in South America. The richest countries like Venezuela, Brazil and Paraguay might own 60 % of the total nation's wealth while the poorest may own just less than 5 %.
    The continent is rich in music and literature. The famous musician Gabriel Gracia Marquezis a Nobel Prize winner from South America. The mainly Portuguese speaking country is largely known for its Great Amazon forests, large mountain ranges and tropical forests.
     South America is believed to have been joined with Africa from the late Paleozoic Era to the early Mesozoic Era, until the supercontinent Pangaea began to rift and break apart about 225 million years ago. Therefore, South America and Africa share similar fossils and rock layers.
     South America is thought to have been first inhabited by humans when people were crossing the Bering Land Bridge (now the Bering Strait) at least 15,000 years ago from the territory that is present-day Russia. They migrated south through North America, and eventually reached South America through the Isthmus of Panama.

    The first evidence for the existence of the human race in South America dates back to about 9000 BC, when squashes, chili peppers and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc, which remains a staple food today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC.
       By 2000 BC, many agrarian communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.
     South American cultures began domesticating llamas, guanacos, and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC. Besides their use as sources of meat and wool, these animals were used for transportation of goods.

 

Largest Countries of South America
     The continent of South America comprise of 12 independent countries and an overseas land, French Guiana. Brazil, the undisputed giant, is the largest country in this continent that covers nearly half of the continents total area. Its total area is calculated to be 8,514,877 square km.

    Argentina is the second largest country in South America with an estimated area of 2,780,400 square kilometers. Major cities of Argentina include Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Rosario and Mandoza. Buenos Aires is also the capital city of Argentina.
     Peru is the third largest country of South America after Argentina. The total area of Peru is 496,222 square mile. Mining, steel, petroleum, fishing, textile and tourism include the major industries of Peru. Its capital is Lima that has a population of 8.4 million.

 

The economically dominant countries in South America
     Talking in economic terms, the country has shown rapid development over the years. Countries like Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Colombia have made valuable contributions in boasting its economy. Initially, the scarcity of coal was a major impediment to its economic and industrial development which was overcome by using the petroleum reservoirs present in the continent.
     Brazil's economy remained stable despite recession and it continues to expand its presence in the global market. Brazil's economy is largely characterized by its well-developed agriculture, mining and manufacturing sectors. It's GDP in terms of purchasing power parity is $2.362 trillion.

     Argentina stands right next to Brazil in terms of economy. Argentina derives extensive benefit from its rich natural resources and highly developed agricultural sector. Its major exports include soybeans, petroleum, gas, vehicles and corn. Its GDP in terms of PPP is calculated to be $ 746.9 billion.
    Countries undergoing massive economic growth are Venezuela and Peru. Major industries in South America include agriculture, fishing, and mining. Trade is also a crucial feature in its economy.

 

Famous tourist spots
       South America is a mash up of magnificent landscapes with snow covered mountains year around, thick forests, mesmerizing waterfalls and one of the world's spectacular mountain ranges. When it comes to adventure, South America is never disappointing. It provides a complete opportunity to the adventure addicts to get wild and yell their hearts out!
     Peru has become the darling of a travelling community due to the presence of world's oldest ruins, Machu Pichu. It's one of the mystical and ancient cities that remained a secret for ages. The sight of sun rise at Machu Pichu provides a unique feeling of harmony and serenity which provides one with a true spiritual experience. It is the most famous tourist spot in South America.

     Angela falls kissing the Venezuela's Canaima National Park are the highest waterfalls in the world. Witnessing the falls pouring down from a height of around 980 meters offers a breath taking scenery. The falls are known as the pride of Venezuela. They represent the natural wealth and heritage of South America.
     Other places of tourist interest include Rio de Janeiro that has some of the world's beautiful beaches. Santiago, Bogota, Lima, Buzios and Salvador are also among the most frequently visited sites in South America.

