I. Simple Sentence
A sentence which has only one finite verb is a simple sentence. It may have non-finite verbs, if required.
e.g.: She is walking.
He has written a letter to help his son.
II. Complex sentence
A complex sentence consists of a principal/ main clause with one or more sub-ordinate clauses. It means that a complex sentence has more than one finite verb. Sub-ordinate clauses are joined by sub-ordinating conjunctions.
e.g.: I know that he is a good man.
When you do this work, I shall help you with money.
III. Compound sentence
A compound sentence consists of two or more principal clauses. These clauses are joined by co-ordinating conjunctions such as and, but, so, therefore, otherwise, or, else, nor, while, for,
whereas, still, yet, nevertheless, however, as well as, all the same, indeed, but.
e.g.: Speak or you will die.
She is rich but she is not vain.
My brother came and he handed over money to me.
It was dark, however, we went out.
It is cold indeed, but I will go out.
She is intelligent while her sister is dull.
I. Combine the following sentences into simple sentences.
1. The student admitted. He was absent.
A: The student admitted his absence.
2. I am not aware. what is he?
A: I am not aware of his profession.
3. She is sure. She will secure high marks.
A: She is sure of securing high marks.
4. I expect. He is honest.
A: I expect him to be honest.
5. It is certain. She has two sons.
A: She has certainly two sons.
6. It is believed. Netaji died in air crash.
A: Netaji is believed to have died in air crash.
7. It is beyond doubt. She will recover from illness.
A: Undoubtedly, she will recover from illness.
8. He visited the Taj. It is an artistic building.
A: He visited the Taj, an artistic building
9. Rathore is our captain, He scored five runs.
A: Rathore our captain, Scored five runs.
10. I will board a train. It connects Udaipur.
A: I will board a train connecting Udaipur.
12. Kabir was a famous poet. He was a weaver.
A: Kabir, a famous poet, was a weaver.
13. We came across a soldier. He was in trouble.
A: We came across a soldier in trouble.
14. Mr. Verma is our teacher. Everybody loves him.
A: Mr. Verma, our teacher, is loved by everybody.
15. She is very poor. She can not carry on her study.
A: She is too poor to carry on her study.
16. He heard the news. He fainted.
A: On hearing the news he fainted.
17. He is working hard. His aim is to join army.
A: He is working hard. to join army.
18. Work hard. You will pass.
A: You will pass by working hard.
b. He told a lie. He was not afraid of it.
A: He was not afraid of telling a lie.
A: Do you know the reason of her arrival earlier?
20. She was clever. I could notice it.
A: I could notice her cleverness.
II. combine the simple sentences into compound sentences.
1. He is Intelligent. He is careless.
A: He is intelligent but careless.
2. Walk fast. You will catch bus.
A: Walk fast and you will catch bus.
3. Wait here. He will not meet you.
A: Wait here otherwise, he will not meet you.
4. He can succeed. He will not work hard.
A: He can succeed but he will not work hard.
5. He came late. He would have enjoyed music.
A: He came late otherwise, he would have enjoyed music.
6. Morning walk is a good exercise. Everybody should walk.
A: Morning walk is a good exercise, therefore everybody should walk.
7. The bus was slow. He reached late.
A: The bus was slow so he reached late
8. You are a liar. Your brother is a liar.
A: You are a liar and so is your brother.
9. Stand outside. come in.
A: Stand outside or come in.
10. She came. She consoled me.
A: She came and consoled me.
11. I can not go out. It is very cold outside.
A: It is very cold outside, therefore I cannot go.
12. He is a fool. He is dishonest also.
A: Besides being dishonest, he is a fool.
13. Richa can not sing. Esha cannot sing.
A: Richa can not sing not can Esha.
14. He took bath. He put on new clothes.
A: He took bath and put on new clothes.\
15. Write to father. Otherwise I would do so.
A: Either you write or I must write to father.
16. He is working hard. He wants to pass.
A: He wants to pass and so he is working hard.
17. The bus was slow. He reached late.
A: The bus was slow so he reached late.
18. I went to indore. I spent a few days there.
A: I went to indore and there I spent a few days.
19. Say one word. I shall kill you.
A: One word more and I shall kill you.
20. You play piano. Your brother plays piano.
A: You play piano and so your brother.
III. Change the following simple sentences into complex sentences
1. Truth is eternal.
A: What is true is eternal.
2. His fall is certain.
A: That he will fall is certain.
