Directions (Qs. 1 - 13): Sentences of a paragraph are given below in jumbled order. Arrange the sentences in the right order to form a meaningful and coherent paragraph.
1. P. Deoxyribonucleic acid is a polymer composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses.
Q. The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides as they are composed of simpler monomeric units called nucleotides.
R. DNA and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) are nucleic acids.
S. Alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.
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2. P. They serve as monomeric units of the nucleic acid polymers – deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Q. Nucleotides are obtained in the diet and are also synthesized from common nutrients by the liver.
R. Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate.
S. Nucleotides are composed of three subunit molecules: a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group consisting of one to three phosphates.
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3. P. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.
Q. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War and succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S.economy.
R. Lincoln was born into poverty in a log cabin in Kentucky and was raised on the frontier, primarily in Indiana. He was selfeducated and became a lawyer, Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator, and U.S. Congressman from Illinois.
S. In 1849, he returned to his law practice but became vexed by the opening of additional lands to slavery as a result of the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854.
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4. P. The major factors that affect education systems are the resources and money that are utilized to support those systems in different nations.
Q. Education is a social institution through which a society’s children are taught basic academic knowledge, learning skills, and cultural norms.
R. Every nation in the world is equipped with some form of education system, though those systems vary greatly.
S. As you might expect, a country’s wealth has much to do with the amount of money spent on education.
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5. P. In 1712, Thomas Newcomen, a blacksmith, created a steam powered engine to pump water out of mines. In 1807, Robert Fulton successfully used a steam engine to propel a vessel through the water.
Q. Fulton's ship used the engine to power a small wooden paddle wheel as its marinepropulsion system. The integration of a steam engine into a watercraft to create a marine steam engine was the start of the marine engineering profession.
R. Modern marine engineering dates back to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (early 1700’s).
S. Archimedes is traditionally regarded as the first marine engineer, having developed a number of marine engineering systems in antiquity.
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6. P. Savannah was fitted with an auxiliary steam engine and paddlewheels in addition to her sails.
Q. Savannah was laid down as a sailing packet at the New York shipyard of Fickett & Crockett.
R. While the ship was still on the slipway, Captain Moses Rogers, with the financial backing of the Savannah SteamShip Company, purchased the vessel in order to convert it to an auxiliary steamship and gain the prestige of inaugurating the world's first transatlantic steamship service.
S. Moses Rogers himself supervised the installation of the machinery, while his distant cousin, and later brother-in-law, Stevens Rogers oversaw installation of the ship's rigging and sails.
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7. P. John Russell was born on 9 May 1808 in Parkhead, Glasgow, the son of Reverend David Russell and Agnes Clark Scott.
Q. He spent one year at the University of St. Andrews before transferring to the University of Glasgow.
R. It was while at the University of Glasgow that he added his mother's maiden name, Scott, to his own, to become John Scott Russell.
S. He graduated from Glasgow University in 1825 at the age of 17 and moved to Edinburgh where he taught mathematics and science at the Leith Mechanics' Institute, achieving the highest attendance in the city.
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8. P. It was in the 19th century that the concept of science received its modern shape, with different subjects within science emerging, such as astronomy, biology, and physics.
Q. From the ancient world (at least since Aristotle) until the 19th century, natural philosophy was the common term for the study of physics (nature), a broad term that included botany, zoology, anthropology, and chemistry as well as what we now call physics.
R. Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) is the philosophical study of physics, that is, nature and the physical universe.
S. It was dominant before the development of modern science.
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9. P. In the Principia, Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity.
Q. He demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles.
R. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to derive Kepler's laws of planetary motion, accounting for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentricity.
S. Newton's inference that the Earth is an oblate spheroid was later confirmed by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, and others, convincing most European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over earlier systems.
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10. P. Examples are Saturn's satellites Mimas, Enceladus, and Tethys and Uranus' satellite Miranda.
Q. Several moons of the Solar System approximate prolate spheroids in shape, though they are actually triaxial ellipsoids.
R. The prolate spheroid is the approximate shape of the ball in several sports, such as in the rugby ball.
S. In contrast to being distorted into oblate spheroids via rapid rotation, celestial objects distort slightly into prolate spheroids via tidal forces when they orbit a massive body in a close orbit.
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11. P. Tide tables can be used for any given locale to find the predicted times and amplitude (or "tidal range").
Q. The predictions are influenced by many factors including the alignment of the Sun and Moon, the phase and amplitude of the tide (pattern of tides in the deep ocean), the amphidromic systems of the oceans, and the shape of the coastline and nearshore bathymetry (see timing).
R. They are however only predictions, the actual time and height of the tide is affected by wind and atmospheric pressure. Many shorelines experience semidiurnal tides—two nearly equal high and low tides each day.
S. Other locations have a diurnal tide—one high and low tide each day. A "mixed tide"—two uneven magnitude tides a day—is a third regular category.
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12. P. Bathymetric maps (a more general term where navigational safety is not a concern) may also use a Digital Terrain Model and artificial illumination techniques to illustrate the depths being portrayed.
Q. Bathymetric (or hydrographic) charts are typically produced to support safety of surface or subsurface navigation, and usually show seafloor relief or terrain as contour lines (called depth contours or isobaths) and selected depths (soundings), and typically also provide surface navigational information.
R. The first recorded evidence of water depth measurements are from Ancient Egypt over 3000 years ago.]
S. Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of ocean floors (seabed topography), lake floors, or river floors. In other words, bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to hypsometry or topography.
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13. P. A hypsometric curve is a histogram or cumulative distribution function of elevations in a geographical area.
Q. The curve can also be shown in nondimensional or standardized form by scaling elevation and area by the maximum values.
R. Differences in hypsometric curves between landscapes arise because the geomorphic processes that shape the landscape may be different.
S. When drawn as a 2-dimensional histogram, a hypsometric curve displays the elevation (y) on the vertical, y-axis and area above the corresponding elevation (x) on the horizontal or x-axis.
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