 

Famous landmarks 
     Landmarks are what earn countries global recognition. It is primarily due to the noticeable physical and historical features they carry. They play an essential role in attracting tourists from all around the world. Like various other continents, South America is rich in landmarks. Undoubtedly, South America is one of the most spectacular continents in the world. Let's bring into consideration some of the major landmarks in South American region.
      Cristo Redentor in Rio de Janeiro is one of the most phenomenal landmarks in the world. It is a statue of Jesus that stands 130 feet tall. It is known to be the fifth largest statue of Jesus in the world.

The statue holds the symbol of Brazilian Christianity and earns the place of an icon for Rio de Janeiro. This enormous structure is mainly composed of concrete and soapstone.
     Machu Pichu popularity is more warranted than most of the other land marks as it is one of the most beautiful, mystical and adventurous places in the world. It's one of the must-see natural wonders in the world.

 

Major sports 
     Among a wide range of sports played in South America, soccer is the pick of all of them. South American countries have produced incredible football players like Maradona, Ronaldo, Rivaldo and Kaka that continue to rule the world of Football. The fame and recognition of athletes from the Latin American countries have brought them to the forefront. Brazil has won the FIFA world cup 5 times while Uruguay and Argentina have both won twice.
    Baseball is the second favorite to Latin Americans after football. The game is gradually rising in popularity. Most of American international team players are Americans or descendants of Latin Americans. Polo is also famous in some parts of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay.


Antarctica

Area: 14,000,000 km2
    Antarctica, the second smallest continent in the world after Australia, covers the earth's South Pole. It lies in the Antarctic Circle and is surrounded by Southern Ocean. It is known as the coldest, windiest, driest and least populous continent of the world. Without any element of doubt, Antarctica is the coldest place on earth where water remains frozen year around. It is a frozen desert with very little precipitation. The temperature in the middle of the continent remains much colder as compared to the temperature on the coasts. The continent sees two seasons; summer and winter. Summers are normally sunny, whereas the continent sees no sun in winters. When it snows in Antarctica, it doesn't usually melt. The snow freezes layer over layer before it gets hard and transform into thick sheets of ice, called ice sheets. The adverse weather conditions in Antarctica make it hard for people to live here for a longer period of time. Tourists usually visit Antarctica in summers. Antarctica's oceans are home to many whales, seals and penguins.

     Antarctica is the only continent that is completely deprived of bushes and trees. Vegetation of the continent is mainly composed of algae and mosses. The male "Emperor Penguin" is the only warm-blooded animal that survives in the frosty weather of this frozen dessert. The female penguin hibernates during the entire winter and comes out to hatch eggs.
    NASA and various other countries are conducting researches in Antarctica; trying hard to alleviate their concerns regarding this frozen dessert. There are about 70 research stations of 30 different countries in Antarctica. They aim to examine the changes taking place in this continent. The scientists are carrying extensive researches to examine the influence of earth's temperature on its ice sheets. Similarly, they are interested in knowing the influence that this frozen land exerts on the earth's climate. Some of their other projects include the study of penguins, fish, global warming, glaciology, astronomy and climatology.
     NASA asserts that Antarctica and Mars have a lot of things in common. Both the places are extremely cold and dry. It has further informed about the existence of meteorites in Antarctica. They say it's a good place to study about meteorites and other rocks that fall form space because it's easier to locate them on the white ice.

      Antarctica has no indigenous population and there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australia—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa—had existed since the times of Ptolemy (1st century AD), who suggested the idea to preserve the symmetry of all known landmasses in the world. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size.
 

Some interesting facts about Antarctica
      We are quite familiar with the fact that Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent that appears on the face of the globe. We are ready to unravel some of the mystical facts about this continent.

 

Antarctica falls in no man's land
    Antarctica is a continent that falls in no one's territory. Few nations including Australia, New Zealand, Argentina and United Kingdom have laid claims over it, yet it still appears to be an independent territory without any government ownership or rule. Antarctica treaty was been signed by 48 nations, designating it as a "natural resource" that primarily stands for peace and scientific experiments.

 

Antarctica is the only Continent  without a time zone
    Antarctica does not follow any time zone. The scientists or tourists who usually come here reside here, following the time of their homeland.