3. She jumped at my offer
A: She jumped at what I offered her.
4. Pay need to my instructions.
A: Pay need to what I have instructed.
5. Her remarks about my failure were disgusting
A: Her remarks that I had failed were disgusting
6. This is my native village.
A: This is the village where I was born.
7. His offence is unpardonable.
A: The offence which he committed is not pardonable
8. The pen given by him is very cheap.
A: The pen which is given by him is very cheap
9. A tired man cannot do work well.
A: A man who is tired, cannot work well.
10. He invented a machine for stitching.
A: He invented a machine which is used for stitching.
IV. Change the following into other forms of degree as directed
1. Mango is sweeter than orange (change into P.D.)
A: Orange is not so sweet as Mango.
2. The lotus is lovelier than the rose (change into P.D.)
A: The rose is not so lovely as the lotus
3. Ramesh is the tallest boy in the class (change into P.D. & C.D.)
A: Ramesh is taller than any other boy in the class. (C.D.)
No other boy in the class is as tall as Ramesh (P.D.)
4. America is the richest country (change into P.D. & C.D.)
A: America is richer than any other country (C.D.)
No other country is so rich as America (P.D.)
5. Hamlet is one of the best plays of shakespeare (S.D)
A: Hamlet is better than most other plays of Shakespeare (C.D)
Very few plays of Shakespeare are as good as Hamlet (P.D.)
6. Krishna is stronger than Ramesh (change to P.D.)
A: Ramesh is not so strong as Krishna.
7. Ashok is wiser than suresh (change to P.D.)
A: Suresh is not so wise as Ashok
8. He is Braver than me (change to P.D.)
A: I am not so brave as him
9. Iron is not as strong as steel (change to C.D.)
A: Steel is stronger than Iron
10. you can walk faster than me (change to P.D)
A: I can walk as fast as you.
11. Lakshman is not taller than kumar (change to P.D)
A: Kumar is as tall as Lakshman
12. The fox is not wiser than the dog (change to P.D)
A: The dog is as wise as the Fox
13. The Elephant is the biggest of all animals (change to C.D & P.D)
A: No other animal is as big as the Elephant (P.D)
Elephant is bigger than any other animals (C.D)
14. Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world (change to C.D & P.D)
A: No other peak in the world is so high as the Mount Everest (P.D)
Mount Everest is higher than any other places in the world (C.D)
15. Akbar was one of the greatest kings (change to C.D & P.D)
A: No other king was so great as Akbar (P.D)
Akbar was greater than any other king (C.D)
16. Varanasi is not the oldest of all the cities in U.P (change into C.D & P.D)
A: Varanasi is not older than some other cities in U.P.
Some other cities in U.P are at least as old as varanasi.
17. Rustam was as powerful as his brother (change into C.D)
A: Rustam's brother was not more powerful than Rustam.
18. Shivaji was one of the greatest warriors of India (change into C.D)
A: Shivaji was greater than most of the warriors in India.
19. Eagle flies higher than any other bird (change into P.D & S.D)
A: No other bird flies as high as eagle
Eagle flies highest of all the birds.
20. It is better to lend than borrow (change into P.D)
A: Borrowing is not as good as lending
21. Very few writers in India are as famous as R.K. Narayan (change into C.D & S.D)
A: R.K. Narayan is more famous than most of the Indian writers.
R.K. Narayan is one of the most famous Indian writers.
V. Change the following Simple Sentences into Compound Sentences.
1. I Shall leave the room with your Permission.
A: You Permit me and I Shall leave the room.
2. For all his knowledge he is a fool.
A: He is a man of knowledge but he is a fool.
3. He was punished on account of his fault
A: He committed a fault so he was punished.
4. Despite his wealth, he is not respected.
A: He is wealthy but he is not respected
5. He worked hard to secure high percentage of marks.
A: He worked hard and secured high percentage of marks
6. On his return we asked him many questions.
A: He returned and we asked him many questions.
7. In addition to mathematics he also teaches Hindi.
A: He teaches mathematics and Hindi also.
8. I am thankful to you for sending me money.
A: You sent me money so I am thankful to you.
9. Besides being rich he is learned also.
A:He is not only rich but also learned.
10. He must work hard to secure high percentage of marks.
A: He must work hard and will secure high percentage of marks.
VI. Change the following Complex Sentences into Compound Sentences.
1. Although she is Sick, She will Come.
A: She is sick but She will Come.
