# ANALOGY

Let us first try to define analogy: the word ‘Analogy' means 'correspondence/ similarity’. In analogy questions, a specific relationship is given & another similar relationship has to be identified from the given options.

Types of Analogies
In reasoning, generally we come across two types of analogies: Alphabet analogy and Numbers analogy.
Number Analogy covers two types of questions:

I. Choose a similar pair as the given pair in the question on the basis of the relation between the numbers pair given in the question.
II. Choose a number that is similar to a group of numbers on the basis of certain similar properties that they possess.

Example 1:
In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
56 : 41 : : 94 : ?
a) 49           b) 53           c) 60           d) 89
Explanation: (5 × 6) + (5 + 6) = 30 + 11 = 41 Similarly (9 × 4) + (9 + 4) = 36 + 13 = 49

Example 2: In the following question, select the related number pair from the given alternatives
534 : 2 : : ? : ?
a) 102 : 9   b) 553 : 6   c) 884 : 2   d) 999 : 2
Explanation: (5 + 3) ÷ 4 = 2, Similarly (9 + 9) ÷ 9 = 2

Alphabet/ Letter Analogy
In this type of analogy, two groups of letters related to each other in same way, are given. The candidate is required to identify the relationship & choose a group of letters which is related in the same way to a 3rd group given in the question. These questions become easier to solve if you memorize the alphabetic positions of the letters in the alphabet. (eg: A = 1, M = 13, etc.)

Example: BCDE : PQRS : : WXYZ : ?
a) EFGH       b) KLMN       c) QJSP       d) TSUV
Explanation: Each letter of the 1st group is moved 14 steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the 2nd group. A similar relationship will exist between the 3rd and 4th groups.
Hence, the correct answer is option (b).

Word Analogy
If the relationship between one pair of words is similar to another pair of words then we say that both the pair of words is analogous to each other. In simple words, the relationship between two words must be same for other words associated with them too. The candidate is required to identify the relationship & choose a pair of words which is related in the same way to given in the question.

Example: In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Goiter : Iodine : : Anemia : ?
a) Vitamin D       b) Iron      c) Vitamin E      d) Calcium
Explanation: Here, we have cause and effect relationship. ‘Goitre’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iodine’. So, if ‘Goitre’ is related to ‘Iodine’, then ‘Anaemia’ will be related to ‘Iron’ as ‘Anaemia’ is caused by the deficiency of ‘Iron’. Hence, our answer is (b).

Practice Questions
1. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
850 : 863 : : 430 : ?
a) 437         b) 442         c) 435         d) 451
Sol: 850 = 8 + 5 + 0 = 13
850 + 13 = 863
Similarly, 430 = 4 + 3 + 0 = 7
430 + 7 = 437
Ans: a

2. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Pressure : Barometer : : ? : Odometer
a) Humidity      b) Distance      c) Thickness      d) Wind
Sol: As Barometer is used for measuring Pressure, similarly Odometer is used for measuring Distance.
Ans: b

3. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
AEDM : ZQRN : : FLMO : ?
a) BZYS     b) CZYS     c) SZYB     d) YZBC
Sol: Similarly

Ans: a

4. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
3 : 27 : : 4 : ?
a) 63          b) 64         c) 65       d) 15
Sol: 33 = 27, similarly 43 = 64
Ans: b

5. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Book : Pages : : Continent : ?
a) Water   b) Forest   c) Countries   d) Land
Sol: Book consists Pages on the same way Continent consists Countries.
Ans: c

6. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
JKLM : IIII : : PQRS : ? a) PPPP    b) OOOO    c) TTTT    d) OOPP
Sol:                               Similarly
J     K  L   M               P   Q   R   S
−1  −2 −3 −4             −1  −2 −3 −4
I    I     I    I               O   O   O   O
Ans: b

7. Select the related word from the given alternatives.
Father : Parent :: Sister : ?
a) Other     b) Brother     c) Daughter     d) Sibling
Ans: d

8. In the following question, select the related letters from the given alternatives.
AGN : IOV : : BLM : ?
a) JTU        b) KTU       c) JUV       d) TUJ
Sol: Similarly
A   G   N                       B   L   M
+8 +8 +8                     +8  +8 +8
I    O   V                       J    T   U
Ans: a

9. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
9143 : 9963 : : 6731 : ?
a) 1368       b) 5666      c) 8964      d) 9694
Sol: 9143 = 9 + 1 + 4 + 3 = 17
9963 = 9 + 9 + 6 + 3 = 27
Similarly, 6731 = 6 + 7 + 3 + 1 = 17
8964 = 8 + 9 + 6 + 4 = 27
Ans: c

