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Direct and indirect speech

ఒకరు చెప్పిన మాటలను మరొకరితో ఇంగ్లిష్‌లో రెండు రకాలుగా చెప్పవచ్చు. ఒకటి, చెప్పిన మాటలను యథాతథంగా చెప్పడం. దీన్ని డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ అంటారు. రెండోది, చెప్పిన మాటలను యథాతథంగా చెప్పకుండా వాటి తాత్పర్యాన్ని చెప్పడం. దీన్ని ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ అంటారు. రిపోర్టింగ్ ప్రక్రియలో డైరెక్ట్ అండ్ ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ చాలా ఉపయోగపడుతుంది. డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లో ఇచ్చిన ఒక వాక్యాన్ని ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లోకి అర్థంలో తేడా రాకుండా మార్చి రాయాలి. ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌ను రిపోర్టెడ్ స్పీచ్ అని కూడా అంటారు.

Sometimes we need to say what another person said. There are two ways to do this in English …Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (Reported Speech). Direct speech is used when we want to repeat the original

speaker's exact words, while Indirect Speech is used when we want to give the exact meaning of a speech without quoting the speaker's exact words. Now this way, we can answer the question ‘What did he/she say?’ in these ways: by repeating the words spoken (Direct Speech) and by reporting the words spoken  (Indirect Speech).

e.g. Namratha said to me, “I do n’t like this game.” (D.S.)

Namratha told me that she did not like that game. (R.S.)

          We can make a speaker's words or thoughts part/s of our sentence, using reported  verbs, conjunctions (e.g. that) and change  pronouns, the tenses or verb forms and other words (adverbs) when necessary. This kind of reporting is called Reported Speech.
 

CERTAIN BASICS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

          ఒకరు చెప్పిన మాటలను యథాతథంగా తిరిగి చెప్పినప్పుడు అది డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ అవుతుంది. ఆ మాటలను రాయాల్సి వచ్చినప్పుడు వాటిని ఇన్‌వర్టెడ్ కామాల్లో ఉంచుతాం.

                             e.g.: Ramana said to them, “I wrote a letter yesterday.”

                                  Subject                       Direct Speech

అయితే ఒకరు చెప్పిన మాటలను పైవిధంగా కాకుండా మరో విధంగా చెప్పొచ్చు. దాన్నే ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ అంటారు. దీనిలో ఒకరు చెప్పిన మాటలను యథాతథంగా కాకుండా వాటి తాత్పర్యాన్ని మాత్రమే చెప్తారు. దీన్ని రిపోర్టింగ్ అంటారు. పైన ఇచ్చిన డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ వాక్యానికి ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ ఎలా ఉంటుందో కింద ఇచ్చాం చూడండి.

                            e.g.: Ramana told them that he had written a letter yesterday.
                                                            Subject                    Indirect Speech

          ఇప్పుడు డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్, ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌ల్లో ఉన్న వాక్యాల్లోని భాగాలను ఎలా పిలుస్తారో చూద్దాం.  

 

PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATION: DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

There are some grammatical differences between direct and indirect speech. These changes are mostly natural and logical. But then, it is necessary to learn these rules that govern the reporting process or transformation of speech in English.  

1. Reporting Verb and Reported Verb: Depending upon the kind of sentence found in the Direct Speech part, the reporting verb remains so or gets changed into : say(s), said, told for Declarative Sentences ; asked, enquired, inquired, for Interrogative Sentences; ordered, commanded, begged, requested, told for Imperative Sentences; exclaimed and said for Exclamatory Sentence. 

CONVERSION OF REPORTING VERB INTO REPORTED VERB

e.g. He said, “She is a teacher.”⇔ He said that she was a teacher.

He said, “Is she a teacher?”⇔ He asked me whether she was a teacher.

He said, “Where is she working?”⇔ He enquired where she was working.

He said, “Open the door quickly.” ⇔ He ordered me to open the door quickly.

He said, “Tell me about her please.” ⇔ He requested to tell him about her.

He said, “What good news it is!” ⇔ He exclaimed and said that it was good news.

