Directions (Qs. 1 - 13): Sentences of a paragraph are given below in jumbled order. Arrange the sentences in the right order to form a meaningful and coherent paragraph.
1. P. An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Q. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.
R. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, helicopters, airships (including blimps), gliders, paramotors, and hot air balloons.
S. The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics.
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2. P. The flight of UAVs may operate under remote control by a human operator, as remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA), or with various degrees of autonomy, such as autopilot assistance, up to fully autonomous aircraft that have no provision for human intervention.
Q. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system (UAS), which includes adding a ground-based controller and a system of communications with the UAV.
R. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without any human pilot, crew, or passengers on board.
S. UAVs were originally developed through the twentieth century for military missions too "dull, dirty or dangerous"
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3. P. When present, an autopilot is often used in conjunction with an autothrottle, a system for controlling the power delivered by the engines.
Q. An autopilot is a system used to control the path of an aircraft, marine craft or spacecraft without requiring constant manual control by a human operator.
R. Autopilots do not replace human operators. Instead, the autopilot assists the operator's control of the vehicle, allowing the operator to focus on broader aspects of operations (for example, monitoring the trajectory, weather and on-board systems).
S. An autopilot system is sometimes colloquially referred to as "George" (e.g. "we'll let George fly for a while").
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4. P. In each instance, a visa is subject to entry permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry and can be revoked at any time.
Q. A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper that has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a polity to a foreigner that allows them to enter, remain within, or leave its territory.
R. Visas typically include limits on the duration of the foreigner's stay, areas within the country they may enter, the dates they may enter, the number of permitted visits, or if the individual has the ability to work in the country in question.
S. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a territory and thus are, in most countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country.
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5. P. A person with a passport can travel to and from foreign countries more easily and access consular assistance.
Q. A passport certifies the personal identity and nationality of its holder.
R. It is typical for passports to contain the full name, photograph, place and date of birth, signature, and the expiration date of the passport.
S. A passport is an official travel document issued by a government that contains a person's identity.
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6. P. The IC's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to integrated circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors.
Q. Large numbers of tiny MOSFETs (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors) integrate into a small chip.
R. This results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components.
S. An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electroniccircuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, usually silicon.
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7. P. Some computer games do not always depend on a graphics display, for example text adventure games and computer chess can be played through teletype printers.
Q. Video games, also known as computer games, are electronic games that involve interaction with a user interface or input device – such as a joystick, controller, keyboard, or motion sensing device – to generate visual feedback.
R. Video games are often augmented with audio feedback delivered through speakers or headphones, and sometimes with other types of feedback, including haptic technology.
S. This feedback mostly commonly is shown on a video display device, such as a TV set, monitor, touchscreen, or virtual reality headset.
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8. P. A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, hand phone or pocket phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell, or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Q. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; mobile phones which offer greatly advanced computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.
R. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
S. Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones in North America. In addition to telephony, digital mobile phones (2G) support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, multimediamessaging, email, Internet access, shortrange wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games and digital photography.
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9. P. Headphones are also known as earspeakers, earphones or, colloquially, cans.
Q. They are electroacoustic transducers, which convert an electrical signal to a corresponding sound.
R. Headphones let a single user listen to an audio source privately, in contrast to a loudspeaker, which emits sound into the open air for anyone nearby to hear.
S. Headphones are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.
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10. P. An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
Q. An amplifier is a circuit that has a power gain greater than one.
R. It is a two-port electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude (magnitude of the voltage or current) of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater amplitude signal at its output.
S. The amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain: the ratio of output voltage, current, or power to input.
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11. P. An electrical circuit is a network consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current.
Q. An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g., batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches, transistors) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electricalelements (e.g., voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
R. Linear electrical networks, a special type consisting only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed elements (transmission lines), have the property that signals are linearly superimposable.
S. They are thus more easily analyzed, using powerful frequency domain methods such as Laplace transforms, to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response.
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12. P. In physics, the term "light" may refer more broadly to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not.
Q. In this sense, gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves and radio waves are also light.
R. Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye.
S. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), corresponding to frequencies of 750–420 terahertz, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths).
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13. P. Like all electromagnetic waves, radio waves in a vacuum travel at the speed of light, and in the Earth's atmosphere at a close, but slightly lower speed.
Q. At 300 GHz, the corresponding wavelength is 1 mm (shorter than a grain of rice); at 30 Hz the corresponding wavelength is 10,000 kilometers (6,200 miles) (longer than the radius of the Earth).
R. Radio waves are generated by charged particles undergoing acceleration, such as time-varying electric currents.
S. Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with the longest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum, typically with frequencies of 300 gigahertz (GHz) and below.
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