 

Antarctica is the coldest and driest of all the Continents in the World
Even an ordinary man is quite aware of Antarctica, being the coldest place on the face of this universe. The average annual temperature in Antarctica is 58 degrees. The lowest temperature ever of - 128.5 degrees Fahrenheit was recorded in Antarctica, in 1983. In addition to being the coldest, it is the driest continent too. The continent receives very less precipitation of about 10 cm annually.

 

There are no permanent residents in Antarctica
     Extreme and adverse weather condition in Antarctica does not allow people to reside here permanently. The only people who mostly stay here are scientists. On average, 5,000 people stay here in summers. The number considerably drops down during the winter season.

 

Melting of ice sheets in Antarctica may lead to a Catastrophe
     A recent report states that, if global warming were to cause its ice sheets to melt, the oceans levels would dangerously raise by 200-210 feet.

 

Europe

Area: 23 million square km (876000 mi2)
Population: 739 million people live in Europe.
Highest Point: 1. El'brus in Russia, (5642 m/18510 ft.);
2. Mont Blanc, France-Italy: 4807m (15771 ft.).
Largest Lake: Lake Balaton, Hungary, largest lake of Central Europe, 592 km2.
Longest Rivers: 1. Volga (3,690 km (2,293 miles), 2. Danube 2850 km (1770 miles)
Languages of Europe: English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Nordic Languages, East European languages.
     Europe shares its boundaries with Arctic Ocean in the North, by Atlantic Ocean in the West. In the south of Europe lies the Mediterranean Sea and to the East, its boundary is vague and blurred. Considering in terms of area, Russia is the largest country in Europe occupying a territory of 17,098,242 km square.

The smallest and least populated country in Europe is The Vatican City with a population as low as 800 people. Europe has been the birth place for the world's most ancient civilizations like Greece and Rome. Europe has also been the epicenter of the biggest wars; World War I and World War II which wreaked havoc on the people of several countries. The major countries of Europe collectively form European Union that allows all the independent countries of Europe to share a common currency and to unite their economic and military power, are 27. Major languages spoken in Europe include French, German, Spanish, Swiss, and Portuguese among many others. The world's oldest countries like France, Portugal and Denmark also reside in this continent. The longest lake of Europe is Balaton stretching up to 592 square kilometers. The importance of rivers can never be ignored as they have a massive influence on a country's trade and economy. The longest rivers in Europe are Volga and Danube. Coming towards the major cities of Europe, we can easily say that Moscow, London, Madrid, Rome and Paris are the biggest and the most important one. The Europeans have made great progress in the economy and has emerged as the major economic powers of the world. The prime sectors of its economy include transport, energy and research whereas EU is the world's biggest exporter and second-biggest importer.
 

Largest countries of Europe
     The world's largest country in terms of both area and population, Russia, lies in Europe. According to recent estimates, its total area is found to be 3,960,000 square kilometers. This area is 1.8 times bigger than the size of the US. This country underwent significant economic changes and has emerged as more consolidated globally-integrated economy. It has made rapid progress in its trade centers and two-third of its trade takes place with the countries of European Union ultimately benefitting the continent.
    Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe considering its area. It was considered to be the most powerful state in Europe in the 10th century. Kharkiv, Odesa and Donestk are among the famous cities of Ukraine. It stands second to Russia in economic terms as well.
    France, one of the most developed countries in the world leads other European countries. It has the reputation of being the permanent member NATO, G-8 and G-20. It has a diversified economy yielding enormous revenue every year. France attracts a large number of tourists and maintains the 3rd largest income for tourism in the world.

 

Top Economies of Europe
     When it comes to economy, all the European countries are extensively developed and prosperous. They are making rapid advancement in the fields of technology and innovation. Two-third of its trade takes place with other European Union countries.
      Sweden is said to be the most competitive and developed economy of Europe. It has well equipped communication and education system that can measure up to any system of the modern economy. Iron ore, timber and hydro power are the major export sources of Sweden. Its GDPper capita is $ 41,700 which is the highest in Europe.
     Germany has the fifth largest developed economy in the world and it ranks second in Europe. It is the major exporter of machinery and vehicles; also it has the world's leading automobile industry. It's GDP per capita (PPP) is calculated to be $39,100-lying second in Europe.
     France has the world's most diversified and stable economy with the reputation of being the world's most modern countries. Though most of its major companies including Air France and France Telecom have been privatized, but still the government's intervention in various sectors like, power, energy and defense makes it the 3rd most powerful economy in Europe.