2. If you come by car, we will take you to temple.
A: Come by car and we will take you to temple.
3. As it was cold, we did not go out
A: It was cold so we did not go out.
4. When the thief was found out, he was arrested.
A: The thief was found out and he arrested.
5. When she arrived, everybody welcomed her.
A: She arrived and every body welcomed her.
6. If you do not stop smoking, you will suffer from lung disease.
A: You must stop smoking otherwise you will suffer from lung disease.
7. I Shall not go, unless I am invited.
A:. I am not invited so I shall not go.
8. If you listen seriously, I will tell you all.
A: Listen seriously and I will tell you all.
9. I am glad that he has recovered from illness.
A: He has recovered from illness so I am glad.
10. I have found the pen that I had lost.
A: I had lost the pen but I have found it.
11. He had a dog that was very faithful.
A:. He had a dog and that was very faithful.
12. Unlucky as he is, he is never disappointed
A: He is Unlucky but he is never disappointed.
13. Do this lest you should suffer
A: Do this otherwise you will suffer
14. How ever, Intelligent he may be, he cannot succeed.
A: He is very Intelligent but he cannot succeed.
15. If he had not given me money, I would not have started business
A: He gave me money and I Started business.
16. If he were at home, I would meet him.
A: He is not at home otherwise I would meet him
17. If he is at home, I shall give him money.
A: He is not at home otherwise I would give money.
18. In case he dies, his son will inherit his property
A: He will die and his son will inherit his property.
19. He must work hard so that he may pass.
A: He must work hard and he will pass.
20. He could afford to spend something but he spent more.
A: He spent more than he could afford.
A sentence is a set of words that contain a subject and a predicate and it expresses a complete thought. A subject is ‘who’ or ‘what’ is doing the action. A predicate is typically a verb phrase, which contains a verb with any objects and other modifiers. A sentence can often be composed of more than one clause.
1. Suresh is going to Hyderabad.
Here, the subject is ‘Suresh’ and the predicate is ‘is going to Hyderabad’.
2. He reads a book.
Here, the subject is ‘He’ and the predicate is
‘reads a book’.
A phrase is a small group of words that form a meaningful unit within a clause. The basic difference between a clause and a phrase is that a clause must have a finite verb and a phrase does not have a finite verb.
1. I like to swing the bat hard when I am at the crease.
2. A lot of people do not sleep at night.
3. I ran as fast as possible.
A clause is a part of the sentence that contains a verb. A typical clause consists of a subject and a predicate. A clause may or may not be a simple sentence.
1. She cried.
2. He bought a new scooter.
3. She bought a new saree, but she is using the old one.
Conversion of Sentences - Examples
1. Conversion of Simple Sentences to Complex Sentences:
a. Simple: I was glad to know of his success.
Complex: I was glad to know that he had succeeded.
b. Simple: He pleaded ignorance of the law.
Complex: He pleaded that he was ignorant of the law.
c. Simple: The report of his failure has surprisedus all.
Complex: The report that he has failed has surprised us all.
d. Simple: A dead man tells no tales.
Complex: A man who is dead tells no tales.
e. Simple: The boy with the blue shirt is our Captain.
Complex: The boy who is wearing blue shirt is our Captain.
Exercise: Change the following simple Sentences to Complex Sentences:
1. I saw a wounded dog.
Ans: I saw a dog that was wounded.
2. The girl sitting next to Peter is his sister.
Ans: The girl who is sitting next to Peter is his sister.
3. I was the first to reach the spot.
Ans: I was the first who reached the spot.
4. He liked his former place.
Ans: He liked the place where he lived formerly.
5. We need a house to live in.
Ans: We need a house where we can live in.
2. Conversion of Complex Sentences into Simple Sentences:
a. Complex: I am responsible for what I do.
Simple: I am responsible for my actions.
b. Complex: He wanted to know why he had been dismissed.
Simple: He wanted to know the reason for his dismissal.
c. Complex: All that glitters is not gold.
Simple: All glittering things are not gold.
d. Complex: He cannot forget the losses that he has suffered.
Simple: He cannot forget the losses suffered by him.
e. Complex: You may do it when you please.
Simple: You may do it at your pleasure.
Exercise: Change the following Complex
Sentences to Simple Sentences:
1. He is working day and night so that he may improve his prospects.
Ans: He is working day and night to improve his prospects.
2. Because he was ill, he stayed at home.
Ans: He stayed at home on account of his illness.