10. In the following question, select the related number from the given alternatives.
243 : 819 : : 163 : ?
a) 487         b) 563         c) 572         d) 593
Sol: (2 × 4 × 3) = 24 ⇒ 242 = 576 + 243 = 819
Similarly, 1 × 6 × 3 = 18      ⇒ 182 = 324 + 163 = 487
Ans: a

11. In the following question, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Vacant : Empty : : Dearth : ?
a) Descend        b) Scarcity         c) Squander       d) Abundant
Sol: As Vacant and Empty are synonyms to each other, similarly Dearth and Scarcity are synonyms to each other.
Ans: b

Analogy means ‘similarity’ having a similar features. In the questions based on analogy, a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided. There are many ways of establishing a relationship. For example:
Botany  ::  Plants
Tailor    ::  Needle
Farmer  :: Field
Power    :: Watt
Some Models:
Directions:
In each of the following questions, there is a certain relationship between two given words on one side of :: and one word is given on another side of :: while another word is to be found from the given alternatives, having the same relation with this word as the words of the given pair bear. Choose the correct alternative.

¤  Tree : Forest :: Grass : ?
a) Lawn            b) Field           c) Garden           d) Farm
Ans: ( a ).
Hint: A forest consists of trees and a lawn is made up of grass.
¤  Giant: Dwarf :: Genius : ?
a) Wicked             b) Gentle             c) Idiot             d) Polite
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: The given words are opposite of each other.
¤  Quartz : Radio :: Gypsum : ?
a) Glass             b) Porcelain             c) Cement             d) Powder
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: First is used to make the second.
¤  Chromite : Chromium :: Ilmenite : ?
a) Limestone             b) Cobalt             c) Manganese             d) Titanium
Ans: ( d ).
Hint: Chromite is a mineral of Chromium and Ilmenite is a mineral of Titanium.

¤  Ruby : Red :: Sapphire : ?
a) Blue             b) White             c) Green             d) Silver
Ans: ( a ).
Hint: Ruby is a red precious stone and sapphire is a blue precious stone.
¤  House : Garbage :: Ore : ?
a) Rubbish             b) Gangue             c) Sand             d) Dregs
Ans: ( b ).
Hint: The waste of the house is called garbage. Similarly, the impurities in the ore are called gangue.
¤  Tile : Mosaic :: Knot : ?
a) Embroidery             b) Abacus             c) Macrame             d) Easle
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: Just as tiles in a mosaic make a pattern, so too the knots in a piece of macrame make a pattern.
¤  Country : President :: State : ?
a) Governor              b) Minister              c) Chief Minister              d) Citizen

Ans: ( a ).
Hint: President and governor are the nominal heads of the country and the state respectively.
¤  Car : Garage :: Aeroplane : ?
a) Airport               b) Depot               c) Hangar               d) Harbour
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: First is temporarily parked in the second.
¤  Bread : Yeast :: Curd : ?
a) Fungi               b) Bacteria               c) Germs               d) Virus
Ans: ( b ).
Hint: First is produced by the action of second.
¤  Illiteracy : Education :: Flood : ?
a) Rain               b) Bridge               c) Dam               d) River
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: 'Second helps to get rid of the first'. 'Illiteracy' can be eradicated through 'Education'. Similarly 'Flood' can be controlled by constructing 'Dam'. Hence (c) is the correct answer

¤  Appraiser : Building :: Critic : ?
a) Book               b) Masterpiece               c) Judge               d) Gold
Ans: ( a ).
Hint: First comments of the second.
¤  Fruit : Banana :: Mammal : ?
a) Cow               b) Snake               c) Fish               d) Sparrow
Ans: ( a ).
Hint: First denotes the class to which the second belongs.
¤  Hill : Mountain :: Stream : ?
a) River               b) Canal               c) Glacier               d) Avalanche
Ans: ( a ).
Hint: Second is a bigger form of the first.
¤  Court : Justice :: School : ?
a) Teacher               b) Student               c) Ignorance               d) Education
Ans: ( d ).
Hint: First is the place where the second is imparted.

¤  Command : Order :: Confusion : ?
a) Discipline                b) Clarity                c) Chaos                d) Problem
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: The words in each pair are synonyms.
¤  Hong Kong : China :: Vatican : ?
a) Rome                 b) Mexico                 c) Canada                 d) Christianity
Ans: ( a ).
Hint: Hong Kong is a city in China. Similarly, Vatican is a city in Rome.
¤  Push : Pull :: Throw : ?
a) Jump                 b) Collect                 c) Pick                 d) Game
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: The words in each pair are antonyms.
¤  Hot : Oven :: Cold : ?
a) Ice cream                 b) Air conditioner                 c) Snow                 d) Refrigerator
Ans: ( d ).

