Passage - 1
Ayurvedic is a natural system of medicine, using diet, herbs, cleansing and purification practices, yoga, astrology and gemstones to bring about healing. A complete Ayurveda is from India and is at least 5,000 years old, and still as effective as when it was created by ancient sages known as Rishis. The Rishis, masters of meditation and observation, developed a remarkable system of healing based on the five basic elements of the universe, ether, air, fire, water and earth and their combinations, Vata, Pitta and Kapha, knows as the doshas. Your dosha is your constitutional type. Contrary to most Western approaches to nutrition, Ayurveda does not prescribe one diet as best for everyone, such as raw foods, macrobiotics or the basic four food groups, but seeks to individualize and optimize nutrition for the need individual based on their constitutional type and the particular imbalances in the person which need to be corrected. The main intention of diet in the Ayurvedic system is to nourish the body's tissues, i.e. lymph, blood, flesh, muscle, fat, marrow, bone and sexual fluid. Each of these tissues, when it is fed, nourishes and forms the next in succession. In order to nourish the tissues, food must first be digested, which is the job of the digestive fire, which is seated in the stomach and small intestines. Food that is not properly digested,due to overeating, poor food combinations, imbalance of the elements, or toxins in the food, creates a sticky, toxic substance which coats the digestive tract and the tongue and which may also be deposited in the tissues, forming a breeding ground for chronic disease. Ignoring the laws of correct living and allowing the accumulation of toxins in the body results in disease. Ayurveda prescribes an individualized approach to the dietary and lifestyle practices which keep people healthy and promote longevity. Ayurvedic dietary and cleansing practices are among the simplest, but most profoundly effective in the world. By knowing your dosha and applying the principles of living prescribed by both the ancient Rishis and modern Ayurvedic practitioners, you can restore your health and live a long and happy life.
1. Which of the following is not a part of Ayurveda?
A) Prescription of one diet for everyone
B) Use of gemstones
C) Cleansing and purification practices
D) Use of herbs
2. Which of the following is not mentioned as a basic element of the universe in the passage?
A) Ether B) Blood C) Fire D) Earth
3. Which of the following factors is NOT a cause of indigestion of food?
A) Overeating B) Poor food combinations
C) Imbalance of the elements
D) None of these
4. Which of the following, if accumulated in the body, results in disease?
A) doshas B) tissues
C) toxins D) hormones
5. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A) Ayurveda prescribes different diets for different persons
B) Ayurveda is not as effective as it was during the ancient times
C) Main intention of diet in Ayurveda is to nourish the tissues
D) Digestive fire is situated in the stomach and small intestines.
Key: 1-A 2-B 3-D 4-C 5-B
Passage - 2
These are enemies of a different kind, these do not fire but still are very deadly. The danger from enemy soldiers and human infiltrators is always there and in addition these, animals also pose a danger. The BSF (Border Security Force), guarding the Western tip of the country's border, have to fight King Cobras, Bondi snake and Scorpions, besides surviving extremely hostile geographical conditions. The jawans guard the border with the help of camels and jeeps. The "attacks" by the natural foes are frequent as they "infiltrate" the makeshift resting places of jawans. Deaths have occurred in the past as a result of snake bites, the jawans say. We ask jawans to properly check their clothes and shoes before they wear them. While on the job, they are supposed to keep every part of their body except face covered. What more can we do?" says Trilok Singh. Second in Command at the outpost, country's last tip at Western land border. Keeping a watch on the creeks of Kori, Pir sanai, Papewari, Padala and the disputed Sir Creek, the BSF soldiers only have a single nursing assistant to their aid at a border outpost manned by a platoon, comprising 25 to 30 Jawans. The problem is further complicated by the absence of adequate medical treatment in case the snake bite turns serious. The nearest hospital is a minimum 100 km away at battalion headquarters in Bhuj from the border outposts close to the creeks. It takes at least two hours to reach there. "Already, we battle the problems of hostile weather conditions, like saline effect on body, corrosion of paraphernalia. The snakes and scorpions further make it very difficult to concentrate," complains a jawan. "More facilities are required", Singh says, admitting "effective patrolling is not possible if jawans ar plagued by threats other than from externalforces". There should be more medical manpower so that the individual medical attention to each jawan is more," Singh.
