### ANALOGY

Let us first try to define analogy: the word ‘Analogy' means 'correspondence/ similarity’. In analogy questions, a specific relationship is given & another similar relationship has to be identified from the given options.

Types of Analogies
In reasoning, generally we come across two types of analogies: Alphabet analogy and Numbers analogy.
Number Analogy covers two types of questions:

I. Choose a similar pair as the given pair in the question on the basis of the relation between the numbers pair given in the question.
II. Choose a number that is similar to a group of numbers on the basis of certain similar properties that they possess.

Example 1:
In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
56 : 41 : : 94 : ?
a) 49           b) 53           c) 60           d) 89
Explanation: (5 × 6) + (5 + 6) = 30 + 11 = 41 Similarly (9 × 4) + (9 + 4) = 36 + 13 = 49

Example 2: In the following question, select the related number pair from the given alternatives
534 : 2 : : ? : ?
a) 102 : 9   b) 553 : 6   c) 884 : 2   d) 999 : 2
Explanation: (5 + 3) ÷ 4 = 2, Similarly (9 + 9) ÷ 9 = 2

Alphabet/ Letter Analogy
In this type of analogy, two groups of letters related to each other in same way, are given. The candidate is required to identify the relationship & choose a group of letters which is related in the same way to a 3rd group given in the question. These questions become easier to solve if you memorize the alphabetic positions of the letters in the alphabet. (eg: A = 1, M = 13, etc.)

Example: BCDE : PQRS : : WXYZ : ?
a) EFGH       b) KLMN       c) QJSP       d) TSUV
Explanation: Each letter of the 1st group is moved 14 steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the 2nd group. A similar relationship will exist between the 3rd and 4th groups.
Hence, the correct answer is option (b).

Word Analogy
If the relationship between one pair of words is similar to another pair of words then we say that both the pair of words is analogous to each other. In simple words, the relationship between two words must be same for other words associated with them too. The candidate is required to identify the relationship & choose a pair of words which is related in the same way to given in the question.

Example: In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Goiter : Iodine : : Anemia : ?
a) Vitamin D       b) Iron      c) Vitamin E      d) Calcium
Explanation: Here, we have cause and effect relationship. ‘Goitre’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iodine’. So, if ‘Goitre’ is related to ‘Iodine’, then ‘Anaemia’ will be related to ‘Iron’ as ‘Anaemia’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iron’. Hence, our answer is (b).

Practice Questions
1. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
850 : 863 : : 430 : ?
a) 437         b) 442         c) 435         d) 451
Sol: 850 = 8 + 5 + 0 = 13
850 + 13 = 863
Similarly, 430 = 4 + 3 + 0 = 7
430 + 7 = 437
Ans: a

2. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Pressure : Barometer : : ? : Odometer
a) Humidity      b) Distance      c) Thickness      d) Wind
Sol: As Barometer is used for measuring Pressure, similarly Odometer is used for measuring Distance.
Ans: b

3. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
AEDM : ZQRN : : FLMO : ?
a) BZYS     b) CZYS     c) SZYB     d) YZBC
Sol: Similarly

Ans: a

4. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
3 : 27 : : 4 : ?
a) 63          b) 64         c) 65       d) 15
Sol: 33 = 27, similarly 43 = 64
Ans: b

5. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Book : Pages : : Continent : ?
a) Water   b) Forest   c) Countries   d) Land
Sol: Book consists Pages on the same way Continent consists Countries.
Ans: c

6. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
JKLM : IIII : : PQRS : ? a) PPPP    b) OOOO    c) TTTT    d) OOPP
Sol:                               Similarly
J     K  L   M               P   Q   R   S
−1  −2 −3 −4             −1  −2 −3 −4
I    I     I    I               O   O   O   O
Ans: b

7. Select the related word from the given alternatives.
Father : Parent :: Sister : ?
a) Other     b) Brother     c) Daughter     d) Sibling
Ans: d

8. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
AGN : IOV : : BLM : ?
a) JTU        b) KTU       c) JUV       d) TUJ
Sol: Similarly
A   G   N                       B   L   M
+8 +8 +8                     +8  +8 +8
I    O   V                       J    T   U
Ans: a

9. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
9143 : 9963 : : 6731 : ?
a) 1368       b) 5666      c) 8964      d) 9694
Sol: 9143 = 9 + 1 + 4 + 3 = 17
9963 = 9 + 9 + 6 + 3 = 27
Similarly, 6731 = 6 + 7 + 3 + 1 = 17
8964 = 8 + 9 + 6 + 4 = 27
Ans: c

10. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
243 : 819 : : 163 : ?
a) 487         b) 563         c) 572         d) 593
Sol: (2 × 4 × 3) = 24 ⇒ 242 = 576 + 243 = 819
Similarly, 1 × 6 × 3 = 18      ⇒ 182 = 324 + 163 = 487
Ans: a

11. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Vacant : Empty : : Dearth : ?
a) Descend        b) Scarcity         c) Squander       d) Abundant
Sol: As Vacant and Empty are synonyms to each other, similarly Dearth and Scarcity are synonyms to each other.
Ans: b

Posted Date : 17-02-2021

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