3. I know that he is an honest guy.
Ans: I know him to be an honest guy.
4. We could not figure out what he said.
Ans: We could not figure out the meaning of hiswords.
5. I believe that God exists.
Ans: I believe in God’s existence.
3. Conversion of Simple Sentences into Compound Sentences:
a. Simple: Taking off his clothes, he jumped into the river.
Compound: He took off his clothes and jumped into the river.
b. Simple: In addition to useful advice, he gave me financial help.
Compound: He gave me not only a useful advice but also a financial help.
c. Simple: In spite of very bad weather, they succeeded in conquering mount Everest.
Compound: The weather was very bad, still they succeeded in conquering mount Everest.
d. Simple: He had every qualification for the post except sincerity.
Compound: He had ever qualification for the post, but he was not sincere.
e. Simple: You must take rich diet to gain weight.
Compound: You must take rich diet, or you will not gain weight.
Exercise: Change the following Simple Sentences to Compound Sentences:
1. Take another step at the peril of your life.
Ans: Don’t take another step, else your life will be at the peril.
2. She came here to see me.
Ans: She came here and saw me.
3. In spite of his hard work, the boy didn’t succeed.
Ans: The boy worked hard, but he didn’t succeed.
4. The teacher praised the boy for his diligence.
Ans: The boy was diligent, so the teacher praised him.
5. Having finished their work for the day, the masons went home.
Ans: The masons finished their work for the day and went home.
Types of Sentences
A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb and it expresses a complete thought. It is also called as an independent clause.
1. Some students like to study in the morning.
2. Mother ordered a birthday cake.
3. I wake up early in the morning.
A compound sentence has two independent clauses. An independent clause is a part of a sentence that can stand alone because it contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. In general, a compound sentence contains two simple sentences or clauses. These independent clauses are joined by a conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).
1. He likes coffee and she likes tea.
2. I can go to college or study at home.
3. They spoke to him in Telugu, but he responded in English.
4. The thief had stolen things, so he ran once he saw the police.
5. We were starving and exhausted, so we went home.
A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. A dependent clause either lacks a subject or a verb or has both a subject and a verb, but that does not express a complete thought. A complex sentence always contains conjunctions such as ‘as, because, since, after, although, when etc’. or relative pronouns such as ‘who, that, which etc.’
1. After the storm hit the town, trees lay brokenin the streets.
2. I am glad to know that he had succeeded.
3. When it rains, the roads are slippery.
4. After we eat, let’s go shopping.
5. As soon as they arrive, we’ll eat.
The compound-complex sentence combines elements of compound and complex sentences. It is the most sophisticated type of sentence you can use. A compound-complex sentence contains two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
1. Though Harsha prefers watching thriller films, he rented the latest family entertainer, and he enjoyed it very much.
2. Lakshmi forgot her friend's birthday, so she sent her a message when she finally remembered.
3. After the two soccer players lost their game, they joined their other teammates for lunch, and they went to the movies.
Types of Clauses
A noun clause is a clause that works in the same way as a noun. In other words, you could replace the clause with a noun and it would still carry the same meaning.
Carefully examine the given two sentences:
1. Do you know what you're going to wear?
2. Do you know what dress to wear?
Here, the noun 'dress' can be replaced with 'what you are going to wear', which makes it a noun clause.
An adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun such as whom, whose, which, or that etc. or a relative adverb such as when, where, or why. This adjective clause includes a relative pronoun or adverb alongside a subject and (or) a verb. Similar to a subordinate clause, an adjective clause is a dependent clause because it relies on the rest of the sentence to make sense.
Carefully examine the given sentence:
1. The man who lives across the street is my uncle.
Here, the subject of the clause is ‘who’ which is an adjective and the verb is “lives”. This adjective clause is giving more information about the ‘uncle’ for us.
An adverb clause add information to a sentence, that elaborates on when, where, why, how, how much or under what condition the action in the sentence takes place.
An adverb clause begins with a subordinating conjunction, such as after, if, because, although etc.
1. You can drop by for a visit where we were staying for the summer.
2. When the clock strikes midnight, she has to leave.
3. Since he has long hair, he wears a ponytail.
4. He thinks he can get anything because he is rich.
5. As he was not there, I left a message with his mother.
6. I am glad that you have come.
7. You may come, if you want to.
8. You won’t pass unless you work hard.
9. You will have to take the medicine whether you like it or not.
10. Though I am poor I am honest.