1. Which part of the country's border are the jawans mentioned in the passage guarding?
A) Northern B) Western
C) Southern D) Eastern
2. Which of the following creeks in mentioned as a disputed one in the passage?
A) Kori Creek B) Pir Sanai Creek
C) Papewari Creek D) Sir Creek
3. Which of the following factors further complicates the problem in case snake bite turns serious?
A) Presence of enemy soldiers
B) Keeping a watch on the creeks
C) Absence of adequate medical treatment
D) None of the above
4. Which of the following would be a suitable title for the passage?
A) Enemies of a different kind
B) Life of a soldier
C) Western border - a disputed land
D) Medical facilities for soldiers
5. Which of the following is not mentioned as a natural foe in the passage?
A) King Cobras B) Bondi snakes
C) Scorpions D) Camels
Key: 1-B 2-D 3-C 4-A 5-D
Passage - 3
Located in the city of Agra in the state of Uttar Pradesh, the Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful masterpieces of architecture in the world. People from all over the world from America to Australia and from Europe to Africa come to India for the Taj Mahal. Agra, situated about 200 km south of New Delhi, was the Capital of the Mughals (Moguls), the Muslim emperors who ruled Northern India between the sixteenth and the nineteenth centuries. The Mughals were the descendents of two of the most skilled warriors in history: the Turks and the Mongols. The Mughal dynasty reached its highest strenh and fame during the reign of their early emperors. Akbar, Jehangir and Shah Jahan. It was Shah Jahan whoordered the building of the Taj, in honour of his wife, Arjumand Banu who later came to be known as Mumtaz Mahal, the Distinguished ofthe Palace. Mumtaz and Shah Jahan were married in 1612 and, over the next 18 years, had 14 children together. The Empress used to accompany her husband in his military campaigns, and it was in 1630, in Burhanpur, that she gave birth to her last child, for she died in childbirth. So great was the Emperor's love to his wife that he ordered the building of the most beautiful mausoleum on Earth for her. Although it is not known for sue who planned the Taj, the name of an Indian architect of Persian descent, Ustad Ahmad Lahori, hasbeen cited in many sources. As soon construction began in 1630, masons, craftsmen, sculptors and calligraphers were summoned from Persia, the Ottoman Empire and Europe to work on the masterpiece. The uniqueMughal style combines elements of Persian, Central Asian and Islamic architecture. On a closer look, the lettering of the Quran verses around the archways appears to be uniform, regardless of their height. The lettering, spacing and density has been customized to give this impression to the beholder. Other illusionary effects have been accounted for in the geometry of the tomb and the tall minarets. The impressive pietra dura artwork includes geometric elements, plants and flowers, mostly common in Islamic architecture.
1. In which of the following places did Arjumand Banu die?
A) Agra B) New Delhi
C) Burhanpur D) Persia
2. For which of the following reasons was the Taj Mahal built?
A) As a symbol of strength of a Mughal empire
B) As a celebration of victory in military campaigns
C) As a symbol of love for the deceased
wife of emperor Shah Jahan
D) None of the above
3. From which of the following warrior clans did the Mughals descend?
A) Mongols and Persians
B) Persians and Turks
C) Persian and Africans
D) Mongols and Turks
4. Which of the following is an apt title for the passage?
A) Taj: A Beautiful Building
B) Architectural Wonders of the World
C) Shah Jahan: A Great Emperor
D) Historical Significance of the Taj
5. In which of the following architectures are geometric elements, plants and flowers very common in designs ?
A) Persian architecture
B) Central Asian architecture
C) Islamic architecture
D) Mongol architecture
Key: 1-C 2-C 3-D 4-A 5-C
Directions: Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow.
