Vocabulary: Meanings (synonyms)
1. Mrs Bates tried to domesticate Anna.
Domesticate → to make (an animal) able to live with man and serve him → tam → bring under control → train
2. What God decrees we have to accept.
Decree → command → decide → order → judgement
3. We were nonplussed that the mistress of the house had heard of the tragedy.
Nonplussed → confused → surprised → puzzled → bewildered → dazed
4. They endeavoured to explain it as an act of charity.
Endeavour → strive → try hard → make an effort → attempt → struggle
5. All this played real havoc on our imagination.
Havoc → destruction → disturbance → disorder → disaster → devastation → chaos
6. I found that I could scarcely breathe.
Scarcely → barely → almost not → hardly → (only) just
7. It was an eternal mystery to us.
Eternal → forever → always → never ending → endless → everlasting → incessant → continual
8. God had taken the baby at such a tender age.
Tender → delicate → young → child-like → gentle
9. We shuddered as we gnawed at the hunk of meat.
Shudder → tremble → quiver → shake → shiver → tremor
10. The dog snarled at the intruder.
Snarl → scowl → growl → threaten → intimidate → scare
Choose the alternative that best fits the blank:
1. The dancers were in Japanese __________. (outfit, dress, costume)
2. He is a wolf in the ___________ of a sheep. (attire, costume, garb)
3. She came to the party ________ her new diamond necklace. (showing, sporting, having)
4. We recognised him to be a policeman by his_________. (attire, uniform, garment)
5. The beggar's _________ were in tatters. (clothes, dress, costume)
Conditional clause ('If ' clause):
Conditional clauses are classified into three types based on the tenses.
They are: 1. Probable (possible) condition
2. Improbable condition
3. Unfulfilled condition
Type - I
Probable / possible condition
Usage: We use this type to talk about the future activities that are quite possible.
Structure: If (Subject + V1 → Subject + can / will / may + V1)
e.g: If you work hard, you can get the first rank.
Simple present tense Simple future tense
1. Walk fast or you will miss the bus.
If you walk fast, you will not miss the bus.
sub + V1 sub + will + V1
Unless you walk fast, you will miss the bus.
(unless = if not)
2. Take the medicine regularly or you may fall ill again.
→ If you take the medicine regularly you may not fall ill again.
→ Unless you take the medicine regularly, you may fall ill again.
Type - II
Improbable / Imaginary condition
Usage: We use this type to talk about the actions that we think are possible but not very
probable. It indicates that we do not expect the action in the If-clause to take place.
Structure: If (Subject + V2 → Subject + could / would / might + V1)
e.g: If I were a doctor, I could give you treatment.
Note: [ V1 V2 V3]
is are been
e.g: 1) I am not a bird. So, I can' t fly in the sky.
→ If I were a bird, I could fly in the sky.
V2 - Simple past tense conditional past
Note: [ The above sentence is quite imaginary. It is not possible, i.e., unreal]
2) I don't have money. So I can't give you any. (March 2003)
→ If I had money, I could give you some / any.
V2 conditional past
Note: [ V1 V2 V3]
have had had
[The above sentence is not possible for that situation, but quite imaginary]
3) I don't have time. So, I can't accept the job.
If I had time, I could accept the job.
Type - III
Usage: We use this type to talk about past actions that didn't happen. It expresses a condition in the past that hasn't been fulfiled (Unfulfilled).
Structure: If [ subject + had + V3 → subject would have / could have / might have + V3]
e.g: If you had asked me, I would have helped you.
Past perfect tense Perfect conditional tense
1. He didn't study well. So, he failed.
→ If he had studied well, he would not have failed.
2. She didn't carry her driving license. So, she had to pay a fine.
→ If she had carried her driving license, she would not have had to pay a fine.
3. You didn't take the medicines regularly. So, you fell ill again.
→ If you had taken the medicines regularly, you would not have fallen ill again.
4. I was held up in a traffic jam. So, I missed the train.
→ If I had not been held up in a traffic jam, I would not have missed the train.
5. No precautions were taken. So, many were killed in the cyclone.
→ If precautions had been taken, many would not have been killed in the cyclone.
Notice the following structures:
Type I Sub + V1 Sub + will
Type II Sub + V2 Sub + would
Type III Sub + had + V3 Sub + would have
If you invite me, I will attend the party.
If you invited me, I would attend the party.
If you had invited me, I would have attended the party.
had + V3