Websites have unique names associated with them. There are certain websites which have .ac which indicates academic organisations, .in suffixed to their name indicating that they belong to India.
Some common domain names:
in – stands for India (Country name)
gov – indicates government agencies
com – commercial organizations
mil – military or defence
These are helpful to search for the information on any topic. (Eg. Google)
A search engine is a complex program that searches documents containing a specified set of keywords.
Enter the keywords of the topic for which the search is required in the input box.
For example, if a search is required on Eenadu then enter the keyword as “Eenadu” or “enadu”
Uses of Internet
1. Chatting and Messenger Services:
These tools can be used to send messages instantly. It also allows us to talk to anyone anywhere in the world. This is a cheaper and quicker method compared to other services. r Chatting involves textual exchange of message in real time.
Newsgroup is an e-service hosted by many newsgroup organisations.b One can become a member of a newsgroupand read and share current affairs and messages.
E-commerce or Electronic-Commerce means online transactions of business. In this, the vendor and customer conduct a transaction sitting at different geographical locations, connected through the Internet.
It is an acronym for mobile commerce.
It involves buying and selling of goods and services electronically through wireless handheld devices at any place.
5. Downloading Files: The process of copying web pages from the Internet to the computer is called downloading.
Apart from the web pages which are downloaded whenever we type in the address or click on its link, we can also download files from the Internet.
Click on download button.
Follow the instructions that appear on the screen for downloading the particular software.
A web page can be saved by selecting ‘Save’ or ‘Save As’ option.
The file can be saved with the same name as provided by the website or using a different name.
Electronic Services: Internet provides wide range of services like e-banking, e-learning, etc.
Banks are providing their services online. It means the account holder can have a bank transaction through Internet.
E-banking is a facility that allows the account holder to conduct their banking transactions online with a laptop or computer with an Internet connection.
With E-Banking services, the account holder can view account balances and transaction statements, transfer money between accounts in the bank, pay utility bills at any time, can take printouts of financial-statements, etc.
It means educating people online with the help of the Internet.
Development in this field has led to the formation of virtual classes and online sessions.
The teacher can take a class while students can see and listen to him/her.
For such a classroom a web camera is required at every terminal
The teacher can take a class by passing his lectures as text and students providing textual response. Students can post their queries online and can get the response instantly.
An e-mail address (account) consists of two main parts, the username and the domain-server name with the symbol @ in between.
The user can make e-mail account by visiting websites which provide this service. (Example gmail.com)
To send or receive mails, the user have to login to our e-mail account.
Receiving and Sending E-mails:
To see the mails received, click on Inbox. A number against the Inbox indicates the number of unread mails.
To read a mail, we need to just click on the mail that we wish to read.
To send an e-mail, both the sender and receiver must have an e-mail account. Click on compose option. Enter the e-mail address of the receiver and send mail.
The user can add subject also.
After going through the mails we can either let them remain in our account for future reference or we can also delete the same.
There are options for deleting or transferring them to trash. Trash is a folder where we keep the mails to be deleted.
An e-mail can contain other files attached to it. Click Attach a file button.
Click Attach another file to attach more than one file (up to a certain limit set by the website).
Security Threats on Internet
An internet also opens up security threat. When the user uses internet, he/ she faces basic threats like:
a. Confidentiality: No unauthorized person should be able to read or copy information that she/he is not supposed to read.
b. Integrity: No unauthorized person should be able to modify information.
c. Availability: No unauthorized person should be able to erase information or make it inaccessible.
d. Computer Viruses
e. Identity information threats.
How to address the security issues:
1. Against Authentication and authorization
Authentication and authorization mostly using username and password are used by most Internet security systems.
Therefore, your username and password are very important and should be such that they cannot be broken easily.
In addition, you must give the username and password only on a HTTP Secure website.
2. Against Computer Viruses and Malware:
Protect the computer against Computer Viruses and Malware through use of antivirus software, which quarantines or removes malicious software programs.
Maintain a backup of your critical data and programs. Keep deleting cookies from your computer from time to time.
3. Threats to confidential information:
Keep the browser up-to-date and do not give your personal information on blogs and social networking sites.
Limit wireless router range to the smallest convenient distance. Also try to maximize the security of wireless network by keeping a series of passwords.
Thus by following basic steps like use a good firewall, strong antivirus software, and download files from safe sites one can prevent the security issues.
TRENDS IN COMPUTING
Modern world is witnessing a shift from the era of mainframe computing and individual computing to a new era of mobile and green computing where the computing power, software and data are can be stored somewhere in a "cloud" and can be accessed via internet at anytime and anywhere.
Virtualization allows the pooling and sharing of the computational power (processor, server) and storage of multiple computers, network and other resources among multiple users.
Concept of virtualization can be made clear with a common example of division of hard disk into different partitions.
A partition is a logical division of a hard disk and it creates an effect of two separate hard disks to the user.
This partition makes the management of files easier.
Advantages of Virtualization:
It improves overall efficiency and effectiveness of the system.
Lower total cost of ownership.
Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties at some remote locations.
Examples of cloud services include online file storage, social networking sites, webmail, and online business applications. Cloud computing refers to selling any type of IT services including:
a. delivery of resources via creating a virtual simulation of the resource.
b. selling of application software.
The term “Mobile computing” is used for describing the technologies that enable people to access network services any place, any time, and anywhere.
It is an extension of mobile voice communication technology which is capable of sending and receiving data across the cellular network.
Mobile data communication has become a very important and rapidly evolving technology as it allows users to transmit data from remote locations to other remote or fixed locations.