Exercise - 1
It will be a mistake to think that he was given only ‘bouquets’, he also received many ‘brickbats’. The Christian missionaries took alarm at his popularity. They used to raise funds by preaching that India was a land of heathens waiting to be saved by Christianity. The American press now began to say that it was a shame that anybody should try to teach India religion, rather the world should sit at her feet to learn it. Vivekananda also said that India did not need religion but material support. The missionaries found that the subscriptions they had so long been receiving from the people were steadily declining. They blamed it on Swamiji. They now started denigrating him in all manner of ways. They even began to spread scandals against his personal character. Strangely enough, even some of his own countrymen joined them in these, for reasons of their own. But ‘Truth alone prevails’, as Swamiji always preached. He did not try to defend himself, but others stood up for him and vehemently protested. Finally, all such mean attempts failed and his reputation only rose higher and higher.
1. What does the passage try to teach us?
a) Not to get in religions other than our own.
b) Not to get involved in scandals.
c) Not to visit foreign lands.
d) Not to deviate from the path of truth.
2. Why was Vivekananda criticized by the Christian missionaries?
a) He was a bad student of Western theology.
b) He opposed the tenets of Christianity.
c) His influence affected the inflow of missionaries’ funds.
d) He did not allow them to raise funds in India.
3. Swami Vivekananda told the American people that India
a) did not approve of the Catholic Church.
b) would teach religion to those who sit at her feet.
c) required religious and material help.
d) was self-sufficient in religion, though poor in terms of money.
4. Vivekananda’s popularity with the American people
a) helped India get substantial aid.
b) made his friends desert him.
c) annoyed the American Government.
d) caused a drop in the Church’s collections.
5. Why did Vivekananda not defend himself?
a) He believed in the ultimate triumph of truth.
b) He was on a foreign land.
c) Some of his countrymen were opposing him.
d) He had friends who were protesting for him.
KEY 1-d; 2-c; 3-d; 4-d; 5-a.
Exercise - 2
Coal was needed in vast quantities for the Industrial Revolution. For centuries, people in Britain had to make do with charcoal if they needed a cheap and easy to acquire fuel. Whatever ‘industry’ that existed before 1700, did use coal but it came from coal mines that were near to the surface and the coal was relatively easy to get to. The Industrial Revolution changed all of this. Before the Industrial Revolution, two types of mines existed: drift mines and bell pits. Both were small scale coal mines and the coal which came from these types of pits was used locally in homes and local industry. However, as the country started to industrialise itself, more and more coal was needed to fuel steam engines and furnaces. The development of factories by Arkwright and the improvement of the steam engine by Watt further increased the demand for coal. As a result, coal mines got deeper and deeper and coal mining became more and more dangerous. Coal shafts could go hundreds of feet into the ground. Once a coal seam was found, the miners dug horizontally. However, underground, the miners faced very real and great dangers. Even with Watt’s improved steam engine, flooding was a real problem in mines. Explosive gas (called fire damp) would be found the deeper the miners got. One spark from a digging miner’s pick axe or candle could be disastrous. Poison gas was also found. Underground pit collapses were common; the sheer weight of the ground above a worked coal seam was colossal and mines were only held up by wooden beams called props. Regardless of all these dangers, there was a huge increase in the production of coal in Britain. Very little coal was found in the south, but vast amounts were found in the Midlands, the north, the north-east and parts of Scotland. Because coal was so difficult and expensive to move, towns
and other industries grew up around the coal mining areas. This in itself created problems as these towns grew without any obvious planning or thought given to the facilities that the miners and their families would need.
1. Why was charcoal used as a fuel for centuries by the British?
i) It was inexpensive and easy to get.
ii) The coal mines were near the surface.
iii) It was used in steam engines and furnaces.
a) Only i b) Only ii c) i and ii d) i, ii and iii
2. What led to the upsurge in the demand for coal?
i) Development of factories
ii) Improvement of steam engines
iii) Increase in demand by local industries
a) Only i b) Only iii c) i and ii d) i, ii and iii
3. Which among the following is not listed as a problem faced by the coal mine workers while working in the mine?
a) Fire damp b) Pit collapses
c) Splitting of seam d) Flooding
4. Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the passage?
a) The deeper a mine, the more dangerous it is.
b) Despite being deterred by the dangers, the workforce increased which lead to the increase in production.
c) More and more coal was needed for furnaces once the country started to industrialise itself.
d) The miners and their families that settled around the coal mines faced problems due to lack of facilities.