వివరణ: డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లోనున్న ఒక వాక్యాన్ని ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లోకి మార్చేటప్పుడు రిపోర్టింగ్ వెర్బ్‌ను రిపోర్టెడ్ వెర్బ్‌గా మార్చి రాయడం మొదటి మార్పు. ఈ ప్రక్రియలో డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లో కనిపించే వాక్యం రకాన్ని బట్టి (డిక్లరేటివ్, ఇంటరాగేటివ్, ఇంపరేటివ్) రిపోర్టింగ్ వెర్బ్ తదనుగుణంగా రిపోర్టెడ్ వర్బ్‌గా మారుతుంది. పై ఉదాహరణల్లో Saidఅనే రిపోర్టింగ్ వెర్బ్ వాక్య రకాన్ని బట్టి said, asked, enquired, ordered, requested,exclaimed and said గా మారుతుంది. 

2. Conjunction Case: We use different conjunctions while transforming the Direct Speech into Indirect Speech. The conjunction ‘that’ for Declarative Sentence and Exclamatory  Sentences in the Direct Speech; ‘if’ /‘whether’ or Wh-word /How for Interrogative Sentence; ‘to’ or ‘not to’ for Imperative Sentence cases accordingly.

INSERTION OF CONJUNCTION

e.g.: She said to me, “He teaches English.” ⇔She told me that he taught English.

She said to me, “Does he teach English?”  ⇔ She asked me –– if he taught English.

She said to me “Where does he teach English?”⇔ She asked me where he taught English.

She said to me,” Don’t teach English.” ⇔She ordered me not to teach English.

She said to me, “How interesting!” ⇔ She exclaimed and told me that it was interesting.

వివరణ: డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లోనున్న ఒక వాక్యాన్ని ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లోకి మార్చేటప్పుడు డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ భాగాన్ని దాని ముందుభాగంతో కలపడానికి ఒక కంజంక్షన్ చేర్చే అవసరం ఉంటుంది. అయితే కంజంక్షన్ ఎంపిక అనేది డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లో కనిపించే వాక్య రకాన్ని బట్టి (డిక్లరేటివ్, ఇంటరాగేటివ్, ఇంపరేటివ్) తదనుగుణంగా ఉండాలి. పై ఉదాహరణల్లో డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లోని డిక్లరేటివ్, ఇంటరాగేటివ్, ఇంపరేటివ్, ఎక్ల్సమేటరీ వాక్య రకాన్ని బట్టి రిపోర్టెడ్ స్పీచ్ వెర్షన్స్ పరిశీలిస్తే that, if,where, not toమరియు that అనే పదాలను కంజంక్షన్స్‌గా చేర్చారని గమనించండి.

NOTE: The conjunction ‘that’ is dropped, especially after common reporting verbs (e.g.
say, think)) in informal speech and ‘that’ can not be dropped after certain verbs (e.g. reply, shout).

e.g.: I think (that) you are probably right. (‘that’ is dropped)

e.g.: She shouted that she was busy. (‘that’ cannot be dropped)

3. Pronoun Changes: When changing from direct speech to indirect speech, it is often necessary to change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence.

e.g. She said, “ I want to bring my book.” ↔ She said that she wanted to bring her book.

TABLE OF PRONOUNS

మార్చాలనేదే ఆయా వాక్యాలను బట్టి మాత్రమే చెప్పగలిగే వీలుంటుంది.

పై ఉదాహరణలో కనిపించే ఈ మార్పు ప్రక్రియను ఒకసారి గమనించండి.

4. Tense Changes: Indirect Speech is usually introduced by a verb in the Past Tense. When the reporting verb is in the Past Tense, all the verbs in Present Tense in the Direct Speech have to be changed into the corresponding Past Tense verb forms.

వివరణ: ఇది నాలుగో మార్పు.  verb forms (Tenses) కి సంబంధించినది. Reporting Verb ‘Past

Tense’ లో ఉన్నప్పుడు, డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లోని ‘verb’ form Past Tense లోకి మారుతుంది. అయితే దీనికి కొన్ని మినహాయింపులు ఉంటాయి. Reporting Verb అనేది Present/Future Tense లో ఉన్నప్పుడు Tense మార్పులుండవు. ఉదాహరణకు నిత్యసత్యాలను Past Tense లోకి మార్చి చెప్పలేం కదా. ఇప్పుడు ఈ కింద ఇచ్చిన టెన్స్ మార్పులను సూచించే పట్టికలను నిశితంగా గమనించండి.

TENSE CHANGES WITH EXAMPLES

Modal Verb Cases

* Indirect speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense usually when we are:

1. reporting a conversation that is still going on.

