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   Oceanography is the study of the deep sea and shallow coastal oceans: biology, chemistry, geology and physics together make oceanography a richly interdisciplinary science. Although they contain most of the Earth's water and carbon and surface heat, and much of its biomass, the oceans do not operate alone. Together with the atmosphere, continents and ice-cover (the cry sphere), they form a working machine, driven mostly by energy from the Sun. Lesser amounts of energy derive from tides raised by the moon and Sun and planets, and heat from the Earth’s interior.
     Oceanographers aim their work at both practical problems and basic scientific discovery. In the area of human health, for example, the oceans provide threats: they spawn and energize storms and hurricanes, endangering coastal populations (more than 1/2 of the worlds' population live within 50 km of the sea). Yet they also provide a bountiful diversity of food, are the reservoir of our water supply and most of the heat and carbon of the climate system, are the source of roughly half the respired oxygen of the biosphere, and contain most of the remaining undiscovered natural pharmaceuticals.

The physical climate of Earth, its patterns of temperature, cloud and rain, may be described as an argument between the atmosphere and oceans. To understand these, techniques of classical physics, chemistry, geology and biology are joined with modern instrumentation and computers.
    The Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences offers a major degree. Students not intending to pursue graduate study but interested in oceanography can do majors in earth and ocean sciences comprised mainly of oceanography courses. The Honours programs are recommended for students who wish to go onto graduate study. The Honours program is structured so students will have a solid grounding in one or more of the basic sciences that make up the multidisciplinary field of oceanography.

    Oceanography, also called oceanology or marine science, is a huge science considered a branch of the Earth sciences. Oceanography is an interdisciplinary science that uses insights from biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics to analyze ocean currents, marine ecosystems, ocean storms, waves, ocean plate tectonics, and features of the ocean floor, including exotic biomes such as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Modern oceanography began in the 1760s with science-minded explorers such as British James Cook and the French Antoine de Bougainville, who included oceanographic observations in reports of their journeys.

   Oceanography is deeply connected to the histories of exploration, colonization, trade, war, and scientific disc discovery. Considered the world’s first seafarers, Polynesians migrated from the western coastline of the Pacific ocean about 30,000 years ago to colonize islands such as New Guinea, Fiji, Samoa, and Hawaii.
    Polynesians navigated the open ocean using their knowledge of astronomy (the positions of stars and planets) and ocean currents. They used these data to create the first oceanographic maps. Shells and knots represented the location of islands, and curved pieces of wood represented the direction and strength of surrounding waves and currents. These stick charts were passed down and improved from generation to generation over 25,000 years.
    Starting in the 1400s, European explorers used the sea to colonize new lands and establish efficient trade routes. Prince Henry of Portugal, nicknamed “Henry the Navigator,” created the first oceanographic institute where scholars and merchants learned about oceans, currents, and mapmaking.

    These new studies prompted the age of exploration, in which European navigators and explorers such as James Cook, Christopher Columbus, and Ferdinand Magellan launched expeditions around the world. Important oceanographic tools were created and improved upon during this period, including the mariner’s compass, astrolabe, and chronometer. By keeping accurate time on a moving ship, the chronometer allowed sailors to figure out their longitude—a massive advancement in maritime navigation.
     Military technology facilitated the study of our oceans. The use of submarines, starting in the American civil war, prompted the development of sonar and the magnetometer. Sonar measures distance by timing sound waves as they leave and return to a ship after bouncing off surrounding objects. Sonar enables scientists to measure distances from the ocean surface to the seafloor more accurately and efficiently than the rope depth-soundings of the Challenger era. The magnetometer, originally developed to detect the metal hulls of submarines, is used by oceanographers to measure the magnetic properties of the seafloor. These measurements have enhanced our understanding of Earth’s magnetic core.
    Since the 1970s, sophisticated computer technologies have helped oceanographer’s measure ocean properties on a global scale.

   In 1978, NASA launched SEASAT, the first civilian oceanographic satellite. SEASAT’s sensors measured wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, polar sea ice conditions, and surface waves. SEASAT also provided satellite imagery of cloud, land, and water features. Although it was operational for only 105 days, SEASAT collected as much oceanographic data as the previous 100 years of ship-based exploration. Another NASA satellite, TIROS-N, produced the first maps of sea-surface temperature and ocean chlorophyll, a green pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
    In the late 1970s, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began mooring a series of buoys across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Known as the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array, this collection of 70 buoys sends oceanographic and atmospheric data to shore in real time through a satellite system. This data has improved our ability to predict global climate processes such as El nino.

Why is oceanography important?

Perhaps the most important observation is that oceanography gives you a world view, an understanding, of the global system that is our environment, which can inspire your work, wherever it leads. Today, we still need to bring back samples of water from the deep ocean for analysis, but many of our measurements are now electronic; and there are many more things we can measure. Physical variables like temperature and salinity are observed in this way, and there are new probes being designed that will allow electronic measurement of many chemical and biological variables.

Posted Date : 07-02-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.



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