5. Which among the following is the synonym of the word ‘colossal’?
a) Petite b) Cosmogony c) Magnificent d) Pharaonic
KEY 1-a; 2-c; 3-c; 4-b; 5-d.
Exercise - 3
Ever since the final whistle brought World Cup 2006 to a close, the atmosphere in the two neighbouring capitals could not be more different. In Rome, there were scenes of euphoria over Italy’s victory. Ecstatic Italian demonstrators partied into the early hours of the morning. The victorious team was given a rapturous welcome both at the airport and in Rome’s Circolo Massimo, where over a million fans braved the Roman sun to greet the returning heroes. The great expanse of the Circolo Massimo was strewn with red, white and green flags, while the air was thick with the crowd’s hooting, chanting and music making. Late on Monday the winning team was expected to be greeted by Prime Minister Romano Prodi. Then, a parade through the streets of Rome, with the solid gold trophy in an open top bus. In Paris, the Champs Elysees, which had seen crowds of up to 5,00,000 when France entered the quarter finals and then the semi finals, had barely 50,000 fans who felt they had to tell their team it had been heroic despite the defeat. But their heart was not in it. A special TV show organised to celebrate victory turned into a virtual wake. [Mournful faces were trying to mask a sense of overwhelming sorrow, not least because superstar Zidane’s final match had been tarnished by his expulsion from the game.] There will be no parade down the Champs Elysees as had been planned. The players had lunch with President Jacques Chirac on their return. But a tight lipped Raymond Domenech said brusquely: “I am the manager, I decide. There will be no parade.” Instead, fans had a glimpse of their favourite stars from a balcony of the chic Crillon Hotel at the Place de la Concorde. In Italy, on the other hand, the victory was experienced as a double triumph, with the feeling that Italians had avenged their Euro 2000 defeat at the hands of the French. The Italian press was lavish in its praise for the squadra azzura with headlines like “The world Belongs to Us” or simply, “Champions.” Newspapers hoped this victory would augur a new era of hope and economic recovery for Italy.
1. In the first line of the passage, which are the two capitals that the author is referring to?
a) Italy and France b) Rome and Paris
c) Melbourne and Rome d) Italy and Brazil
2. What does the word ‘tarnished’ mean in the context of the passage?
a) oxidised b) spoiled c) deteriorated d) discoloured
3. Why did the French fans gather to welcome their team despite its defeat in World Cup 2006?
a) To make the team feel that they are not alone
b) To support their team emotionally
c) To congratulate their team for being great rivals
d) To support their team for giving a tough fight
4. Which of the following is incorrect with respect to the passage?
i) Zidane was excluded from the football team before the final match got over.
ii) France mourned over a not-soglorious end of Zidane’s career.
iii) Italy has lost a match against France.
iv) Italy triumphed over France twice in World Cup 2006.
a) Only i b) ii and iv c) Only ii d) iii and iv
5. Choose the most appropriate title for the given passage:
a) The tale of the victor and the vanquished
b) A match well-avenged
c) New Champs on the block
d) World Cup 2006
KEY 1-b; 2-b; 3-d; 4-b; 5-a.