 

Top European Universities
     The world knows that Europe has the best universities on earth which are best known for their engineering sector. Students from all around the globe make their way to Europe to pursue their higher studies on minimal expenses at the European universities offer a wide range of scholarships.
     Oxford University is regarded as one of the best universities in Europe with a global ranking of being the second best. It is also known as the oldest surviving universities of the current era. It acquires a dominant position in almost every area be it medical, business studies or engineering. Globally, it also enjoys the reputation of producing the highest number of Nobel Prize winners.
     Cambridge University stands just next to Oxford. It is globally raked as 7th while it is one of the world’s oldest and leading educational centers of the world. It has 31 colleges and more than 150 departments. Among other distinctions, it is best known for the quality of its research. The Time magazine ranks the Imperial College of London as one of the highly reputed colleges in the world. The university has made great progress in the fields of education, research, science and engineering. One of the prime goals of the university remains the application of knowledge in trade, commerce and healthcare sectors. It is consistently rated as among the European top three universities while acquiring 8th position in the world.

 

Most popular sports in Europe
     Europe has made great advancement in the field of sports too. A myriad number of sports are popular in Europe including Football, Cricket, Tennis and Athletics among many others. Europe has given birth to some of the best tennis and football players which enjoy a huge fan following throughout the world. There is no denying in the fact that Europeans show great enthusiasm and fervor towards sports.
    Europeans show great fervor for Football or Soccer and is known as the most popular sport in Europe. The zeal for soccer is common in almost all the countries of Europe. There are a total of 47 countries in this continent and Soccer occupies dominant position in terms of popularity.
     Tennis is another sport that is quite famous among all the European Union countries. Europe rules the world of tennis with players like Roger Federer, Rafael Nadal when we talk about men's tennis. The same applies to the female tennis players like Maria Sharapova, Steffi Graff among many others.
    Other famous sports in Europe include Athletics, Rugby, Swimming, Bicycle Racing and Bull fighting.

 

Important land marks in Europe
     A landmark is symbol containing different meanings. It might represent an idea, a culture or a belief. Europe is rich in landmarks that make it the prime destination for the tourists. From gigantic steel structures to the majestic beauty of nature, you are going to find everything depending on the type of experience you want to have there in Europe. All these landmarks are terrific and attract large number visitors every year.
    The Roman Coliseum is one of the oldest known monuments on the planet earth. This enormous structure used to be a theater that could accommodate more than 50,000 people. Despite its ancient and unrepaired structure, it still successfully manages to draw a large number of people from all around the world.
     Istanbul has emerged as a top-notch tourist spot over the years and continues to attract flocks of tourists. Istanbul in Turkey is a vibrant blend of various cultures. Greek, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman culture extends throughout the city.
    Other famous places of visitor’s choice include Tower Bridge, Edinburgh Castle, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben and Cathedral Notre-Dame among many others.


Australia

  The "continent" of Australia / Oceania is a somewhat artificial construct, designed to link together the continental landmass of Australia with the huge number of widely scattered islands across the Pacific Ocean.
Area: 8600,000 km2
Population: 37 million
Highest Point: Puncak Jaya (Carstensz Pyramid 4884 m/16023 ft), Papua Province, Indonesia
Largest Lake: Lake Eyre, Australia
Longest River: Murray-Darling river system 3750 km (2300 mi)
    Australia is a lonely continent on the surface of the earth. It is the world's smallest continent whose total area is 7,682,300 square kilometers. Australia is a highly diverse continent. It has extremes of weather, a stunning variety of flora and fauna, snow-capped mountains, vast stretches of deserts, frightening marshes and fertile flatland. It has been home to races and people creating socio-culture diversity matching its bio-diversity. It has had as many languages as the communities inhabiting here but English is the official language of Australia.