Hint: An oven is an appliance to keep food-items hot. Similarly, a refrigerator keeps food - items cold.
¤  Drama : Stage :: Tennis : ?
a) Tournament                 b) Net                 c) Court                 d) Racket
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: A drama is performed on a stage. Similarly, tennis is played in court.
¤  Illness is related to Cure in the same way as Grief is related to
a) Happiness                                 b) Ecstasy                        c) Remedy
d) Solicitude                                          e) Consolation
Ans: ( c ).
Hint: Cure ensures removal of illness in the same way as remedy insures removal of grief.
¤  In a certain code language Infinite means Size. What is the meaning of indefinite in that code language?
a) Time              b) Day             c) Meaning             d) Shape               e) None of these
Ans: ( a ).

¤  In a certain way Diploma is related to Education. Which of the following is related to Trophy in a similar way ?
a) Sports              b) Athlete              c) Winning              d) Prize               e) None of these
Ans: ( a ).
Hint: A successful finish of Education equips one with Diploma. Similarly, a successful finish in Sports equips one with Trophy.
¤  Hamlet is related to Village in the same way as Metropolis is related to
a) District               b) Place               c) Tehsil               d) City               e) Urban
Ans: ( d ).
¤  Income is related to Profit in the same way as Expenditure is related to
a) Sale               b) Receipts               c) Surplus               d) Loss               e) Balance
Ans: ( d ).
Hint: When income is more than expenditure, it bears Profit. But when Expenditure is more than income, then loss occurs.
¤  Electricity is related to Wire in the same way as Water is related to
a) Bottle               b) Jug               c) River               d) Pipe               e) None of these

Ans: ( d ).
Hint: Wire is the medium to transmit Electricity. Similarly, Pipe is the medium to carry Water.
¤  Hospital is related to Nurse in the same way as Court is related to
a) Justice            b) Lawyer            c) Judgment            d) Trail               e) None of these
Ans: ( b ).
Hint: Here, the first is the working place of the second.
¤  Which of the following is related to Melody in the same way as Delicious is related to Taste?
a) Memory               b) Highness               c) Tongue               d) Speak               e) Voice
Ans: ( e ).
Hint: Delicious is the adjective used for Taste. Similarly, Melodious is the adjective used for Voice.
¤  Apparel is related to Cloth in the same way as Footwear is related to
a) Cobbler               b) Shoes               c) Sandals               d) Leather               e) Material
Ans: ( d ).
Hint: Wire is the medium to transmit Electricity. Similarly, Pipe is the medium to carry Water.
¤  Hospital is related to Nurse in the same way as Court is related to
a) Justice            b) Lawyer            c) Judgment            d) Trail               e) None of these
Ans: ( b ).
Hint: Here, the first is the working place of the second.
¤  Which of the following is related to Melody in the same way as Delicious is related to Taste?
a) Memory               b) Highness               c) Tongue               d) Speak               e) Voice
Ans: ( e ).
Hint: Delicious is the adjective used for Taste. Similarly, Melodious is the adjective used for Voice.
¤  Apparel is related to Cloth in the same way as Footwear is related to
a) Cobbler               b) Shoes               c) Sandals               d) Leather               e) Material
Ans: ( d ).
Hint: The first is made from the second.The first is made from the second.

Posted Date : 30-09-2022

గమనిక : ప్రతిభ.ఈనాడు.నెట్‌లో కనిపించే వ్యాపార ప్రకటనలు వివిధ దేశాల్లోని వ్యాపారులు, సంస్థల నుంచి వస్తాయి. మరి కొన్ని ప్రకటనలు పాఠకుల అభిరుచి మేరకు కృత్రిమ మేధస్సు సాంకేతికత సాయంతో ప్రదర్శితమవుతుంటాయి. ఆ ప్రకటనల్లోని ఉత్పత్తులను లేదా సేవలను పాఠకులు స్వయంగా విచారించుకొని, జాగ్రత్తగా పరిశీలించి కొనుక్కోవాలి లేదా వినియోగించుకోవాలి. వాటి నాణ్యత లేదా లోపాలతో ఈనాడు యాజమాన్యానికి ఎలాంటి సంబంధం లేదు. ఈ విషయంలో ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాలకు, ఈ-మెయిల్స్ కి, ఇంకా ఇతర రూపాల్లో సమాచార మార్పిడికి తావు లేదు. ఫిర్యాదులు స్వీకరించడం కుదరదు. పాఠకులు గమనించి, సహకరించాలని మనవి.