Exercise - 4
Beauty is a valuable commodity in our image obsessed society, so it’s not surprising that Miss Indias and Miss Worlds make headlines. These young women aren’t just beautiful; they’re most often thin too. But Chloe Marshall, the 2008 Miss England runner-up, was size 16 (“full-figured” or “ample,” to put it politely) and therefore made even more news. A full-figured beauty pageant finalist creating a stop the-press moment highlights the fact that larger women are not usually considered “the fairest of them all.” Indeed, pick up a magazine or newspaper on any other day and the message is loud and clear – thin is in. With the average woman hovering around a size 14 or above, the comparison is odious. A recent survey revealed only six percent of women aged 18 to 64 were “very satisfied” with their looks. That leaves 94 percent of women critical of their appearance. In other words, the majority of the women sitting with you in the metro this morning woke up feeling judgmental and negative about their looks. “If every woman in the world woke up, slapped herself on the head and said: ‘I’m happy with who I am,’ entire economies would collapse,” says Jane Caro, an award-winning advertising writer. The media is often portrayed as the bogeyman in the body-image debate, but experts say it’s only part of the picture. Paxton notes women are getting messages from family from an early age. The way in which parents view their bodies impacts their children’s attitudes. “A mother who is always dieting or being critical of her body is sending a clear message to her daughters,” says Tiggemann. “That sense of body dissatisfaction is passed on.” The anti-obesity push is also unhelpful. “It’s shifted the focus away from health and onto weight and looks,” she says. “It’s perpetuating the notion that fat is bad, thin is good, and thinner is better.” And it’s a notion that has recently been proved to be untrue.
1. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
a) Thin girls are beautiful and have the potential to make headlines.
b) Anti-obesity programmes have helped in reducing obesity.
c) The author agrees that economies would collapse if all the women in the world start admiring the way they look.
d) Children have a tendency to get influenced by what they see at home.
2. Why did Chloe Marshall make headlines?
a) She was not unlike the others who believed that ‘thin is in’.
b) She was not considered ‘fairest of them all’.
c) She was not as ‘image obsessed’ as the other winners.
d) She was a ‘full figured’ 2008 Miss England runner up.
3. Which notion is being talked about in the last line of the passage?
a) Women’s obsession with a slim figure is unhealthy.
b) Fat is bad and slim is good.
c) Fat is bad and slim is good is true.
d) The anti obesity push is not helpful.
4. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?
A. Beauty is given great importance in today’s society.
B. Only a few women are happy the way they look.
C. Media is considered the Lilliputian character that is responsible for the body image debate.
a) A and B b) A and C c) B and C d) All follow
5. Which of the following is the synonym of the word “odious”?
a) fair b) acceptable c) inevitable d) disgusting
KEY: 1-d; 2-d; 3-b; 4-a; 5-d.
Exercise - 5
People very often complain that poverty is a great evil and that it is not possible to be happy unless one has a lot of money. Actually, this is not necessarily true. Even a poor man, living in a small hut with none of the comforts and luxuries of life, may be quite content with his lot and achieve a measure of happiness. On the other hand, a very rich man, living in a palace and enjoying everything that money can buy, may still be miserable, if, for example, he does not enjoy good health or his only son has taken to evil ways. Apart from this, he may have a lot of business worries which keep him on tenterhooks most of the time. There is a limit to what money can buy and there are many things which are necessary for a man’s happiness and which money cannot procure. Real happiness is a matter of the right attitude and the capacity of being content with whatever you have is the most important ingredient of this attitude.
1. The phrase “on tenterhooks” means
a) in a state of thoughtfulness. b) in a state of anxiety.
c) in a state of sadness. d) in a state of forgetfulness.
2. It is true that
a) money alone can give happiness.
b) money always gives happiness.
c) money seldom gives happiness.
d) money alone cannot give happiness.
3. A rich man’s life may become miserable if he
a) has an evil son, bad health and business worries.
b) does not enjoy good health.
c) has business worries.
d) has business worries and his only son has taken to evil ways.
4. Which of the following is the most appropriate title to the passage?
a) Poverty, a great evil b) Money matters
c) Contentment d) The key of happiness: Money or contentment?
5. Which of the following statement is true?
a) Only a poor but contented man can be happy.
b) A poor but contented man can never be happy.
c) A poor but contented man can be happy.
d) A poor but contented man is always happy.