The Common Wealth of Australia is comprises of six states, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Vitoria and Western Australia and two territories - the Australian capital territory and the Northern territory. Its more than ideal geographic location which exercises a profound influence on its economy. Tasmania, one of the finest lakes in the world, contributes significantly to its economy by attracting a lot of tourists. Its distinct position on the earth determines its climate and topography. Australia occupies four different climate zones, Sub equatorial, Tropical, Subtropical and Temperate. Two-thirds of the Australia is arid and doesn't support vegetation. Its climatic diversity gives rise to natural hazards in the form of thunderstorm, droughts, occasional floods and frequent bushfires.
    The predominant country on this continent is Australia which is a high metropolitan country with has multi-diverse cultures and languages, rich in valuable treasure of wildlife and exotic beaches. It is the world 18th most urbanized country of the earth. Being the most developed countries of the world, Australia is also the most popular country on this continent. It is the world's 12th largest economy and has the world's 5th highest per capita income. Australia is emerging as a nation due to its moderate policies such as quality education, health facilities, civic liberties, economic freedom and political rights. Canberra is the capital of Australia

 

Top economies of Australia
      Australia is a paradox of isolation and connectivity but the globalization has paved a path for its connection with the entire world. The economy of the continent is one of the fastest developed and the most advanced economies of the world because of the development of Australia (country) and New Zealand. With the advent of new global order, Australia (country) has gained significant importance in the global world. Its economy is dominated by its service sector including tourism, education and mining. According to the report of international Monetary Fund (2011) Australia is ranked 5th in the world in terms of GDP.

 

Great places 
     Australia is a place where adventure and exploration never ends. With its jagged mountains, breathtaking seascapes, delicate and exotic wildlife and world class shopping centers; Australia is one of the top destinations in the world. Its natural wonders and man-made fascinations invite the tourists from all over the world. Australia indisputably posses some of the most beautiful beaches in the world with crystals of sand and clean limpid ocean water. The small and calms bays are perfect for swimming and surfing. Another breathtaking feature of this green continent is Great Barrier Reef known as the "Pearl of the Crown".

 It is the sanctuary of aquatic life which is the masterpiece of the nature on the earth. Ayres rock is famous for its unique feature. It changes its color from light orange to scarlet and purple in different parts of the day. Next is Fraser Island, a big island that is created only of sand and it is a hot spot of Australia. Besides these ravishing beauties of nature, the most significant cities of Australia for the tourists are Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra, Perth and Adelaide.
 

Wild life 
     Isolation can be termed as a significant feature of Australia's wild life. Australia's wildlife is unique in appearance and has attracted world attention. The Fauna of Australia consists of a huge variety of animals; 83% mammals, 89% reptiles, 90% fish and insects and 93% amphibian. It is the home of Kangaroos, Kuala Bears, Crocodiles, Wallaby, Wombat, Platypus, emu and kookaburra (a noisy bird of a jungle). Many deadly and poisonous snakes are also found in Australian deserts. Australia and its territories accommodate around 800 species of birds and are famous for its rare kinds of fishes that are found in the aquatic life of this continent. More than 4,400 species of fish inhabit in Australia's waterways. Its Great Barrier Reef supports a huge variety of small and medium sized reef fish which have no comparison in the world.

 

Important Universities of Australia
    A large number of Australian colleges and universities have earned worldwide recognition. There are 21 world-wide famous and successful universities in Australia as mentioned in Higher Education World Universities Ranking 2011 - 2012. Most successful universities of Australia on this list are university of Melbourne, which is at the 37th rank of the most important universities of the world and top in Australia. This internationally recognized university is working in the field of education for more than 150 years. There are more than 270 graduate degrees in the field of humanities, social sciences, medicine and engineering. Australian National University of New South Wales is also famous and has gained equal importance like University of Melbourne in the world.


 

Posted Date : 07-02-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.

 

n-t-p-c

Previous Papers

 

విద్యా ఉద్యోగ సమాచారం

 

Model Papers

 

లేటెస్ట్ నోటిఫికేష‌న్స్‌