2. reading a letter or something else and reporting what it said.

3. reading instructions and reporting them.

4. reporting a statement that someone makes very often.

                e.g.: Rani says, “I will never get married.”

                        Rani says that she will never get married.

* when the introductory verb (reporting verb) is in a present, present perfect or future

tense (less common), the tense of the direct speech does not change.

                e.g.: He has just said, “My master is writing letters."

                        He has just said (that) his master is writing letters.
 

5. Adverb (Time) Change: If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you
must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. For example, we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting. The following are the adverbs or expressions of time, if the direct speech happens to be  reported on a different day.

వివరణ: అయిదోది మరియు చివరిదీ అయిన ఈ మార్పులో Adverbs ను (డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ పార్ట్‌లో ఒకవేళ ఉంటే) దానికి అనుగుణంగా మార్చి రాయాలి. Words expressing nearness are generally changed into words expressing distance.

Expressions like -- this (evening), today ,yesterday, these(days), now, (a week) ago, last weekend, here, next (week), tomorrow etc. become that(evening), that day, the previous day/ the day before, those(days), then, (a week) before, the weekend before / the previous weekend, there, the following (week), the next/following day etc.,

CONVERSION OF ADVERB

e.g. She said, “I will come tomorrow.” ↔ She said that she would come the next day.

పైన ఇచ్చిన పట్టికల్లోని విషయ పరిజ్ఞానంతో వివిధ రకాల వాక్యాలను డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ నుంచి ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్‌లోకి మార్చిన ఉదాహరణలు ఇవిగో...

SAMPLING OF TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES

FROM DIRECT SPEECH INTO INDIRECT SPEECH

* Statements (Declarative Sentences)

Case 1: Plain Statements

           e.g.   Direct Speech : She said to him, “I am very busy now.”

                    Indirect Speech: She told him that she was very busy then.

Case 2: Universal Truths (where tense change is not applicable)

          e.g.   Direct Speech: The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”

                   Indirect Speech: The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.


* Questions ( Interrogative Sentences)

Case 1: Wh-words & How

        e.g.   Direct Speech: She said to him, “Where are you going now?”

              Indirect Speech: She asked him where he was going then.

Direct Speech: She said to him, “Where do you work?”

              Indirect Speech: She asked him where he worked.

                Direct Speech: She said to him, “How do you go to office?”

              Indirect Speech: She asked him how he went to office.

Case 2: Yes-No Questions

        e.g.  Direct Speech: She said to him, “Do you play cricket?”

              Indirect Speech: She asked him if he played cricket.

                Direct Speech: She said to him, “Do you play cricket?”

              Indirect Speech: She asked him whether he played cricket.

* Orders, Requests, Suggestions etc., ( Imperative Sentences)
 

Case 1: Positive Sentences

        e.g.  Direct Speech: She said to him, “Open the door.”

              Indirect Speech: She ordered him to open the door.

                Direct Speech: She said to him, “Open the door.”

              Indirect Speech: She told him to open the door.

                Direct Speech: She said to him, “Please open the door.”

             Indirect Speech: She requested him to open the door.
Case 2: Negative Sentences

        e.g. Direct Speech: She said to him, “Don’t open the door.”Indirect Speech: She ordered him not to open the door.
                Direct Speech: She said to him, “Please don’t open the door.”
              Indirect Speech: She requested him not to open the door.
*  Exclamatory Sentences
Case 1: Positive feeling
                Direct Speech: She said, “What a nice shot!”
              Indirect Speech: She exclaimed and said that it was a nice shot.
Case 2: Negative feeling
                Direct Speech: She said, “How disgusting!”
             Indirect Speech: She exclaimed and said that it was very disgusting.

          కాబట్టి ఈ విధమైన సమగ్ర సమాచార సహాయంతో ఒక వాక్యాన్ని డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ నుంచి ఇన్‌డైరెక్ట్ స్పీచ్ (రిపోర్టెడ్ స్పీచ్)లోకి సులభంగా మార్చవచ్చు. దీనికి కావల్సిందల్లా తగినంత ప్రాక్టీస్. అందుకోసం ఈకింద ఇచ్చిన అభ్యాసాలను సాధనచేసి, జవాబులు సరిచూసుకోండి.

EXERCISE\

Report the following sentences carefully.