KEY: 1-b; 2-d; 3-a; 4-d; 5-c;
Exercise - 6
It is true that the smokers cause some nuisance to the non-smokers, but this nuisance is physical while the nuisance that the non-smokers cause to the smokers is spiritual. There are, of course, a lot of non-smokers who don't try to interfere with the smokers. It is sometimes assumed that the non-smokers are morally superior, not realizing that they have missed one of the greatest pleasures of mankind. I am willing to allow that smoking is a moral weakness, but on the other hand we must beware of a man without weakness. He is not to be trusted. He is apt to be always sober and he cannot make a single mistake. His habits are too regular, his existence too mechanical and his head always maintains its supremacy over his heart. Much as I like reasonable persons, I hate completely rational beings. For that reason, I am always scared and ill at ease when I enter a house in which there are no ashtrays. The room is apt to be too clean and orderly, and the people are apt to be correct and unemotional. Now the moral and spiritual benefits of smoking have never been appreciated by these correct, righteous, unemotional and unpoetic souls. In my opinion the smokers' morality is, on the whole, higher than that of the nonsmokers. The man with a pipe in his mouth is the man after my heart. He is more genial, more open-hearted, and he is often brilliant in conversation. As Thackeray observes, "The pipe draws wisdom from the lips of the philosopher and shuts up the mouth of the foolish; it generates a style of conversation that is contemplative, thoughtful, benevolent and unaffected."
1. What kind of hardship does a non-smoker cause to a smoker?
a) Non-smokers torment smokers spiritually.
b) Non-smokers feel the smokers are people with no morals.
c) There is no ashtray in a non-smoker's house and thus a smoker can't smoke at a non-smoker's place.
d) Non-smokers keep pestering smokers to quit smoking.
2. Why according to the author is it wrong to think that a non-smoker is morally superior to a smoker?
a) because non-smokers are missing one of the greatest pleasures of mankind.
b) because smoking doesn't concern any morality.
c) because a smoker is more open hearted and genuine as a person.
d) None of these
3. A man without any moral weakness is untrustworthy because
a) his existence is too mechanical and he thinks more with his brain than with his heart.
b) treachery is expected from an immoral person; it's a moral person we have to watch out for.
c) he never makes a mistake himself and disdains people who make mistakes.
d) he is too prejudiced.
4. Why is the author scared to enter a place where there are no ashtrays?
a) He wouldn't find a place to drop cigarette ash in.
b) He wouldn't find company to smoke with.
c) He is scared of non-smokers.
d) He is scared of the absolute rationality of non-smokers.
5. "The pipe draws wisdom from the lips of the philosopher and shuts up the mouth of the foolish; it generates a style of conversation that is contemplative, thoughtful, benevolent and unaffected." This means:
a) Smoking is good for wise people and bad for foolish people.
b) All smokers are brilliant at conversations. They are thoughtful, contemplative, benevolent and unaffected.
c) It is good that some fools smoke, because then they can't speak and we are spared their prattle.
d) None of these
KEY: 1-a; 2-c; 3-a; 4-d; 5-d.
Exercise - 7
Directions (Qs. 1 - 5): Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the given alternatives.
Recognizing the important linkages between trade and economic growth, the Government has simplified the tariff, eliminated quantitative restrictions on imports, and reduced export restrictions. It plans to further simplify and reduce the tariff. However, the level of protection through the tariff remains relatively high and the anti-export bias inherent in imports and other constraints still remain. To help counteract this anti-export bias, export promotion measures have gained importance. The Government has recently announced a further increase in these measures and plans to continue reforms of the tariff and other taxes. Tariff and tax reform are also crucial to address the problem of high fiscal deficits, which have continued to grow despite efforts to reduce public spending. While import licensing and tariff restrictions are generally declining, there appears to have been an increase in other border measures such as anti-dumping, with some 250 cases initiated since 1995. Internal reforms have concentrated on improving efficiency and competition in the economy. Thus, while industrial policy remains important, its scope seems to have been reduced significantly. In addition, since the previous review, there has been a reduction in the number of activities reserved for the public sector and for the small-scale industry.
1. What is the main idea of the passage?
a) Reforms need to continue to achieve high growth and reduce poverty.
b) Reforms contributing to the growth are the tax and tariff reforms.
c) Economic growth rate requires structural reform.
d) Internal reforms have concentrated on improving efficiency and competition in the economy.
2. What does the underlined sentence mean? “Recognizing the important linkages between trade and economic growth, the Government has simplified the tariff”.
a) This recognition has resulted in duties imposed by the government.
b) This perception has given rise to a definite pattern in the tariff.
c) This recognition has resulted in simplification of processing.
d) This recognition has yielded in streamlining costs to aid growth.
3. What does the underlined phrase level of protection mean?
a) desire for insurance b) standard of buffer
c) defence mechanism d) strength and stability
4. Replace the underlined phrase with the most appropriate option? “scope seems to have been reduced significantly”
a) the range seems to be narrow
b) the purview seems to be marginalized
c) the speed has slowed down
d) the entire reach is bringing down everything
5. The author's attitude as it is revealed in the language used is one of:
a) Admiration b) Criticism c) Satirical d) Analytical
KEY: 1-a; 2-d; 3-b; 4-b; 5-d.
Exercise - 8
Directions (Qs. 1 - 10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given after reading it. Certain words/ phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. Delhi's odd-even plan for private cars has a measure of public support because it offers everyone a shot at responsible citizenship, but it is unlikely to alleviate Delhi's poor air quality. Upgrading fuel, keeping out trucks that transit through Delhi and ending the practice of burning crop residue in neighbouring areas will do more to check pollution than restricting the use of private cars. Delhi has so many private cars because a functional, predictable, integrated public transport system with efficient last mile connectivity is absent. If cars are disallowed while an expanded public transport is still not available, three-wheelers and cabs will ply all the more. Proper schedules for buses and metros that are displayed at bus stops and metro stations and ensuring these are adhered to would make it possible for people to plan their trips. Every bus can be fitted with GPS and speed governors and its movement tracked, to make sure they neither race nor dawdle and stick to their schedule. Bus routes can be rationalised to ensure that bus services are not concentrated in certain areas. Seamless connectivity with the metro and circular rail network must be ensured. Instead of having differently priced buses, have a single class of buses and allow integrated, card-based payments for all modes of transport in the city. Driving restrictions is not the silver bullet for reducing either traffic congestion or air pollution. If Kejriwal is serious about addressing these then he must put forward ....(1)... transportation policy that uses technolo
gy and deft planning to deliver an improved bus system, integrated with the existing circular rail network and an expanding metro system, backed up by a feeder system integrating the different forms of public transport.
1. According to the passage, what can reduce the pollution of Delhi?
A) Keeping trucks out of Delhi B) Implementing odd-even policy
C) Expanding public transport D) Both A and B E) Both B and C
Explanation: According to the author’s opinion, implementation odd-even policy for private cars cannot reduce Delhi’s poor air quality (refer para 1). So, option (B) will be eliminated. A public transport system with efficient last mile connectivity is absent in Delhi (refer para 2). So, expanding public transport makes no sense in reducing the pollution and therefore (C) will also be eliminated. According to the passage, ‘keeping trucks that transit through Delhi and ending the practice of burning crop residue in neighbouring areas will do more to check pollution than restricting the use of private cars in Delhi’ (refer para 1).
2. What will be the suitable title of the above passage?
A) Delhi's poor air quality and its causes
B) Delhi needs a comprehensive transportation policy
C) Odd-even policy: A game changer
D) Reduce traffic congestion or pollution
E) None of these
Explanation: In the passage, Delhi's poor air quality and its causes were not discussed briefly, so (A) will not be a suitable title. According to the author, odd-even policy has not reduced Delhi’s poor air quality (refer para 1); therefore, it is not a game changer. So, (C) also eliminated. ‘Reduce traffic congestion or pollution’ will not be a suitable title, because the title has ‘not specified’ about something/ place unlike mentioned in the other options. So, (B) ‘Delhi needs a comprehensive transportation policy’ (refer para 2), will be the suitable title of the above passage because many serious issues regarding transportation policy were discussed in the passage
3. What is the reason behind traffic congestion in Delhi?
A) There are so many private cabs in Delhi
B) There are no driving restrictions in Delhi
C) There is differently priced public transportation
D) All the above
E) None of these
Explanation: Yes, there are so many private cabs commuting in Delhi. But these cabs are running from a long time. A functional, predictable, integrated public transport system with efficient last mile connectivity is absent in Delhi (refer para 2). This is the reason behind traffic congestion in Delhi. So, (A) got eliminated. Driving restrictions are implementing in Delhi (refer para 2). So, (B) also got eliminated. Differently priced public transportation may not be a reason for traffic congestion because the public transport system itself has not efficient last mile connectivity (refer para 2).