1. He said to them, “The Bible is a holy book.”

2. He said to them, “I read the Bible everyday.”

3. He said to them, “I am reading the Bible now.”

4. He said to them, “I have read the Bible recently.”

5. He said to them, “I have been reading the Bible since 2009.”

6. He said to them, “I read the Bible in my childhood.”

7. He said to them, “I was reading the Bible at 6 p.m. yesterday.”

8. He said to them, “I had read the Bible and went out for a walk last week.”

9. He said to them, “I had been reading the Bible during my school days.”

10. He said to them, “I will read the Bible tomorrow.”

11. He said to them, “I shall read the Bible tomorrow.”

12. He said to them, “I will be reading the Bible in my journey tomorrow.”

13. He said to them, “I will have read the Bible by this time tomorrow.”

14. He said to them, “I will have been reading the Bible during my post-retirement.”

15. He said to them, “Let us read the Bible everyday.”

16. He said to them, “I must read the Bible.”

17. He said to them, “Do you read the Bible?”

18. He said to them, “When will you read the Bible?

19. He said to them, “How do you read the Bible?”

20. He said to them, “Read the Bible.”

21. He said to them, “Please read the Bible.”

22. He said to them, “Don’t read anything except the Bible.”

23. He said to them, “What a reading of the Bible!”

24. He said to them, “Let it take its own time, I shall read the Bible.”

25. He says to them, “I read the Bible for salvation.”

26. He said to them, “I must read the Bible now.”

27. He said to them, “I need not read the Bible.”

28. He said to them, “I must read the Bible next week.”

29. He said to them, “You must not read the Bible at odd times.”

30. He said to them, “Yes, I have read the Bible wholeheartedly.”

 

ANSWERS:

1. He told them that the Bible is a holy book.

2. He told them that he read the Bible everyday.

3. He told them that he was reading the Bible then.

4. He told them that he had read the Bible recently.

5. He told them that he had been reading the Bible since 2009.

6. He told them that he had read the Bible in his childhood.

7. He told them that he had been reading the Bible at 6 p.m. the previous day.

8. He told them that he had read the Bible and went out for a walk the previous week.

9. He told them that he had been reading the Bible during his school days.

10. He told them that he would read the Bible the next day.

11. He told them that he would read the Bible the next day.

12. He told them that he would be reading the Bible in his journey the next day.

13. He told them that he would have read the Bible by that time the following day.

14. He told them that he would have been reading the Bible during his post-retirement.

15. He told them that they should read the Bible everyday.

16. He told them that he had to read the Bible.

17. He asked them if they read the Bible.

18. He asked them when they would read the Bible.

19. He asked them how they read the Bible.

20. He ordered/told them to read the Bible.

21. He requested them to read the Bible.

22. He advised them not to read anything except the Bible.

23. He exclaimed and said that it was a wonderful reading of the Bible.

24. He told them that he would read the Bible however long it might take time.

25. He says to them that he reads the Bible for salvation.

26. He told them that he had to read the Bible at once. / He told them that he was not to
read the Bible then.

27. He told them that he did not have to read the Bible.

28. He told them that he would have to read the Bible the following week.

29. He told them that they must not read the Bible at odd times.

30. He confessed that he had read the Bible wholeheartedly.

Posted Date : 01-05-2021

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్లో వచ్చే ప్రకటనలు అనేక దేశాల నుండి, వ్యాపారస్తులు లేదా వ్యక్తుల నుండి వివిధ పద్ధతులలో సేకరించబడతాయి. ఆయా ప్రకటనకర్తల ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల గురించి ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికీ, ఉద్యోగస్తులకూ ఎటువంటి అవగాహనా ఉండదు. కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచిననుసరించి కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికతతో పంపబడతాయి. ఏ ప్రకటనని అయినా పాఠకులు తగినంత జాగ్రత్త వహించి, ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల గురించి తగిన విచారణ చేసి, తగిన జాగ్రత్తలు తీసుకొని కొనుగోలు చేయాలి. ఉత్పత్తులు / సేవలపై ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎటువంటి నియంత్రణ ఉండదు. కనుక ఉత్పత్తులు లేదా సేవల నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాల విషయంలో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యం ఎటువంటి బాధ్యత వహించదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఎటువంటి ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకీ తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు తీసుకోబడవు.

 

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