4. According to the author, why there are many private vehicles in Delhi?
A) Because of the high population B) Because of low Metro trains
C) Because of less public transport D) Because of high distances in Delhi from one place to another
E) None of these
Explanation: According to the author, “Delhi has so many private cars because a functional, predictable, integrated public transport system with efficient last mile connectivity is absent” (refer para 2). The sentence means that the public transportation system is not efficient in Delhi.
5. Before implementing an odd-even plan what should have been done for the transportation of Delhi? I. There should be GPS fitted buses to track movement II. There should be a comprehensive transportation policy III. Bus routes should be rationalized
A) I and II B) III only C) I only D) II only E) All I, II and III
Explanation: According to the author, there is no efficient public transportation system available in Delhi (refer paragraph 2). So, the first thing to do before implementing an odd-even policy for private cabs is ‘there should be a comprehensive transport facility connecting every nook and corner of Delhi’. So, (D) is the correct option. We left out the remaining (I) and (II) statements because, there is no comprehensive transport facility available in Delhi and it is understandable that, only after ‘a comprehensive’ transportation system is available, we can think of fitting GPS to buses and rationalization of bus routes.
6. Choose the word which is most similar in meaning of the word Integrate printed in bold in the passage.
A) Assimilate B) Match C) Fight D) Disorganize E) Disperse
Explanation: According to the passage, integrated public transportation means the combination of different modes of transport designed to maximise the ease and efficiency for the public to travel every nook and corner of the city in terms of time, cost, comfort, safety, accessibility and convenience. The word ‘assimilate’ fits exactly to the sentence. Ans: A 7. Choose the word which is most similar in meaning of the word Transit printed in bold in the passage.
A) Stagnation B) Hold C) Transport D) Transfer E) Survey
Explanation: In general, transit means ‘the carrying of people or things from one place to another using a vehicle’. Here ‘Transport’ gives the most similar meaning to the word ‘transit’. There is a difference between transport and transfer. ‘Transport’ means “to move people or things from one place to another, usually in a vehicle”. ‘Transfer’ means “to move any files, information or things from one particular place to another particular place”. Do not confuse over these words.
8. Choose a correct word from the options for ....(1).... in the passage, that suits appropriately to the context of the sentence and make the paragraph meaningful and grammatically correct.
A) Narrow B) Comprehensive C) Short D) Exclusive E) Restricted
Explanation: In the passage, the author suggested that, (refer para 2) If Kejriwal is serious about addressing the transportation facilities, then he must put forward a transportation policy that uses technology and deft planning to deliver an improved bus system, integrated with the existing circular rail network and an expanding
metro system, backed up by a feeder system integrating the different forms of public transport. That means nearly all aspects of transportation should be addressed thoroughly. From the given options, the word ‘comprehensive’ suits best in the blank because the word ‘comprehensive’ means “including or dealing with all or nearly all aspects of something”.
9. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word Alleviate printed in bold in the passage.
A) Calm B) Mitigate C) Stick D) Intensify E) Promote
Explanation: According to the passage, ‘alleviate’ means “reducing/ curb something” (here reducing Delhi’s poor air quality). ‘Intensify’ which means “escalate or increasing something” will be suited as the most opposite word of alleviate.
10. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word concentrated printed in bold in the passage.
A) Robust B) Entire C) Thick D) Whole E) Weak
Explanation: According to the passage (refer para 2), the sentence ‘Bus routes can be rationalised to ensure that bus services are not concentrated in certain areas’ means “Bus routes can be rationalised to ensure that major portion of bus services (strong transportation) will not be allotted only to the areas that give profit to the transport company. The services should be available to every nook and corner without causing any inconvenience to the commuters. So, option E (weak) will be the opposite word of ‘concentrated’.